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  1. Grains Nobles
  2. Taille
  3. Volatile Acidity
  4. Photosynthesis
  5. Continentality
  6. Racking
  7. Degorgement Tardive
  8. Yeast
  9. Halbtrocken
  10. Invecchiato
  11. Heads
  12. Cuvee
  13. Ausbruch
  14. Scion
  15. Remuage
  16. Must
  17. Brettanomyces
  18. Fining
  19. Hearts
  20. Bush training
  21. Vendage
  22. Traditional Method
  23. Erzeugerabfullung
  24. Wash
  25. Riserva
  26. Mash bill
  27. Liqueur de tirage
  28. Trockenbeerensauslese
  29. Trellis
  30. Accolage
  31. Graft
  32. Mosto cotto
  33. Pot still
  34. Lutte raisonee
  35. Straight whiskey
  36. Chaptalisation
  37. Sussreserve
  38. Green malt
  39. Feints
  40. Fining agent
  41. Benefits of calcium carbonate
  42. Residual sugar
  43. Coteaux
  44. Stravecchio
  45. Cru
  46. Manipulant
  47. Estate
  48. Selection (German)
  49. Foreshots
  50. Pupitre
  51. Crossing
  52. Alcoholic Fermentation
  53. Dosage
  54. Steinfeder
  55. Beerenauslese
  56. Crianza
  57. Yeast Autolysis
  58. Most important fermentations
  59. Must weight
  60. Fattoria
  61. Pomace
  62. Anaerobic
  63. Irrigation
  64. Malting process
  65. Lees stirring
  66. Spatlese
  67. Assemblage
  68. Rectifier (re: Fractions)
  69. Gran Reserva
  70. Solera
  71. MLF
  72. Primary aromas
  73. Abboccato
  74. Clonal selection
  75. Debuttage
  76. Aerobic
  77. Selection de Grains Nobles
  78. Spur
  79. Limestone
  80. Congeners
  81. Site Climate
  82. Sur pointe
  83. Transfer method
  84. Charmat Method
  85. Strohwein/Schifwein
  86. Cote
  87. Veraison
  88. Fixed acidity
  89. Smaragd
  90. Battonage
  91. Pradikat
  92. Mesoclimate
  93. Vendage tardive VT
  94. Chalk
  95. Grain Whiskey
  96. Diurnal Range
  97. Cru Classe
  98. Cru Bourgeois
  99. Cordon
  100. Cryo-extraction
  101. Governo
  102. Cask Strength
  103. Lieu dit
  104. Head grafting
  105. Erste Lage
  106. Edelfaule
  107. Brouillis
  108. Micro-climate
  109. Super Second
  110. Malt whisky
  111. Kabinett
  112. Petit Chateau
  113. Clay
  114. Pipe
  115. PGI
  116. Fermentation
  117. Liquoroso
  118. Geographical Indication
  119. Malt
  120. Buttage
  121. Botrytis Cinerea
  122. Cane
  123. Cru Artisan
  124. Clone
  125. Examples of Congeners
  126. Secondary aromas
  127. Blended Whiskey: Scotland
  128. Granvas
  129. Bordeaux Mixture
  130. Tartaric acid
  131. Grey rot
  132. Estufagem
  133. Filtration
  134. Carbonic Maceration
  135. Barrique
  136. Casse
  137. Sulfur Dioxide
  138. Clos
  139. Liquroeaux
  140. Blended Whiskey: US
  141. Bonne Chauffe
  142. Must enrichment
  143. German and PDO wines
  144. Vin de paille
  145. Liqueur d'expedition
  146. Botte
  147. Millesime
  148. Degorgement
  149. Suss
  150. Aspersion
  151. Maceration
  152. Effect of warm nights
  153. Tertiary Aroma
  154. Rectifier
  155. Passito
  156. Vino generoso
  157. Cuve close
  158. Eau-de-vie
  159. Marc
  160. Cuve
  161. What heads contain
  162. Moelleux
  163. Climat
  164. Recioto
  165. Wort
  166. Overproof
  167. PDO
  168. Lees
  169. Habillage
  170. Fractions
  171. Eleve en futs de chene
  172. Acetic Acid
  173. Tank method
  1. a Alsace
    Botrytis-affected gapes
  2. b Lees stirring
  3. c Site climate
  4. d The product of the first distillation in Cognac
  5. e The acid component of vinegar
    Excessive amounts result in vinegary nose and taste.
