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719 True/False questions

  1. What is Liquer d'Expedition?Wine and Cane Sugar added after disgorgement of champagne

          

  2. Why is the diurnal range in Ribera del Duero so good for Tempranillo production?High pigment, acidity, and fruit aroma.
    Local clone called Tinto Fino as it is naturally darker than most tempranillo

          

  3. What is the primary red grape of southern france and southern rhone?Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains
    Most complex and full spectrum muscat

          

  4. What does the term Blanc de Noir refer to?Champagne made exclusively from Pinot Noir and Meunier grapes
    more structured and with red fruit character

          

  5. Describe the flavor profile of TempranilloRipe strawberry/plums
    often blended with other more distinctive grapes

          

  6. What is the typical Nahe Riesling style?Light body with low alcohol and high acidity balanced by medium sweetness.
    Floral, green fruit

          

  7. Service Temp for Sparkling WinesWell Chilled 6-8ºC

          

  8. Describe a typical Cotes Du Rhone ACFlinty like Sancerre

          

  9. What is the varietal of muscat used in Asti DOCG?Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains
    Most complex and full spectrum muscat

          

  10. When was the quality movement in California?1960's

          

  11. What are the main aspects of wine STRUCTURE?Semillon
    Sauvignon Blanc

          

  12. What is an Ambaugebiet?A region distinguished by a PDO or Denomination in Germany. There are 13 in Germany.

          

  13. What are the 6 geographical zones in Spain?Garganega, high acid, floral perfume, camomile and iris

          

  14. What is a distinct feature of Australian Rieslings?Distinct lime characteristics

          

  15. What are the typical Characteristics of Prosecco?Med Acidity, Fresh Green Apple & Melon
    Do not benefit from bottle aging

          

  16. What are the 3 distinct climate zones of Penedès?Coastal Plain - Hottest, mediterranean, dry. Full bodied Reds
    Valleys - Temperate, white wines, Cava
    Hills - up to 800m, cool, good for int. varietals like riesling.

          

  17. WWhat makes Tokaji a perfect botrytis wine growing area?Sloping southern aspect hills in the far north east
    long dry autumns
    early morning humidity from the Bodrog and Tisza rivers

          

  18. What conditions does Muscat need to grow well?Warm and Dry

          

  19. Describe the typical characteristics of sparkling Asti DOCG...

          

  20. What is the Grecian Appellation system based on?France

          

  21. What are typical HOT climate Chardonnay Characteristics?Mantagne de Riems
    Vallee de la Marne
    Cotes de Blancs

          

  22. What is the other (french) name for Monastrell?Gewürz - Like Gewurztraminer

          

  23. What is the most famous communal appellation in Mâconnais?Pouilly-Fuissé AC - Amphitheater hills that produce the richest white wines in Burgundy (up to 14% abv).
    Characteristics of ripe Peach, Melon with savory or nutty flavors of new oak.

          

  24. What is the Climate of Meseta, Spain?Continental, it is landlocked and surrounded by mountains.
    Hot summer, cool winter.

          

  25. What region in South West France Produces Bordeaux Style Wines?Egri Bikaver or Bull's Blood - powerful reds

          

  26. What comes first? Pressing or Crushing?Crushing! - Breaks the skin and allows free-run juice to flow out - will be left on to macerate or pressed immediately for whites

          

  27. What's the typical profile of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo?White. Green Grapes, Salad, and White Pepper that becomes honeyed and toasted as the wine ages
    Can express exaggerated minerality.
    Often allowed to breath in new oak

          

  28. What is the style of Duoro DOC?Schisty soil is ideal for growing touriga nacional which is the core grape used in port

          

  29. What is acidification?The yeast that's used in Sherry production, forms a cap on the top of the sherry and is allowed breathing room in the barrel or butt.

          

  30. Describe the Secondary Fermentation of Champagne...

          

  31. What is the style of Vinho Verde in Portugal?Between the light Mosel and Full Rheingau style. Pronounced acidity like Mosel but fuller fruit like Rheingau

          

  32. Describe AutolysisThe process of Yeast breaking down and becoming bready flavored and will help to keep the wine tasting freesh

          

  33. What is Retsina?A grecian wine made with tree resin, racked off, and can be made anywhere in Greece

          

  34. What is the aging time for Gran Riserva level in Spain?Tannat

          

  35. What are the 6 Pradikatswein Denominations?Kabinett
    Spatlese
    Auslese
    Beerenauslese
    Eiswein
    Trockenbeerenauslese

          

  36. Describe the Graves (Pessac Leognan) Classification SystemThere is no ranking! All listed wines may call themselves Crus Classé. All lie within the Pessac Leognan AC.
    Chateau Haut-Brion is the only exception in that it is part of the 1855 Premiers Crus Classification.

