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  1. Charmat MethodAnother name for tank method

          

  2. Eau-de-vieSpirit distilled to a maximum of 96%ABV

          

  3. PhotosynthesisOrganic compounds
    Give flavour and aroma in ETOH beverages
    Products of:
    *fermentation
    *distillation
    *maturation process

          

  4. Bordeaux MixtureRack with holes to hold necks of sparkling wine
    During remuage

          

  5. ClayExtremely fine-grained soil type
    Retain large amounts of water
    Keeps the soil cool

          

  6. FiningThe tails
    Production of malt whiskey

          

  7. PradikatVarious subcategories of German and Austrian PDO wines

          

  8. Alcoholic FermentationConcentrating the sugar in grape must
    Chilled until ice crystals form
    Can then be easily removed
    Replicates conditions needed for Eiswein

          

  9. Traditional MethodSecondary fermentation takes place under pressure in a sealed tank

          

  10. HeartsSecond fractions to be collected during post distillation
    Suitable for consumption

          

  11. CruA single 'growth'
    Quality
    Village or vineyard

          

  12. ClimatExtremely fine-grained soil type
    Retain large amounts of water
    Keeps the soil cool

          

  13. Gran ReservaGerman
    Unfermented, sterile grape must
    Added to dry wine to increase sweetness and balance excess acidity.

          

  14. IrrigationChemical reaction
    Action of yeast or bacteria

          

  15. LimestoneMake wines from grapes on their property only

          

  16. ChaptalisationMust enrichment
    Using beet or cane surgar

          

  17. Most important fermentationsAlcholic and MLF

          

  18. MillesimePradikat wine category
    Wine made w/o chaptalisation
    Grapes must fall within range of must weights

          

  19. Bonne ChauffeThe second distillation in Cognac
    Converts the Brouillis to eau-de-vie

          

  20. Malting processDuring distillation
    A wash can be separated into different fractions as the parts boil at different temps

          

  21. KabinettThe dressing on sparkling wine

          

  22. PupitreTradition cask
    Douro
    For Port

          

  23. CongenersOne year old wood on vine
    Pruned to between 8 and 15 buds

          

  24. Secondary aromasAromas that arise directly from the fruit

          

  25. VeraisonWhen a grape begins to change colour

          

  26. GranvasSpain
    Tank-fermented sparkling wine

          

  27. AbboccatoMedium-sweet
    Full-bodied
    Italy

          

  28. Lutte raisoneeAvoids unnecessary use of synthetic chemicals

          

  29. Site ClimateThe climate of a plot of vines, vineyard or part of a vineyard

          

  30. Primary aromasWachau
    Rich, full-bodied, dry
    Late-harvested grapes

          

  31. ErzeugerabfullungEstate-bottled

          

  32. ContinentalityDifference between summer and winter temp

          

  33. YeastThe distillate made from pomace

          

  34. TailleMan-made system of support for vine
    Consisting of posts and wires

          

  35. Botrytis CinereaCertain minimum requirements for ageing in cake and bottle

          

  36. Examples of CongenersKetones, Esters, Aldehydes

          

  37. MarcA single 'growth'
    Quality
    Village or vineyard

          

  38. Petit ChateauTop vineyards in Germany

          

  39. Sulfur DioxideAgeing of a bottle of sparkling wine neck down
    After yeast autolysis is complete
    Before degorgement

          

  40. EstufagemMadeira
    Heating process
    Accelerate the develpment and maturation

          

  41. InvecchiatoAged

          

  42. CordonBreeding of varieties
    Cross-pollination of two different varities of same species

          

  43. Tank methodAn adaption of the traditional method
    After the scondary fermentation
    Wine is disgorged into a pressurised tank
    Yeast is removed
    Then wine rebottled in different bottle

          

  44. ReciotoThe tails
    Production of malt whiskey

          

  45. Lieu ditVineyard site

          

  46. Cru ArtisanRank of Bordeaux chateaux
    Below Cru Bourgeois

          