  6. f The residue of skins, pips and stalks left in press
    Post extraction of juice
  7. g Kabinett
  8. h Italy
    Traditional large barrels up to 160 HL
  9. i Sweet wines that made from heavily botryitised grapes
  10. j Blending a number of different parcels of wine
    Bordeaux, Champagne
  11. k Breakdown of dead yeast cells
    After secondary fermentation
    Gives a yeasty, biscuity nose
  12. l Top vineyards in Germany
  13. m Mix of grains used to make whisky
  14. n The climate of a plot of vines, vineyard or part of a vineyard
  15. o Rank of Bordeaux chateaux
    Below Cru Bourgeois
  16. p Medium-sweet
  17. q Sweet wine made from grapes dried on straw or reed mats
  18. r Concentrating the sugar in grape must
    Chilled until ice crystals form
    Can then be easily removed
    Replicates conditions needed for Eiswein
  19. s Rank of Bordeaux chateaux
    Below Cru Classe
  20. t Skins are in contact with the fermenting must
    During red wine vinification
  21. u Wachau
    Lightest bodied wine category for dry wines
  22. v Alcholic and MLF
  23. w Union of small piece of one plant onto a rootstock
    To protect against phylloxera
  24. x Organic compounds
    Give flavour and aroma in ETOH beverages
    Products of:
    *maturation process
  25. y Wachau
    Rich, full-bodied, dry
    Late-harvested grapes
  26. z Walled vineyard
    Though walls may no longer exist
  27. aa The tails
    Production of malt whiskey
  28. ab Named vineyard site not of Premier Cru or Grand Cru status
  29. ac Grape-grower who also makes wine
  30. ad Wine made from grapes that have been dried
  31. ae Blend of grain whiskey and malt whiskey
  32. af Unfermented sugar remaining in wine after bottling
  33. ag The second distillation in Cognac
    Converts the Brouillis to eau-de-vie
  34. ah Descendants of a single individual
    Propagated by vegetative means
    Has features identical to parent plant
  35. ai German
    Unfermented, sterile grape must
    Added to dry wine to increase sweetness and balance excess acidity.
  36. aj Vat or tank
  37. ak Pradikat category
    No chaptalisation
    Grapes fall within specific range of must weights
  38. al Addition of sugar or RCGM to grape juice
    Prior to fermentation
    Increases the final ETOH content of wine
  39. am During distillation
    A wash can be separated into different fractions as the parts boil at different temps
  40. an Unwated haze in wine
    Caused by instability
  41. ao Quality dry wines from single vienard sites
  42. ap Tying the vine branches to the horizontal wires
  43. aq Another term for tank method
  44. ar *Juice resulting from first pressing of Champagne
    *A blend
  45. as Ketones, Esters, Aldehydes
  46. at French
    1. Pruning
    2. Juice from second pressing in Champagne
  47. au Used to separate a liquid into three fractions
  48. av Chemical reaction
    Action of yeast or bacteria
  49. aw One of the many brands that fall outside the classifications in Bordeaux
  50. ax Champagne that has been disgorged after:
    * long period of yeast autolysis or
    * after ageing sur pointe
  51. ay Any spirit that is higher in ETOH than proof spirit
    Usually rum
  52. az Sedimentary rock
    Calcium carbonate
    Good drainage and water-retention
  53. ba Requiring oxygen to operate
  54. bb A number of single-celled micro-organisms
    Under anaerobic conditions are able tot convert sugar into ETOH
  55. bc Removal of sediment from bottle
    Traditional method only
  56. bd Fermentation of whole bunches of black grapes
    Berries initially intact
    Intracellular fermentation
    =well-coloured, fruity red wines
    Low tannins
  57. be Austria
    Quality category for sweet wines
    Minimum weight required between:
    *Beerenauslese and Trockenbeerenauslese
  58. bf Solution of copper sulfate and lime in water
    Used to spray against fungal disease
  59. bg Density of grape juice prior to fermentation
    Enables winemaker to estimate ETOH
  60. bh Can separtate a liquid into a larger number of precisely-separated fractions
  61. bi Section of plant material grafted on to rootstock
  62. bj Another name for tank method
  63. bk Second column of a Coffey or patent still