          

  37. Describe the Climate of the Loire ValleyVarying among subregions
    Central Vineyards - Cool continental
    Anjou and Nantais - Western with more maritime influence

          

  38. What is the appropriate wine storage temp?10º-15ºC, or 55ºF
    unwavering

          

  39. How is Cru Borgeouis Classification Awarded in Medoc?France

          

  40. What are the 7 labeling terms describing Champagne Sweetness?Bergerac
    Monbazillac
    Cahors
    Madiran
    Cotes de Gascogne IGP

          

  41. What is the profile of Austrian Blaufrankish?Pale lemon yellow, almonds, herbs, and dough
    can be tangy or salty

          

  42. What Australian area is most associated with Shiraz?Barossa Valley

          

  43. What is the key grape in Vouvray?Chenin Blanc

          

  44. What are 5 classic Riesling regions?Germany - Mosel, Rheingau, Pfalz, Nahe
    Austria - Wauchau
    France - Alsace
    Australia - Clare adn Eden Valley

          

  45. Where does the vast majority of South african wine come from?The western cape produces 90%

          

  46. Describe the terroir of ChampagneMid/High Priced Beaujolais Cru
    Part carbonic maceration
    Light/Medium bodied with low tannin, med acidity, some cherry fruit

          

  47. What is the shallow soft press most commonly used in Champagne?LLicorella - red slate with small particles of Mica (that sparkle), low in nutrients but retain water well

          

  48. What is the principle wine of Cahors AC in SW France?Malbec (Auxerrois)
    Minimum of 70% in any blend

    Also plant tannat and merlot

          

  49. What is the main wine of Nantais?Cool Continental

          

  50. What is significant about the number 82 in terms of Champagne?Called Licorella
    red slate with mica particles that shimmer int he sun

          

  51. Name the 1 red Premiers Cru Chateau outside MedocChateau Haut-Brion

          

  52. What is the benefit of head grafting?Can switch from one variety to another on existing stock (though must wait 3 years to produce good fruit) and allows producers to adjust quickly to market changes.

          

  53. Name the 2 CONCLUSION Categories for TastingQuality Level
    Level of Readiness for Drinking/Potential for Aging

          

  54. Where is the Ebro River?Under Adelaide in Southern Aus. Home to coonawara

          

  55. What is the second most important grape in Rueda?Sauvignon Blanc - benefits from cool night climates

          

  56. What does the Acronym SATABICO stand for?Garganega, high acid, floral perfume, camomile and iris

          

  57. What is the name for Hungarian PGI Wines?Tajbor

          

  58. What are the typical styles of the Tavel and Lirac AC's?Warm Mediterranean
    Long diurnal range, very hot in sumer

          

  59. What are the 3 Major subregions in Rioja?Logroño

          

  60. What is the Spanish word for Cantina?Anglianoco del Vulture - High altitude plantings, like Taurasi in style

          

  61. What is the typical profile of Austrian Grüner Veltliner?Peach and apricot
    Rich and Balanced

          

  62. What does the term Prestige Cuvée mean?Chenin Blanc from South Africa

          

  63. Where is Cava primarily made?Using the tank method

          

  64. What is the typical profile of a Welschrielsing?They will ripen unevenly and by the time they're all ripe there will be some raisins on the bunch.
    Black fruit, high alcohol, and some residual sugars

          

  65. Where are the best Tempranillo wines made?from cardonnay and pinot noir in South africa

          

  66. What is the difference between old style Priorat wine and modern?60 Months red, 48 months white
    18 oak red, 6 oak white

          

  67. What does the tempranillo grape lack?Super premium Champagne made form the very best parcels of land.
    Can be NV or Vintage

          

  68. What is the typical vine training method of (most of) SpainAlbarino - Delicate fruit character, crisp high acid, best drank young

          

  69. What are two regions (cooler) growing more refined old world style chardonnay?Ribera del Duero - in the east
    Rueda - in the middle
    Toro - in the west

          

  70. What does the Argentinian Parral training system help avoid?the searing heat close to the ground

          

  71. What is the premium appellation of Muscadet?Muscadet Sevréet Maine AC

          

  72. What is the significance of 1855The year the Medoc Red and Sauternes White Crus was created.
    Based off the excessive 1855 market price for these wines

          

  73. What is the most common Hungarian Varietal?Furmint - High acid white varietal

          

  74. What is the dominant central plateau of spain?The Meseta

          

  75. Name the 4 NOSE Categories for TastingChianti/Chianti Classico
    Brunello di Montalcino
    Vino Nobile de Montepulciano
    Vernaccia di San Ginignano - White
    Toscana Igt - Super tuscans

          

