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  1. A number of single-celled micro-organisms
    Under anaerobic conditions are able tot convert sugar into ETOH
  2. Italy
    Traditional large barrels up to 160 HL
  3. Second fractions to be collected during post distillation
    Suitable for consumption
  4. Pradikat category
    Made w/o chaptalisation
    Grapes fall within specific range of must weights
    Individually selected grapes infected with noble rot
    Lusciously sweet
  5. French
    Earthing up the bases of the vines
    Protect the graft union against frost
  6. Sweet sugar solution
    Created by enzymatic conversion of soluble starch
    Extracted from malt into sugar
  7. Second column of a Coffey or patent still
    ETOH rich vapour from the anayser is separated into fractions
  8. The distillate made from pomace
  9. Austria
    Quality category for sweet wines
    Minimum weight required between:
    *Beerenauslese and Trockenbeerenauslese
  10. Allows a variety to be grafted over to another, more profitable variety
    No need to grub up and replant
  11. Tradition cask
    Douro
    For Port
  12. Mix of wine and sugar
    Used to make final adjustment to sparkling wine prior to corking
  13. The second distillation in Cognac
    Converts the Brouillis to eau-de-vie
  14. Horizontal extension of vine trunk
  15. Fungs attacks grape
    Can form unwanted grey rot or noble rot
  16. Mix of grains used to make whisky
  17. Pradikat category
    No chaptalisation
    Grapes fall within specific range of must weights
  18. Can separtate a liquid into a larger number of precisely-separated fractions
  19. Plants convert carbon dioxide and water to sugar
    Using light energy absorgbed by chlorophyll
  20. Rank of Bordeaux chateaux
    Below Cru Classe
  21. Due to the effects of ageing
  22. The acidity in wine detectable only on the palate
    Tartaric, malic, lactic
  23. The residue of skins, pips and stalks left in press
    Post extraction of juice
  24. Aritfical canals, flooding, overhead sprays
    drip systems for individual vines
  25. Grape-grower who also makes wine
    Champagne
  26. Ageing of a bottle of sparkling wine neck down
    After yeast autolysis is complete
    Before degorgement
  27. Solution of copper sulfate and lime in water
    Used to spray against fungal disease
  28. Addition of sugar or RCGM to grape juice
    Prior to fermentation
    Increases the final ETOH content of wine
  29. Aromas that arise directly from the fruit
  30. Removing earth that was placed on vine during buttage
  31. Bordeaux chateaux
    were second or third growths in the 1855
    Sometimes produce wines that rival first growths
  32. Vintage date
  33. Soaking, germination and kilning of barley
  34. Case 225 Liters
  35. Similar to passito
    Part-dried grapes
  36. Another name for tank method
  37. The tails
    Production of malt whiskey
  38. The climate of a plot of vines, vineyard or part of a vineyard
  39. Man-made system of support for vine
    Consisting of posts and wires
  40. Sweet wines that made from heavily botryitised grapes
  41. Genus of yeast
    Results in distinctive savoury flavours
    Considered a fault
  42. Used to separate a liquid into three fractions
    *heads
    *hearts
    *tails
  43. Any spirit that is higher in ETOH than proof spirit
    Usually rum
  44. A single 'growth'
    Quality
    Village or vineyard
  45. Has satisfied requirements for aging in cask and bottle
  46. Spain
    Fortfied wine
  47. The acid component of vinegar
    Excessive amounts result in vinegary nose and taste.