    ETOH rich vapour from the anayser is separated into fractions
  64. bl Adjustment of sugar level in sparkling wines
    Addition of liqueur d'expedition after degorgement
  65. bm Mix of wine and sugar
    Used to make final adjustment to sparkling wine prior to corking
  66. bn Spain
    Tank-fermented sparkling wine
  67. bo Case 225 Liters
  68. bp Classifed growth
    Normally Bordeaux
  69. bq Very sweet
    Botrytis-effected wines
  70. br Extremely fine-grained soil type
    Retain large amounts of water
    Keeps the soil cool
  71. bs Pradikat wine category
    Made w/o chaptalisation
    Grapes within specific range of must weights
  72. bt Difference between summer and winter temp
  73. bu Strong
    Often fortified wines
  74. bv US
    Made from at least 51% of one grain
    Distilled to no more than 80% ABV
    Aged for a minimum of 2 years
    New oak casks
  75. bw Has satisfied requirements for aging in cask and bottle
  76. bx German
  77. by Man-made system of support for vine
    Consisting of posts and wires
  78. bz Hillside
  79. ca Mixing the lees with the wine
    Usually in cask
    Extract components that give extra flavour/body
  80. cb An adaption of the traditional method
    After the scondary fermentation
    Wine is disgorged into a pressurised tank
    Yeast is removed
    Then wine rebottled in different bottle
  81. cc Medium-sweet
  82. cd Fractional blending
    Older wine is refreshed by the addition of younger wine
  83. ce Italian
  84. cf Encourages sugar build-up
  85. cg Highly reactive pungent gas
    Anti-oxident and antiseptic
    Added to wines and musts as gas or produced in empty cask by burning sulfur candle
  86. ch Spirit distilled to a maximum of 96%ABV
  87. ci Scottish Whiskey
    Made from malt and other grains
  88. cj Various subcategories of German and Austrian PDO wines
  89. ck *Climate within the canopy of the vine
    *Used to refer to the mesoclimate
  90. cl Italian
    HIgher ABV
    Extended period of ageing
  91. cm Aromas in a wine that arise from the winemaking
    By products of
    *alcoholic fermentation
  92. cn Responsible for most of wine's acidity.
    Detectable only on the palate
    Added to wines lacking acidity
    Generally in warm vineyard regions
  93. co The grape harvest in France
  94. cp Double distilled
    Only malt
  95. cq Similar to passito
    Part-dried grapes
  96. cr Avoids unnecessary use of synthetic chemicals
  97. cs The distillate made from pomace
  98. ct Removing earth that was placed on vine during buttage
  99. cu Barley that has undergone the malting process
    The insoluable starch has been modified into soluable starch
  100. cv Fungs attacks grape
    Can form unwanted grey rot or noble rot
  101. cw Grains of barley
    Soaked and starting to germinate
    Modifying the starch into soluble form
    Enzymes break down into fermentable sugars
    Green malt dried in kiln=malt
  102. cx Alsace
    MAde with exceptionally ripe grapes
  103. cy Aritfical canals, flooding, overhead sprays
    drip systems for individual vines
  104. cz Any ETOHic liquid resulting from fermentation of wort
    Destined to be distilled
  105. da Conversion of sugar to ETOH by yeast operating in anaerobic conditions
  106. db Breeding of varieties
    Cross-pollination of two different varities of same species
  107. dc Soaking, germination and kilning of barley
  108. dd Difference btw daytime and nighttime temp
    Wide range=retention of fruit aromas/acid
  109. de Pradikat wine category
    Wine made w/o chaptalisation
    Grapes must fall within range of must weights
  110. df Drawing off clear wine from a cask/vat
    Moving it to another
    Leaves sediment behind
  111. dg Slopes
  112. dh One year old wood on vine
    Pruned to between 8 and 15 buds
  113. di Blend of stgraight whiskey and neutral spirit
  114. dj half-dry
  115. dk Physically removing particles
    From large grape fragments
    To individual yeast cells
  116. dl Certain minimum requirements for ageing in cake and bottle
  117. dm Calcium inhibits uptaked of acid-neutralising potassium
    Helps grapes retain their acid