  76. Describe the Methode ChampagnoiseRipe red spicy black fruit, can be floral from higher altitudes

          

  77. What is the essential grape used in Madiran?Tannat

          

  78. How many cru apellations are in Northern Rhone?Eight

          

  79. What is the most important yeast in wine making?Cool Continental

          

  80. How many regions have OPE Status in Greece?8

          

  81. What are the typical characteristics of Grenache (Garnacha Tinta)High alcohol
    Can produce intense full bodied reds or lighter Rosados

          

  82. What are the two rosé producing subregions of Southern Rhone?Tavel and Lirac

          

  83. What is key about Olorosso Sherry?It's fortified early to kill flor and has a fuller body

          

  84. What is transpiration?The process of drawing water up through the roots. Determined by temperature.
    Higher temp, higher metabolism, higher transpiration

          

  85. What are the two main spanish varietals of Navarra?#1 - Tempranillo - 70%
    #2 - Garnacha

          

  86. What are the 5 Main Grape Varietals of Germany?Riesling - Late Ripen, Hardy, High Acid, Floral to Ripe Peach
    Müller-Thurgau (Rivaner) - Lower acid and flavor intensity than Riesling, Simple floral and fruit
    Silvaner - White, moderate acidity, neutral fruit, can be earthy
    Spatburgunder (Pinot Noir)
    Dornfelder - Black grape - Deep color

          

  87. How many years must Taurasi DOCG be aged?St-Amour AC
    Julienas AC
    Chénas AC
    Moulin-à-Vent AC
    Chiroubles AC
    Fleurie AC
    Morgon AC
    Regnie AC
    Cote de Brouilly AC
    Brouilly AC

          

  88. What is an Einzellage?An Einzellage is an individual vineyard. Only PDO producers may mention the Einzellage on Label.

          

  89. What is the name for the besttraditional South African sparkling wines?Cap Classique
    must stay on lees for 9 months

          

  90. What are the characteristics of the Carignan varietal?Varying from Hermitage intensity to light bodied carbonically macerated wines with raspberry and pepper perfumes.

          

  91. What is the Garonne river famous for?Cool water that affects FOG and thus perfect BOTRYTIS conditions in Southern Bordeaux

          

  92. What effect will highly flavored food have on wine?Gewürz - Like Gewurztraminer

          

  93. What is the name for Malbec in SW France?Auxerrois

          

  94. What is the typical profile of an Amarone della Valpolicella?Pungent, Gamey nose with high tannin, alcohol, and acidity.

          

  95. What are the two tempranillo centric regions on the duero?Reibera del Duero
    Toro

          

  96. what is the minimum ageing for a non vintage champagne?Condrieu

          

  97. What are the 3 Important Grecian wine making regions for WSET?Naoussa (macedonia) - Reds Xinomavro
    Nemea (Peloponnese) - Agiorgitiko
    Santorini - Assyrtiko

          

  98. What are the two Prosecco Denominations?Prosecco DOC
    Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG - More elite

          

  99. What are the 4 Main Varietals of Northern Rhone?Syrah, Viognier, Marsanne, and Roussanne

          

  100. What are the three primary varietals used in Cava production?Tempranillo, Garnacha, Mazuelo, Graciano

          

  101. What effect will Sweet food have on wine?More drying, bitter, and acidic.
    Less Fruity & less sweet.

    Use sweeter or more fruity wines

          

  102. Describe the flavor profile of sangioveseHigh in acidity with sour red cherry, astringent tannin, earthy/dusty aromas like tea leaves or tobacco

          

  103. Describe the reds of Chinon ACSchisty granite and sand

          

  104. What is the climate classification system at Davis designed upon?Full bodied, oily, high alcohol, med-low acid
    Spicy, with melon, ripe banana, mango

          

  105. What is peculiar about the history of vine training in Rias Baixas?Never bush trained, because of the cool humid maritime climate. They used pergolas but have begun to use more sophisticated systems

          

  106. What is the river that runs North to South through Burgundy?Rive Sâone

          

  107. What two-named region is in between Nantais and Tourraine?Crossings both parents are vitis vinifera
    Hybrids - Vitis vinifera x Vitis "?" - two species combined, not used for wine much anymore

          

  108. What are the 2 AC's for still wine in Alsace?Kabinett
    Spatlese
    Auslese
    Beerenauslese
    Eiswein
    Trockenbeerenauslese

          

  109. What are the 3 designations of Wachau, Austria style white wines?Smaragd - Fullest and most complex
    Federspiel - In the middle
    Steinfeder - Lightest and freshest style

          

  110. What is the name for darker colored sherrys?Olorosso - Develop little to no flor. Fortified to 17% to kill Flor

          

  111. What is the most common Mosel Riesling style?Furmint - High acid white varietal

          