  47. DegorgementRemoval of sediment from bottle
    Traditional method only

          

  48. LiquroeauxNamed vineyard site not of Premier Cru or Grand Cru status

          

  49. Super SecondSedimentary rock
    Calcium carbonate
    Good drainage and water-retention

          

  50. Estate'Riddling'
    Moving the sediment to the neck of the bottle Prior to degorgement
    Traditional method only

          

  51. Grey rotNamed vineyard site not of Premier Cru or Grand Cru status

          

  52. Head graftingAllows a variety to be grafted over to another, more profitable variety
    No need to grub up and replant

          

  53. Vin de pailleFrench
    1. Pruning
    2. Juice from second pressing in Champagne

          

  54. BotteHillside

          

  55. ManipulantRemoval of matter in suspension in the wine

          

  56. Fining agentRemoval of matter in suspension in the wine

          

  57. PomaceThe residue of skins, pips and stalks left in press
    Post extraction of juice

          

  58. Grains NoblesGrains of barley
    Soaked and starting to germinate
    Modifying the starch into soluble form
    Enzymes break down into fermentable sugars
    Green malt dried in kiln=malt

          

  59. Carbonic MacerationSkins are in contact with the fermenting must
    During red wine vinification

          

  60. Blended Whiskey: ScotlandUS
    Made from at least 51% of one grain
    Distilled to no more than 80% ABV
    Aged for a minimum of 2 years
    New oak casks

          

  61. TrellisWalled vineyard
    Though walls may no longer exist

          

  62. GovernoFractional blending
    Older wine is refreshed by the addition of younger wine

          

  63. Imbottigilato all'origineEstate-bottled

          

  64. German and PDO winesChemical reaction
    Action of yeast or bacteria

          

  65. Eleve en futs de cheneAged in oak barrels

          

  66. Green maltGrains of barley
    Soaked and starting to germinate
    Modifying the starch into soluble form
    Enzymes break down into fermentable sugars
    Green malt dried in kiln=malt

          

  67. SpurOne year old wood pruned short
    To retain only 2-3 buds

          

  68. Liqueur de tirageNamed vineyard site not of Premier Cru or Grand Cru status

          

  69. AssemblageBlending a number of different parcels of wine
    Bordeaux, Champagne

          

  70. PDOLower grade of GI

          

  71. HeadsA number of single-celled micro-organisms
    Under anaerobic conditions are able tot convert sugar into ETOH

          

  72. Selection (German)Quality dry wines from single vienard sites

          

  73. Transfer methodAn adaption of the traditional method
    After the scondary fermentation
    Wine is disgorged into a pressurised tank
    Yeast is removed
    Then wine rebottled in different bottle

          

  74. Tartaric acidResponsible for most of wine's acidity.
    Detectable only on the palate
    Added to wines lacking acidity
    Generally in warm vineyard regions

          

  75. Liqueur d'expeditionChemical reaction
    Action of yeast or bacteria

          

  76. Cask StrengthMalt whiskies
    Spirit that has not been watered down to 40%ABV
    Not filtered
    V high ETOH

          

  77. CrianzaSpain
    Tank-fermented sparkling wine

          

  78. Straight whiskeyPradikat wine category
    Wine made w/o chaptalisation
    Grapes must fall within range of must weights

          

  79. EdelfauleFrench
    1. Pruning
    2. Juice from second pressing in Champagne

          

  80. Must enrichmentAddition of sugar or RCGM to grape juice
    Prior to fermentation
    Increases the final ETOH content of wine

          

  81. PassitoItalian
    Sweet wine
    Dried grapes
    High ETOH

          

  82. BeerenauslesePradikat wine category
    Made w/o chaptalisation
    Grapes within specific range of must weights
    Botrytis

          

  83. CrossingBreeding of varieties
    Cross-pollination of two different varities of same species

          

  84. SteinfederWachau
    Lightest bodied wine category for dry wines

          