  118. dn The wine is sold in the same bottle in which the secondary fermentation took place
  119. do Ageing of a bottle of sparkling wine neck down
    After yeast autolysis is complete
    Before degorgement
  120. dp Vineyard site
  121. dq Malt whiskies
    Spirit that has not been watered down to 40%ABV
    Not filtered
    V high ETOH
  122. dr Acid that is detectable on the nose and palate
    High leves=fault
  123. ds Addition of lactic acid bacteria
    =conversion of harsh malic acid into softer lactic acid
  124. dt Training of vines as free-standing plants
    Not needing support of trellis
  125. du Lower grade of GI
  126. dv Noble rot
  127. dw One year old wood pruned short
    To retain only 2-3 buds
  128. dx The heads
    Production of malt whiskey
  129. dy Aged
  130. dz Aged in oak barrels
  131. ea Spain
    Fortfied wine
  132. eb French
    Earthing up the bases of the vines
    Protect the graft union against frost
  133. ec Higher grade of GI
  134. ed Removal of matter in suspension in the wine
  135. ee Ethanol, volatile and potentially toxic levels of compounds such as methonal
  136. ef Defined by WTO
    Facilitates multi-national trade agreemetns
    Wine has quality, reputation or other characteristics determined by where it comes from
  137. eg Sediment of dead yeast cells
    Bottom of tank once fermentation complete
  138. eh Method of protection against Spring frosts
    Vines sprayed with water which freezes
    Coating buds with ice
    Buds saved b/c latent heat of freezing
  139. ei Genus of yeast
    Results in distinctive savoury flavours
    Considered a fault
  140. ej The acidity in wine detectable only on the palate
    Tartaric, malic, lactic
  141. ek Italian
    Reduced, concentrated grape must
  142. el Secondary fermentation takes place under pressure in a sealed tank
  143. em Second fractions to be collected during post distillation
    Suitable for consumption
  144. en Madeira
    Heating process
    Accelerate the develpment and maturation
  145. eo Rack with holes to hold necks of sparkling wine
    During remuage
  146. ep Tradition cask
    For Port
  147. eq Must enrichment
    Using beet or cane surgar
  148. er Allows a variety to be grafted over to another, more profitable variety
    No need to grub up and replant
  149. es Used in production of Chianti
    Small quantity of dried grapes or must added to wine after fermentation
    Increases glycerine content in wine
  150. et Bordeaux chateaux
    were second or third growths in the 1855
    Sometimes produce wines that rival first growths
  151. eu Pradikat category
    Made w/o chaptalisation
    Grapes fall within specific range of must weights
    Individually selected grapes infected with noble rot
    Lusciously sweet
  152. ev Able to operate without Oxygen
  153. ew Vintage date
  154. ex Estate-bottled
  155. ey Type of limestone
    Pure calcium carbonate
  156. ez When a grape begins to change colour
  157. fa Unfermented grape juice that becomes wine
  158. fb Due to the effects of ageing
  159. fc A single 'growth'
    Village or vineyard
  160. fd The first fraction to be collected
    during pot still distillation.
    Not suitable for human consumption
  161. fe The dressing on sparkling wine
  162. ff Plants convert carbon dioxide and water to sugar
    Using light energy absorgbed by chlorophyll
  163. fg Bad form of botrytis cinerea
    Affects unripe berries or black grapes
    =off flavours, lack of colour
  164. fh Make wines from grapes on their property only
  165. fi 'Riddling'
    Moving the sediment to the neck of the bottle Prior to degorgement
    Traditional method only
  166. fj Mixture of wine, sugar and yeast
    Added to still wine
    To promote a secondary fermentation in sparkling wine production
  167. fk Sweet sugar solution
    Created by enzymatic conversion of soluble starch
    Extracted from malt into sugar
  168. fl Selection and propagation of plants
    From particular variety
    Desirable features
  169. fm Horizontal extension of vine trunk
  170. fn Very old
    Madeira, spirits
  171. fo Acts as a coagulant
  172. fp Italian
    Sweet wine
    Dried grapes
    High ETOH
  173. fq Aromas that arise directly from the fruit