  112. What is the profile of AssyrtikoStrong acidity, pronounced floral notes, camomille and Iris.

          

  113. What are the red varieties seeing promise in the warmer BC regionsPinot Noir and some Cabernet Blends

          

  114. What is the difference between American and European Oak Production?American staves are sawn (efficient) while European staves are split off

          

  115. Go back and complete italy before the test...

          

  116. How are the style of wine in touraine divided geographically?The reds are made in the west in Chinon and Bourgeuil
    The whites are made in the east at Vouvray

          

  117. Describe a typical Cotes Du Rhone Villages ACHigher min. alcohol/percentage of Grenache, Mourvedre, and Syrah, lower yeilds.
    18 Villages may add their names

          

  118. What are the Key Grand Cru Villages from Cote de Nuits? (north to south)Gevrey Chambertin AC
    Vougeot AC
    Vosne-Romanée AC
    Nuits-Saint-Georges AC

          

  119. What is the climate of Southern Chile?It varies! From cool continental in the central vineyards to maritime in the Nantais and Anjou

          

  120. What has been the large scale shift in Italian winemaking?Away from dusty oxidized wines, to stainless steel production, quality oak, and better modern methods in general.

          

  121. What is the dominant grape varietal of Rias Baixas?Albarino - Delicate fruit character, crisp high acid, best drank young

          

  122. Is Chaptalization allowed for any pradikatswein?Oltalom Alatt Allo Eredetmegjololes

          

  123. What is the climate of northern Rhone?Cool continental with warm but not too hot summers

          

  124. What is significant about the mistral and tramontne winds?Hot summers, very cold winters. More linked to Burgundy than the rest of Loire

          

  125. What is the style of Chablis compared to that of Pouilly-Fuissé?Peach and Melon, Nuttiness from new oak
    Can taste quite 'New World'

          

  126. What is the ideal Latitude range for wine making?30º-50º Latitude

          

  127. What grapes are used in Rosé production in Southern Rhone?Garanega

          

  128. What two famous Spanish regions are on the Ebro River?Bodega

          

  129. What 6 factors affect temperature in the vineyard?Latitude
    Fog
    Altitude
    Ocean Currents
    Soil - How much heat can the soil hold and reflect
    Aspect

          

  130. What is Riddling?Pinot Noir and Cinsault

          

  131. What is the flavor profile for Albarino?Intense peach and apricot with high acidity
    can be made into a very rich and full style

          

  132. How are prosecco's fermented?Dried grapes (because Italy largely lacks Botrytis)
    Picked early to retain acidity and pressed weeks-months later

          

  133. What is the style of South African Red BlendsTrick question: Wines can have huge range from light/med bodied fruity fresh to high tannin full bodied red.
    All producers must manage tannin levels in the hot rhone valley!

          

  134. Is Southern France producing more Reds or Whites?Reds - 75% of production

          

  135. What is a regulating weather force in Chile?Nantais

          

  136. What is the essential gas in carbonic maceration?Mencia - aromatic fruity intensity balanced with natural high acidity.

          

  137. What are the characteristics of Melon Blanc?Fullest body in Northern Rhone
    Age for a long time, some to 50+ years

          

  138. What are the two most famous Mosel Towns?Qualitatswein and Pradikatswein
    35 permitted grape varieties

          

  139. What are a few other Spanish/Portugese names for Tempranillo?Bodega

          

  140. What is the juice from pressing called?Must

          

  141. What is the name for light colored sherries?Fino - light body

          

  142. What indicates an oaked Sauv Blanc in CA?More drying, bitter, and acidic.
    Less Fruity & less sweet.

    Use sweeter or more fruity wines

          

  143. What is bentonite used for?Chemicals dissolved in wines - i.e. Tartaric, lactic, and Malic acid...

          

  144. How many Premier and Grand Crus are there in Burgundy?Pinot Noir
    Gamay
    Chardonay
    Aligoté

          

  145. What is the Climate like in Somontono?Oltalom Alatt Allo Eredetmegjololes

          

  146. How are grapes primarily grown in the hills of Priorat?On steep terraced hills, with small densely powerful fruit.

          

  147. What area is the Albarino grape most grown in?Cabernet Franc
    -Used in Chinon AC, Bourgueil AC, Touraine, Saumer, and others

          

  148. What region in NZ is producing fine quality Pinot Noir?-Muscadet - Melon Blanc
    -Muscadet de Svre et Main - Melon Blanc
    -Muscadet de Svre et Marine Sur Lie - Melon Blanc

          

  149. What is a Grosslage?A group of Vineyards, only producers of PDO wines may label the vineyards on label

          

  150. What is the most widely planted red grape in CA?Cabernet Sauvignon
    some of the best in the world are in napa

          

  151. What are the Characteristics of the Marsanne grape?Tannins
    Acidity
    Alcohol
    Fruit Concentration

          

  152. What are the defining flavor characteristics of Gamay?Strawberry, cherry, Banana

          

  153. What wine is Baga most important in?Bairrada DOC
    thick skin, high acid and tannin

          

  154. What is the style of the southern Rhone?Trick question: Wines can have huge range from light/med bodied fruity fresh to high tannin full bodied red.
    All producers must manage tannin levels in the hot rhone valley!