  48. Champagne that has been disgorged after:
    * long period of yeast autolysis or
    * after ageing sur pointe
  49. Drawing off clear wine from a cask/vat
    Moving it to another
    Leaves sediment behind
  50. The grape harvest in France
  51. Fermentation of whole bunches of black grapes
    Berries initially intact
    Intracellular fermentation
    =well-coloured, fruity red wines
    Low tannins
  52. An adaption of the traditional method
    After the scondary fermentation
    Wine is disgorged into a pressurised tank
    Yeast is removed
    Then wine rebottled in different bottle
  53. Hillside
  54. Grains of barley
    Soaked and starting to germinate
    Modifying the starch into soluble form
    Enzymes break down into fermentable sugars
    Green malt dried in kiln=malt
  55. French
    1. Pruning
    2. Juice from second pressing in Champagne
  56. When a grape begins to change colour
  57. Unfermented grape juice that becomes wine
  58. Spain
    Tank-fermented sparkling wine
  59. Sedimentary rock
    Calcium carbonate
    Good drainage and water-retention
  60. US
    Made from at least 51% of one grain
    Distilled to no more than 80% ABV
    Aged for a minimum of 2 years
    New oak casks
  61. Organic compounds
    Give flavour and aroma in ETOH beverages
    Products of:
    *fermentation
    *distillation
    *maturation process
  62. Rank of Bordeaux chateaux
    Below Cru Bourgeois
  63. Spirit distilled to a maximum of 96%ABV
  64. Sweet wine made from grapes dried on straw or reed mats
  65. Estate-bottled
  66. Breeding of varieties
    Cross-pollination of two different varities of same species
  67. Site climate
  68. Skins are in contact with the fermenting must
    During red wine vinification
  69. Chemical reaction
    Action of yeast or bacteria
  70. Defined by WTO
    Facilitates multi-national trade agreemetns
    Wine has quality, reputation or other characteristics determined by where it comes from
  71. One of the many brands that fall outside the classifications in Bordeaux
  72. Highly reactive pungent gas
    Anti-oxident and antiseptic
    Added to wines and musts as gas or produced in empty cask by burning sulfur candle
  73. Madeira
    Heating process
    Accelerate the develpment and maturation
  74. Bad form of botrytis cinerea
    Affects unripe berries or black grapes
    =off flavours, lack of colour
  75. Very old
    Madeira, spirits
  76. 'Riddling'
