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  1. ShootsAbsorb water and nutrients from the soil, anchor the vine and store carbohydrates so wine can survive the winter.

          

  2. CrossingsSelect specimens of a specific variety are propagated for their favorable characteristics that have emerged through generations of mutations.

          

  3. RootsAbsorb water and nutrients from the soil, anchor the vine and store carbohydrates so wine can survive the winter.

          

  4. Cabernet Sauvignon - Basic DescriptionMedoc, Graves (Bourdeaux)
    Napa (California)
    Coonawara, Margaret River (Australia)
    Hawkes Bay (New Zealand)
    Colchagua (Chile)

          

  5. Syrah/Shiraz - Classic RegionsMosel, Nahe, Rheingau, Pfalz (Germany)
    Wachau (Austria)
    Alsace (France)
    Clare Valley, Eden Valley (Australia)

          

  6. MerlotAbsorb water and nutrients from the soil, anchor the vine and store carbohydrates so wine can survive the winter.

          

  7. Pinot Noir - Classic RegionsCarneros, Sonoma (California)
    Walker Bay (South Africa)
    Yarra Valley (Australia)
    Martinsborough, Marlborough, Central Otago (New Zealand)

          

  8. Riesling - Basic DescriptionSimilar to Chardonnay, but with more fruit character, it requires a warm-to-hot climate to ripen, quickly builds up sugar levels, and gives low yields. This white wine generally has aromas of Peach, Pear and Violet.

          

  9. Chardonnay - Importance of WinemakingChardonnay takes it's name from a village in the Maconnais, Burgundy. It is a green-skinned grape used to make white wine with generally neutral flavors, so it is often oaked or undergoes malolactic fermentation.

          

  10. Cabernet Sauvignon - Classic RegionsClassic Bourdeaux Grape, planted throughout the world. With loose bunches of thick-skinned grapes, it buds late to reduce spring frost damage and is resistant to rot and insects. Yields full-bodied, high tannin, high acid wines. Responds well to oak aging and ages beautifully.

          

  11. Viognier - Basic DescriptionA green-skinned grape that makes a fruity, aromatic white wine that retains high acidity. It ripens late but is very hardy, ideal for late-harvest wines. The wine is heavily reflective of location.

          

  12. Clonal SelectionVitis Vinifera (for fruit)
    Vitis Riparia, Vitis Rupestris, Vitis Berlandieri (for rootstock)

          

  13. TendrilsAny variety that is grown from seed whose parents were from different vine species. Used for rootstocks, not fruit.

          

  14. Chardonnay - Classic RegionsMosel, Nahe, Rheingau, Pfalz (Germany)
    Wachau (Austria)
    Alsace (France)
    Clare Valley, Eden Valley (Australia)

          

  15. Muscat - Basic DefinitionA family of varieties that required dry, warm conditions to ripen, are often sparkling or fortified, and have an intense grapey flavor and perfumed notes. Best consumed while youthful, fresh and fruity, unless oak-aged and fortified.

          

  16. Sangiovese: Basic DescriptionAt it's best, this grape produces high acid wines with sour cherry fruits, astringent tannins and earthy, dusty aromas. It produces the greatest Chianti, Brunello di Montalcino and Vino Nobile di Montepucliano, as well as many other Tuscan wines. It can also be blended with Cabernet Sauvignon to make Super-Tuscans.

          

  17. TempranilloA twisting, threadlike structure by which a twining plant (vine) grasps an object for support. They wrap around trellis wires to support the vine.

          

  18. Cabernet Sauvignon - Flavor Profiles by ClimateModerate: Blackcurrants, notes of green pepper, mint, cedar
    Warm: Black Cherry, Black Olive, Eucalyptus

          

  19. PhylloxeraSelect specimens of a specific variety are propagated for their favorable characteristics that have emerged through generations of mutations.

          

  20. LayeringA section taken from a healthy shoot before it becomes woody. It is planted, takes root, and becomes a new plant.