          

  155. What are the 10 Beaujolais Crus?<$10 - Inexpensive
    $10-$20 - Mid Priced
    $20-$40 - High Priced
    >$40 - Premium

          

  156. What is the only significant geographical unit in South Africa?The WesternCape

          

  157. Describe Pinot Noir's role in ChampagneExtra Brut
    Brut
    Extra Sec
    Demi Sec
    Doux

          

  158. What are the three leading white Varietals of Chile?Maritime - Clay over limestone (Valpolicella, barolo, Barbaresco)
    Volcanic - (Soave, Colli Euganei, Lacryma Christi, Etna)
    Alluvial - Bardolino and Piave

          

  159. What are the three main PDO Austrian wine regions?France - Haut Mèdoc, Graves,
    Australia - Coonawara, Margaret River,
    USA - Napa
    New Zealand - Hawkes Bay
    Chile - Colchagua

          

  160. What are Colloids?Particles that cloud the wine, are suspended in the liquid and do not deposit. Most important are tannins and color compounds

          

  161. What are the regulations on Vintage Champagnes?Chardonnay
    Pinot Noir
    Meunier

          

  162. What is the climate of Southern France?Columbard

          

  163. What are the differences between Cane and Spur Training?Anjou-Sanmur

          

  164. What is the most common black grape in Southern France?Tempranillo
    Very little Garnacha Tinto is blended

          

  165. What is the primary grape varietal used in Carinena and Calatayud Spain?Garnacha, but Tempranillo is heavily promoted and on the rise.

          

  166. What are the 8 steps in traditional methode champagnoise?Producers may only use up to 80% vintage wine as to not deplete reserve stocks.

          

  167. What does VSP stand for?Appelation Controlee

          

  168. What is the dominant grape variety used in Rias Baixas in North Western Spain?Garanega

          

  169. What is the profile of Xinomavro from NaoussaContinental, it is landlocked and surrounded by mountains.
    Hot summer, cool winter.

          

  170. What are the 5 Key Wines of Tuscany?Chenin Blanc

          

  171. What are the 3 top Beaujolais Crus?Moulin-a-vent AC - Powerful and full bodied
    Morgon AC - Powerful and full bodied
    Brouilly AC - Most common and large production

          

  172. What effect will Umami food have on wine?More drying, bitter, acidic. Will firm tannins.
    Less sweet & less fruity.

    Pair with more fruity wines, limit tannins

          

  173. Describe the differences between Burgundy and New World Style Pinot Noir...

          

  174. What are the defining flavors of Malbec?plum, anise, earth

          

  175. What is the main grape of Marche?Verdicchio - White with hints of Fennel, Candied Fruit, and Mineral Nuance.

          

  176. What is the difference between passerillage and passito?Passerillage is done on the vine
    Passito is dried indoors

          

  177. what is the northernmost Northern rhone AC?Pinot Noir
    Pinot Grisis also grown

          

  178. Describe Cava's production and regionYellow Tuffeau - soft very chalky well drained soil. Helps with acidity and minerality.

          

  179. What does RCGM stand for?...

          

  180. What is the dominant grape in Ribera del Duero?Tempranillo
    Very little Garnacha Tinto is blended

          

  181. Where in New Zealand does Cabernet Sauvignon Ripen well?Kimmeridigian Clay

          

  182. What is the ONLY black grape varietal allowed in the Northern Rhone?Syrah - Color and Tannin - South can be too hot
    Mourvedre - Deep color intense tannin, Northern limit of ripening in Rhone. Gamey, savoury aromas.

          

  183. What are the primary grapes used in the Southern Rhone?Cooler and Wetter than the rest of the country

          

  184. What are typical characteristics of Viognier?Delicate peach, pear, and violet
    silky texture and mineral

          

  185. What is the classic Hungarian Red style wine?France - Burgundy, Champagne
    USA- Carneros & Sonoma
    South Africa - Walker Bay
    New Zealand - Martinborough, Central Otago, Marlborough

          

  186. What is the key varietal used in Bierzo spain?Pinot Noir
    Pinot Grisis also grown

          

  187. What are the three core regions of the Duero river Valley?Mendoza, Maipu and Uco Valley

          

  188. What are the 7 Core winemaking regions in Germany?N to South-
    Mosel - Reisling
    Rhieingau - Riesling
    Nahe - Riesling
    Rheinhassen - Riesling
    Pfalz - Riesling
    Baden - Pinot Noir
    Franken - Silvaner, Riesling

          

  189. What are the three spanish regions on the Duero River?Ribera del Duero
    Rueda
    Toro

          

  190. What is the name of the best soil type in Priorat?Trick question: Wines can have huge range from light/med bodied fruity fresh to high tannin full bodied red.
    All producers must manage tannin levels in the hot rhone valley!