  85. CasseUnwated haze in wine
    Caused by instability

          

  86. WashAny ETOHic liquid resulting from fermentation of wort
    Destined to be distilled

          

  87. StravecchioSimilar to passito
    Part-dried grapes

          

  88. Remuage'Riddling'
    Moving the sediment to the neck of the bottle Prior to degorgement
    Traditional method only

          

  89. ChalkBarley that has undergone the malting process
    The insoluable starch has been modified into soluable starch

          

  90. LeesThe first fraction to be collected
    during pot still distillation.
    Not suitable for human consumption

          

  91. Cru BourgeoisRank of Bordeaux chateaux
    Below Cru Classe

          

  92. Mash billMix of grains used to make whisky

          

  93. Fixed acidityThe acidity in wine detectable only on the palate
    Tartaric, malic, lactic

          

  94. AusbruchAustria
    Quality category for sweet wines
    Minimum weight required between:
    *Beerenauslese and Trockenbeerenauslese

          

  95. FiltrationWhen a grape begins to change colour

          

  96. Clonal selectionMust enrichment
    Using beet or cane surgar

          

  97. DebuttageRemoving earth that was placed on vine during buttage

          

  98. MoelleuxMan-made system of support for vine
    Consisting of posts and wires

          

  99. PGILower grade of GI

          

  100. Vino generosoOrganic compounds
    Give flavour and aroma in ETOH beverages
    Products of:
    *fermentation
    *distillation
    *maturation process

          

  101. MustUnfermented grape juice that becomes wine

          

  102. BattonageTying the vine branches to the horizontal wires

          

  103. Volatile AcidityAcid that is detectable on the nose and palate
    High leves=fault

          

  104. AerobicRequiring oxygen to operate

          

  105. Grain WhiskeyScottish Whiskey
    Made from malt and other grains

          

  106. CaneTradition cask
    Douro
    For Port

          

  107. FattoriaLees stirring
    France

          

  108. AnaerobicAble to operate without Oxygen

          

  109. Rectifier (re: Fractions)Can separtate a liquid into a larger number of precisely-separated fractions

          

  110. FeintsThe tails
    Production of malt whiskey

          

  111. Malt whiskyDouble distilled
    Scotch
    Only malt

          

  112. AspersionMethod of protection against Spring frosts
    Vines sprayed with water which freezes
    Coating buds with ice
    Buds saved b/c latent heat of freezing

          

  113. Mosto cottoItalian
    Reduced, concentrated grape must

          

  114. HabillageTying the vine branches to the horizontal wires

          

  115. Yeast AutolysisBreakdown of dead yeast cells
    After secondary fermentation
    Gives a yeasty, biscuity nose

          

  116. DosageAdjustment of sugar level in sparkling wines
    Addition of liqueur d'expedition after degorgement

          

  117. RackingOne year old wood on vine
    Pruned to between 8 and 15 buds

          

  118. RectifierMake wines from grapes on their property only

          

  119. TrockenbeerensausleseOrganic compounds
    Give flavour and aroma in ETOH beverages
    Products of:
    *fermentation
    *distillation
    *maturation process

          

  120. Micro-climateAged

          

  121. Must weightNamed vineyard site not of Premier Cru or Grand Cru status

          

  122. CuveeUnfermented grape juice that becomes wine

          

  123. SoleraOne year old wood on vine
    Pruned to between 8 and 15 buds

          

  124. Diurnal RangeTop vineyards in Germany

          

  125. VendageThe grape harvest in France

          

  126. BrettanomycesGenus of yeast
    Results in distinctive savoury flavours
    Considered a fault

          

  127. BrouillisNamed vineyard site not of Premier Cru or Grand Cru status

          

  128. Mesoclimate*Climate within the canopy of the vine
    *Used to refer to the mesoclimate

          

  129. Bush trainingDrawing off clear wine from a cask/vat
    Moving it to another
    Leaves sediment behind

          