          

  21. Varietal, Cultivar and VarietyA variety of Muscat used for a few Vin Doux Naturels and Spanish Moscatels, this grape tends to smell simply of grapes.

          

  22. Head-GraftingA method of grafting a Vitis Vinifera to a rootstock. Two short canes of equal width are cut from a rootstock and a Vitis Vinifera, spliced together with a machine and allowed to heal in a warm, humid environment until the wounds heal into a callus. Then, roots are trimmed off the Vinifera, the shoots off the rootstock, and it's planted or stored for a year.

          

  23. BudsAbsorb water and nutrients from the soil, anchor the vine and store carbohydrates so wine can survive the winter.

          

  24. HybridsAny variety that is grown from seed whose parents were from different vine species. Used for rootstocks, not fruit.

          

  25. Pinot Noir - Growing ConditionsCarneros, Sonoma (California)
    Walker Bay (South Africa)
    Yarra Valley (Australia)
    Martinsborough, Marlborough, Central Otago (New Zealand)

          

  26. Viognier - Classic RegionsMosel, Nahe, Rheingau, Pfalz (Germany)
    Wachau (Austria)
    Alsace (France)
    Clare Valley, Eden Valley (Australia)

          

  27. WelschrieslingAny variety that is grown from seed whose parent vines were both Vitis Vinifera

          

  28. Syrah/Shiraz - Basic DescriptionVery deep in color, with black fruit and spicy aromas. It can age extremely well. Responsible for the great reds of the Northern Rhone and is the most widely planted variety in Australia.

          

  29. Chardonnay - Basic Description and OriginChardonnay takes it's name from a village in the Maconnais, Burgundy. It is a green-skinned grape used to make white wine with generally neutral flavors, so it is often oaked or undergoes malolactic fermentation.

          

  30. Origin and Number of Wine VarietiesAll words for a grape variety.

          

  31. Ull De Liebre, Cencibel, Tinto Del Pais, Tinta Roriz and AragonezChardonnay takes it's name from a village in the Maconnais, Burgundy. It is a green-skinned grape used to make white wine with generally neutral flavors, so it is often oaked or undergoes malolactic fermentation.

          

  32. ClonesFlowers are the vines reproductive organs, and are hermaphroditic. They group into infloresences, and as each pollinated flower will become a berry, each infloresence will become a bunch of grapes.

          

  33. Grenache/Garnacha - Basic DescriptionWith sweet, thin-skinned grapes, it is the most widely planted red variety in it's homeland of Spain and requires hot conditions to ripen fully, and is very drought-tolerant. The wine is high in alcohol, full-bodied, with soft tannins, pale in color and generally shows browning at the rim. Yields red fruit flavors like Strawberry and Raspberry and White Pepper, which ages into Coffee and, Tar and Leather.

          

  34. Syrah/Shiraz - Flavors by ClimateCool: Will not ripen.
    Moderate/Warm: High tannins, Blackberry, Black Pepper, Mint
    Hot:Full-bodied, soft tannins, earthy, leathery, licorice

          

  35. Two Styles of MerlotInternational Style: Grape is harvested as late as possible, to maximize intense purple color, blackberry and plum flavors, velvety tannins, full body and high alcohol. May be oaked.
    Bourdeaux Style: Grape is harvested early, to make a wine with medium body, high acidity, strawberry and raspberry flavors and some vegetal, leafy aromas.

          

  36. Sauvignon Blanc - Basic Description and When to DrinkChardonnay takes it's name from a village in the Maconnais, Burgundy. It is a green-skinned grape used to make white wine with generally neutral flavors, so it is often oaked or undergoes malolactic fermentation.

          

  37. GraftingThe technique used to join a hybrid rootstock to a Vitis Vinifera variety.

          

  38. Permanent WoodWood older than 1 Year. It is the arms and trunk of the vine, sometimes call Cordons.

          

  39. Chardonnay - Characteristics in Different ClimatesCool Climates: Steely, Medium-To-Light Body, High Acidity. Apple, Pear and Plum Notes. Ex: Chardonnay, Chablis (Burgundy)
    Moderate Climates: Citrus, Melon and Peach.
    Hot Climates: Banana, Mango, Fig. High Alcohol, Low Acidity.