          

  191. What is the minimum aging for Riserva Wines in Spain?3 years

          

  192. What are the 7 important villages on the Cote de Beaune?Viura, Malvasia, Garnacha Blanca

          

  193. What are the 3 main DAC's in Neiderosterreich?Wachau, Kamptal, and Kremstal
    All produce excellent Grüner Veltliner and Riesling
    Steep terraced vineyards with great ripening potential

          

  194. What are lees?Left over lees and sediments

          

  195. Give an overview of the Transfer method for making sparkling wineSame as traditional up until the riddling process when all bottles are emptied into a tank, filtered, then rebottled into new bottles.

          

  196. What is the character or Nemea style Agiorgitiko?TCA - Trichloroanisole
    Mouldy Cardboard aroma!

          

  197. What style of wine is Provence most famous for?Rosé

          

  198. Describe a common profile for Geruztraminer in Alsace.Ripe strawberry/plums
    often blended with other more distinctive grapes

          

  199. What is flor?The yeast that's used in Sherry production, forms a cap on the top of the sherry and is allowed breathing room in the barrel or butt.

          

  200. What is the famous white grape used in Santorini?Chardonnay

          

  201. What makes wine growing possible in Ontario?The temperature regulation of the great lakes

          

  202. What is the profile of a classic Tokaji swet wine?VdlT - Vinos de la Terra

          

  203. Define ISINGLASSThe Right Bank of Bordeaux

          

  204. What is the Superior Apellation Abreviation in Greece?Malbec (Auxerrois)
    Minimum of 70% in any blend

    Also plant tannat and merlot

          

  205. What are the three core regions in Mendoza Province?Piesport and Berkastel

          

  206. More Free Run Juice...Makes for higher quality wine.

          

  207. What is the major climactic issue in Chablis?Garnacha

          

  208. How are the Alsasce style and German style Rieslings different?Alsasce has full bodied, dry, with medium + alcohol while the germans are either more austere or quite sweet.
    Will almost certainly have higher alcohol with some residual sugar while germans will focus more on full sweetness

          

  209. What texture is semillon famously known for?Oiliness
    can be quite bodied

          

  210. What are the primary Canadian Icewine Varieties?N to South-
    Mosel - Reisling
    Rhieingau - Riesling
    Nahe - Riesling
    Rheinhassen - Riesling
    Pfalz - Riesling
    Baden - Pinot Noir
    Franken - Silvaner, Riesling

          

  211. What is an acronym that will help remember all the chilean regions north to south?E - elqui
    L - Limari
    Ch - Choapa
    A - Aconcagua
    Casa - Casablanca
    S- San Antonio

    Mai - Maipo
    Ca - Cachapoal
    Co - Colchuagua
    Cu - Curico
    Ma - Maule

    Ita - Itata
    Bio - Bio Bio

          

  212. Where has Pinot Noir found a home in California?Carneros

          

  213. What effect will Acidic food have on wine?Bairrada DOC
    thick skin, high acid and tannin

          

  214. What are Four non-systemic diseases that effect grapes?Downy Mildew - Damages Leaves, slows ripening
    Powdery Mildew - Effects buds/leaves, splits grapes open
    Grey Rot - Attacks berries, taints flavor,
    Botrytis - Makes grapes delicious - Can lead to grey rot

          

  215. Why is Cab Sauv able to be so expressive in California?Napa Valley/Chateauneuf du Pape

          

  216. What are the 4 main white varietals of the Rioja DOCa?Naturally high tannin, acidity and color
    lacks fruit and finesse

          

  217. What are the 4 main Red varietals of Rioja DOCa?Tempranillo, Garnacha, Mazuelo, Graciano

          

  218. Why is Champagne dependent on blending?Inclement weather leads to uneven years of production. Wine sealed anaerobically from years past allows fixes for lacking vintages.
    It allows for consistent house style wines

          

  219. What is the grape used in Soave?Garanega

          

  220. What area of Spain is Tempranillo Country?...

          

  221. What is the South african style for Chenin Blanc SteenLoire style, both dry and sweet.

          

  222. What are common varietals used in Super TuscansTannins
    Acidity
    Alcohol
    Fruit Concentration

          