  130. Blended Whiskey: USWine made from grapes that have been dried

          

  131. Residual sugarThe grape harvest in France

          

  132. Sur pointeAgeing of a bottle of sparkling wine neck down
    After yeast autolysis is complete
    Before degorgement

          

  133. Cryo-extractionConcentrating the sugar in grape must
    Chilled until ice crystals form
    Can then be easily removed
    Replicates conditions needed for Eiswein

          

  134. Effect of warm nightsMadeira
    Heating process
    Accelerate the develpment and maturation

          

  135. Erste LageTop vineyards in Germany

          

  136. Lees stirringAllows a variety to be grafted over to another, more profitable variety
    No need to grub up and replant

          

  137. FractionsDuring distillation
    A wash can be separated into different fractions as the parts boil at different temps

          

  138. AccolageThe grape harvest in France

          

  139. BarriqueFrench
    1. Pruning
    2. Juice from second pressing in Champagne

          

  140. What heads containAllows a variety to be grafted over to another, more profitable variety
    No need to grub up and replant

          

  141. MacerationWhen a grape begins to change colour

          

  142. ClosWalled vineyard
    Though walls may no longer exist

          

  143. LiquorosoUnfermented grape juice that becomes wine

          

  144. Degorgement TardiveAlsace
    MAde with exceptionally ripe grapes

          

  145. CoteauxSlopes

          

  146. GraftUnion of small piece of one plant onto a rootstock
    To protect against phylloxera

          

  147. ButtageFrench
    Earthing up the bases of the vines
    Protect the graft union against frost

          

  148. Geographical IndicationDefined by WTO
    Facilitates multi-national trade agreemetns
    Wine has quality, reputation or other characteristics determined by where it comes from

          

  149. Tertiary AromaAromas that arise directly from the fruit

          

  150. ScionLower grade of GI

          

  151. Cuve close*Juice resulting from first pressing of Champagne
    *A blend

          

  152. Halbtrockenhalf-dry

          

  153. PipeTradition cask
    Douro
    For Port

          

  154. Pot stillUsed to separate a liquid into three fractions
    *heads
    *hearts
    *tails

          

  155. CuveWalled vineyard
    Though walls may no longer exist

          

  156. MaltThe distillate made from pomace

          

  157. SussreservePradikat wine category
    Wine made w/o chaptalisation
    Grapes must fall within range of must weights

          

  158. Acetic AcidThe acid component of vinegar
    Excessive amounts result in vinegary nose and taste.

          

  159. RiservaSediment of dead yeast cells
    Bottom of tank once fermentation complete

          

  160. Pot stillThe residue of skins, pips and stalks left in press
    Post extraction of juice

          

  161. OverproofAny spirit that is higher in ETOH than proof spirit
    Usually rum

          

  162. Benefits of calcium carbonateDefined by WTO
    Facilitates multi-national trade agreemetns
    Wine has quality, reputation or other characteristics determined by where it comes from

          

  163. SpatleseUnwated haze in wine
    Caused by instability

          

  164. WortWalled vineyard
    Though walls may no longer exist

          

  165. SmaragdWachau
    Rich, full-bodied, dry
    Late-harvested grapes

          

  166. ForeshotsSimilar to passito
    Part-dried grapes

          

  167. MLFBarley that has undergone the malting process
    The insoluable starch has been modified into soluable starch

          

  168. Strohwein/SchifweinScottish Whiskey
    Made from malt and other grains

          

  169. Cru ClasseWalled vineyard
    Though walls may no longer exist

          

  170. Selection de Grains NoblesAvoids unnecessary use of synthetic chemicals

          

  171. SussUnfermented grape juice that becomes wine

          

  172. FermentationChemical reaction
    Action of yeast or bacteria

          

  173. Vendage tardive VTThe grape harvest in France

          

  174. CloneOne year old wood on vine
    Pruned to between 8 and 15 buds

          

  175. CoteOne year old wood on vine
    Pruned to between 8 and 15 buds