    Moving the sediment to the neck of the bottle Prior to degorgement
    Traditional method only
  77. Union of small piece of one plant onto a rootstock
    To protect against phylloxera
  78. Mixing the lees with the wine
    Usually in cask
    Extract components that give extra flavour/body
  79. Section of plant material grafted on to rootstock
  80. Walled vineyard
    Though walls may no longer exist
  81. Sediment of dead yeast cells
    Bottom of tank once fermentation complete
  82. Aromas in a wine that arise from the winemaking
    By products of
    *alcoholic fermentation
    *MLF
    *oak
  83. Fractional blending
    Older wine is refreshed by the addition of younger wine
  84. Secondary fermentation takes place under pressure in a sealed tank
  85. Italian
    HIgher ABV
    Extended period of ageing
  86. Named vineyard site not of Premier Cru or Grand Cru status
  87. German
    Sweet
  88. Lees stirring
    France
  89. Rack with holes to hold necks of sparkling wine
    During remuage
  90. Removal of matter in suspension in the wine
  91. Method of protection against Spring frosts
    Vines sprayed with water which freezes
    Coating buds with ice
    Buds saved b/c latent heat of freezing
  92. Blend of stgraight whiskey and neutral spirit
  93. Unfermented sugar remaining in wine after bottling
  94. Italian
    Reduced, concentrated grape must
  95. Vat or tank
  96. Noble rot
  97. Alcholic and MLF
  98. Scottish Whiskey
    Made from malt and other grains
  99. Estate-bottled
  100. Classifed growth
    Normally Bordeaux
  101. Malt whiskies
    Spirit that has not been watered down to 40%ABV
    Not filtered
    V high ETOH
  102. Wine made from grapes that have been dried
  103. Aged in oak barrels
  104. Italian
    Sweet wine
    Dried grapes
    High ETOH
  105. Avoids unnecessary use of synthetic chemicals
  106. Density of grape juice prior to fermentation
    Enables winemaker to estimate ETOH
  107. Certain minimum requirements for ageing in cake and bottle
  108. Pradikat wine category
    Wine made w/o chaptalisation
    Grapes must fall within range of must weights
  109. The product of the first distillation in Cognac
  110. Slopes
  111. Pradikat wine category
    Made w/o chaptalisation
    Grapes within specific range of must weights
    Botrytis
  112. Addition of lactic acid bacteria
    =conversion of harsh malic acid into softer lactic acid
  113. Physically removing particles
    From large grape fragments
    To individual yeast cells
  114. Make wines from grapes on their property only
  115. Requiring oxygen to operate
  116. Vineyard site
  117. Various subcategories of German and Austrian PDO wines
  118. Mixture of wine, sugar and yeast
    Added to still wine
    To promote a secondary fermentation in sparkling wine production
  119. Able to operate without Oxygen
  120. Responsible for most of wine's acidity.
    Detectable only on the palate
    Added to wines lacking acidity
    Generally in warm vineyard regions
  121. Breakdown of dead yeast cells
    After secondary fermentation
    Gives a yeasty, biscuity nose
  122. Calcium inhibits uptaked of acid-neutralising potassium
    Helps grapes retain their acid
  123. Quality dry wines from single vienard sites
  124. Higher grade of GI
  125. Any ETOHic liquid resulting from fermentation of wort
    Destined to be distilled
  126. The first fraction to be collected
    during pot still distillation.
    Not suitable for human consumption
  127. Lower grade of GI
  128. Extremely fine-grained soil type
    Retain large amounts of water
    Keeps the soil cool
  129. The heads
    Production of malt whiskey
  130. Wachau
    Lightest bodied wine category for dry wines
  131. Medium-sweet
  132. Italian
    Estate
  133. German
    Unfermented, sterile grape must
    Added to dry wine to increase sweetness and balance excess acidity.
  134. *Juice resulting from first pressing of Champagne
    *A blend
  135. Tying the vine branches to the horizontal wires
  136. Ethanol, volatile and potentially toxic levels of compounds such as methonal
  137. Blending a number of different parcels of wine
    Bordeaux, Champagne
  138. Adjustment of sugar level in sparkling wines
    Addition of liqueur d'expedition after degorgement
  139. Descendants of a single individual
    Propagated by vegetative means
    Has features identical to parent plant
  140. Must enrichment
    Using beet or cane surgar
  141. Barley that has undergone the malting process
    The insoluable starch has been modified into soluable starch
  142. Alsace
    Botrytis-affected gapes
  143. Kabinett
    Spatlese
    Auslese
    Beerenauslese
    Trockenbeerenauslese
    Eiswein
  144. Acid that is detectable on the nose and palate
    High leves=fault
  145. Conversion of sugar to ETOH by yeast operating in anaerobic conditions
  146. Unwated haze in wine
    Caused by instability
  147. Selection and propagation of plants
    From particular variety
    Desirable features
  148. Top vineyards in Germany
  149. Strong
    Often fortified wines
  150. Difference between summer and winter temp
  151. Alsace
    MAde with exceptionally ripe grapes
  152. Type of limestone
    Pure calcium carbonate
  153. Ketones, Esters, Aldehydes
  154. One year old wood pruned short
    To retain only 2-3 buds
  155. Medium-sweet
    Full-bodied
    Italy
  156. Difference btw daytime and nighttime temp
    Wide range=retention of fruit aromas/acid
  157. One year old wood on vine
    Pruned to between 8 and 15 buds
  158. The wine is sold in the same bottle in which the secondary fermentation took place
  159. Encourages sugar build-up
  160. Blend of grain whiskey and malt whiskey
  161. Concentrating the sugar in grape must
    Chilled until ice crystals form
    Can then be easily removed
    Replicates conditions needed for Eiswein
  162. The dressing on sparkling wine
  163. Used in production of Chianti
    Small quantity of dried grapes or must added to wine after fermentation
    Increases glycerine content in wine
  164. half-dry
  165. Removal of sediment from bottle
    Traditional method only
  166. Very sweet
    Botrytis-effected wines
  167. Acts as a coagulant
  168. Wachau
    Rich, full-bodied, dry
    Late-harvested grapes
  169. Double distilled
    Scotch
    Only malt
  170. *Climate within the canopy of the vine
    *Used to refer to the mesoclimate
  171. Another term for tank method
  172. During distillation
    A wash can be separated into different fractions as the parts boil at different temps
  173. Aged
  174. Copper
    Wash needs to be distilled twice to create useable spirit
    Can only be used to separate a liquid into 3 fractions
  175. Training of vines as free-standing plants
    Not needing support of trellis