  223. Contrast the typical flavor profile of Champagne and CavaChampagne is toasty and Bready
    Cava is Rubbery and Smoky

          

  224. where is the second fermentation in Champagne production?12º-22ºC
    Helps maintain Fruit Characteristics

          

  225. What's particular about the Coteaux du Layon?Peach and apricot
    Rich and Balanced

          

  226. What is the sweetest level of Tokaji?Muscadet AC
    Produced with Melon Blanc

          

  227. What is the main viticultural challenge of South africa?Virus and disease (Leaf roll virus primarily)

          

  228. What are the Main regions of Italy's North EastTrentino-Alto Adige
    Veneto
    Friuli-Venezia Giulia

          

  229. What is the main DOC of Umbria?Orvieto - Famous for whites made with Grechetto, Malvasia and Trebbiano
    Mantefalco Sagratino is a red that is demanding more attention now.

          

  230. If the flor fails in a fino sherry it becomes aPalo Cortado

          

  231. Where are the Hungarian wine regions?The southern plains - Half of vineyards
    Lake Balaton - largest lake in europe with moderating climate effects

          

  232. What is the minimum ageing necessary for a vintage champagne?3 years

          

  233. What is the climate of Greece?Hot Mediterranean but the ocean winds can have a cooling (if not destructive) effect

          

  234. What is Spain's southernmost winemaking region?Jerez

          

  235. What are the 4 main Grape varieties of Burgundy?Viura, Malvasia, Garnacha Blanca

          

  236. What are two important Puglian DOC's?Salice Salentino
    Copertino
    Both are port-esque based on negroamaro and Malvasia nero

          

  237. What are typical COLD climate Chardonnay Characteristics?Steely, light-medium body, high acidity, apple, pear, green plum

          

  238. What is the soil type of Chablis?Cool Continental

          

  239. What are the primary varietals of MonBazillac?Xinomavro
    NeXus of wine in the North

          

  240. What 2 regions define Northern Rhone?Vienne in the North
    Valence in the South

          

  241. Name 3 Systemic DiseasesWhen the development of the berry is disturbed it may develop without seeds and remain small
    Will be intensely sweet and seedless

          

  242. What does the word Honeepoot mean?Pinot Noir and Cinsault

          

  243. What is the second white of South Africa?Columbard

          

  244. Where does the Duero river flow?Westward into Portugal's port producing regions

          

  245. What are the classic Chardonnay regions of the world? (4 countries)Richness and weight
    Develop honeyed aromas

    -More dominant in Rhone as Rousanne is temperamental to weather

          

  246. Where is the Penedes DO?Catalunya
    wide variety of wines

          

  247. What is the style of Uraguay often compared to?Anglianico
    High acid, high tannin

          

  248. Where is the Limestone Coast?Maritime
    wet, mild climate

          

  249. Describe the Pouilly-Fumé StyleFlinty like Sancerre

          

  250. What are the four methods used in Rosé winemaking?Direct Pressing - Same style as white wine, no on skin maceration
    Drawing off - Limited Maceration, taken out early
    Bleeding - Only a portion is taken out early, leftover macerating wine gets extra macerated
    Blending - Small portion of red added to white for color. Not allowed in EU

          

  251. What are the three primary varietals used in Champagne?Chardonnay
    Pinot Noir
    Meunier

          

  252. What is the bloom?The average temperature difference between winter and summer

          

  253. What is millerandage?Indicates quality wine with special attributes from a single Bereich within an Anbaugebiete.
    May not receive enrichment but can be sweetened post fermentation with Süssreserve.

    Also must label which of the 6 Pradikat levels it belongs to.

          

  254. What is the risk of culling grapes after veraison?The remaining grapes can swell in size and become diluted.

          

  255. What Climate is Margaret River in Western Aus similar to?Continental, cut off from Maritime by the mountains
    Very high altitude plantings help mitigate summer heat and allow for large diurnal temp shifts that are great for Tempranillo.

          

  256. Red Wine Fermentation Temperature...

          

  257. Describe the Solera systemHas up to 14 levels or Cridera, equal parts from each butt distributed down the line over time and finally reaches the solera level where the sherry is taken from

          

  258. What are the dominant red grape Varieties of Spain?Tempranillo - #1
    Garnacha Tinta - Spanish Grenache
    Monastrell - Spanish Mourvedre
    --
    Graciano - Mainly in Rioja, Strong Structure
    Carinera - Lower acid, High in Tannin and Color
    Mencia - better in cooler climate, herbaceous, high acid

          

  259. Define the Eiswein Pradikatt3 styles of Cab Franc:
    Lightest- sandy soils of Rive Vienne
    Medium- Gravelly Clay Plateau -firmer body
    Finest - Limestone Slopes

          

  260. Name the 7 AOC sub-regions of Haut-MedocMountainous region with continental weather
    ruby wines with red fruit, soft tannins, high acid, and good aging potential

          

  261. What is the process for making Muscadet Sur Lies?VdlT - Vinos de la Terra

          

  262. Describe the characteristics of a typical CavaVarying from Hermitage intensity to light bodied carbonically macerated wines with raspberry and pepper perfumes.