          

  40. Muscat Ottonel.A variety of Muscat used for perfumed dry white wines in Aslace and Central europe.

          

  41. Sauvignon Blanc - Characteristics in Different ClimatesCool or Moderate on Poor Soils: High Acidity. Green, herbaceous flavors of green pepper, grass or nettles, some fruitiness like passion fruit or elderflower.
    Warm or Hot: Peach, Grapefruit.

          

  42. CuttingThe technique used to join a hybrid rootstock to a Vitis Vinifera variety.

          

  43. RootstocksAbsorb water and nutrients from the soil, anchor the vine and store carbohydrates so wine can survive the winter.

          

  44. Muscat Blanc a Petits GrainsA variety of Muscat used for Asti, certain Vin Doux Naturels and a version of the Rutherglen Muscat, this grape gives a full and complex spectrum of aromas like Grape, Peach, Rose and Citrus. Oxidative oak again darkens the color and adds Raisin, Fruit Cake Coffee and Toffee notes.

          

  45. LeavesResponsible for photosynthesis, which uses chlorophyll and sunlight to turn water and CO2 into sugar glucose and oxygen.

          

  46. Muscat of AlexandriaA variety of Muscat used for a few Vin Doux Naturels and Spanish Moscatels, this grape tends to smell simply of grapes.

          

  47. Riesling - Classic RegionsCarneros, Sonoma (California)
    Walker Bay (South Africa)
    Yarra Valley (Australia)
    Martinsborough, Marlborough, Central Otago (New Zealand)

          

  48. Pinot Gris / Pinot Grigio - Basic DescriptionThe skin can range from blue-gray all the way to brown or white, and it is used to make white wines. Pinot Gris tends to be high in alcohol, full bodied, spicy and low in acidity in Alsace, sometimes showing melon, banana and mango, and is used for botrytitis-affected dessert wines. Pinot Grigio is harvested early to retain acidity, and the wine is light, neutral with medium acidity. Called Rulander or Grauburgunder in Germant.

          

  49. One Year Old WoodShoots turn woody during the winter after their spring sprout. This wood is pruned into a "cane" (8-15 buds) or a spur (2-3 buds)

          

  50. Vine SpeciesVitis Vinifera (for fruit)
    Vitis Riparia, Vitis Rupestris, Vitis Berlandieri (for rootstock)

          

  51. Bench-GraftingA method of grafting a Vitis Vinifera to a rootstock that is used when a Grower wants to change varietals in a single year, instead of three, and it is cheaper than replanting the whole vineyard. The existing vine is cut back, and a the new variety is grafted onto the trunk.

          

  52. Sauvignon Blanc - Classic RegionsCarneros, Sonoma (California)
    Walker Bay (South Africa)
    Yarra Valley (Australia)
    Martinsborough, Marlborough, Central Otago (New Zealand)

          

  53. Pinot Noir - Basic DefinitionOriginally planted in Burgundy, it ripens early, has tight bunches of small berries (prone to rot, reduced by sprays and canopy management), and gives sweet juice. Young Pinot Noir displays Raspberries, Strawberries or Red Cherries, soft/light tannins and is light in color. It ages unpredictably, developing farmyard and vegetal flavors.

          

  54. Pinot Gris / Pinot Grigio - Classic RegionsCarneros, Sonoma (California)
    Walker Bay (South Africa)
    Yarra Valley (Australia)
    Martinsborough, Marlborough, Central Otago (New Zealand)

          

  55. Riesling - Characteristics in Different ClimatesCool: Fresh grape, apple, high Acidity (Mosel)
    Warmer: Citrus, Peach, high Acidity (Alsace, Austria, Clare Valley (Australia))

          

  56. FlowersFlowers are the vines reproductive organs, and are hermaphroditic. They group into infloresences, and as each pollinated flower will become a berry, each infloresence will become a bunch of grapes.