          

  263. What is particular about varietal uses in Franken?They barely use Reisling, instead they focus on Muller Thurgau and Silvaner

          

  264. What is the southernmost AC of Northern Rhone?Cornas AC
    Syrah production only

          

  265. What is the significance of the Catalunya DO?Agiorgitko
    NemeAgiorgitiko

          

  266. What is the classic grape of Rueda?Verdejo - elegant white that's high acid with aromatic flavor

          

  267. What are the 6 main Grape Varietals in Austria?#1 - Tempranillo - 70%
    #2 - Garnacha

          

  268. What part of Spain is ideal for Monastrell production?The south where it's really hot and will allow full ripening.

          

  269. What is the primary varietal of Oregon?Continental, it is landlocked and surrounded by mountains.
    Hot summer, cool winter.

          

  270. What is the geography of Greece?High acid white wine
    when young apples, develops into nuttiness and honey

          

  271. Describe the Malbec profile from ArgentinaRipe red spicy black fruit, can be floral from higher altitudes

          

  272. What are the 4 Spanish aging Categories?The southern plains - Half of vineyards
    Lake Balaton - largest lake in europe with moderating climate effects

          

  273. Name the Two main Spanish White Grape VarietalsJoven - Immediate release
    Crianza - red: 6 mnth barrel, 24 total. White total 18 mnth
    Reserva - reds 12 mnth barrel, 36 mnth total. White, 18 total, 6 in barrel
    Gran Riserva - Exceptional vintages only, minimum 60 months, 18 in barrel for red, 48 for white and rosé

          

  274. What is the primary grape varietal used in Chablis?...

          

  275. Name the three spanish regions on the Duero East to WestLiguria
    Lombardy
    Piedmont

          

  276. Describe a typical Chateauneuf-du-Pape ACLargest Cru in S. Rhone, Diverse Terroir, typically Grenache and Mourvedre.
    Full bodied, rich texture, spiced red fruit, high alcohol.

          

  277. What is the typical profile of Rheingau Reisling?Intense peach and apricot with high acidity
    can be made into a very rich and full style

          

  278. What are the 4 subregions of the Anjou-Sanmur in Loire?-Sanmur - Chenin Blanc & Cab Franc
    -Anjou - Chenin Blanc, Cab Franc, And some Rosé
    -Coteaux du Layon - Chenin Blanc
    -Savennieres - Chenin Blanc

          

  279. What are two regions in CatalunyaPenedes - Closest to Barcelona
    Priorat - South of Penedès

          

  280. What are the three predominant soil types in Italy?Maritime - Clay over limestone (Valpolicella, barolo, Barbaresco)
    Volcanic - (Soave, Colli Euganei, Lacryma Christi, Etna)
    Alluvial - Bardolino and Piave

          

  281. What are the defining flavor characteristics of sangiovese?Tartaric
    Malic - Becomes Lactic through Malolactic fermentation

          

  282. What is in a Prestige de Cuvee Champagne?Producers may only use up to 80% vintage wine as to not deplete reserve stocks.

          

  283. What is Libourne?The Right Bank of Bordeaux

          

  284. Name 3 regions that consistently have botrytis and name the bodies of water that allow for it.Tempranillo - #1
    Garnacha Tinta - Spanish Grenache
    Monastrell - Spanish Mourvedre
    --
    Graciano - Mainly in Rioja, Strong Structure
    Carinera - Lower acid, High in Tannin and Color
    Mencia - better in cooler climate, herbaceous, high acid

          

  285. What is the most widely planted grape in spain?Garnacha

          

  286. What is the name for Hungarian PDO?Oltalom Alatt Allo Eredetmegjololes

          

  287. What are fourfactors effecting sunlight?Flavors in spirits

          

  288. What geographical layout of Austria?Cool continental
    Vineyards are East and North of the Alps

          

  289. Describe the typical qualities of a TBA German RieslingCitrus, Peach, Pineapple

          

  290. What is the climate of Bordeaux?Maritime
    wet, mild climate

          

  291. What are the eight AC styles of Northern Rhone?Cote-Rotie AC - Red Syrah
    Condrieu AC - White Viognier
    Chateau Grillet AC- Similar to Condrieu
    Saint Joseph AC - Syrah, Marsanne & Roussanne
    Hermitage AC - Syrah, Marsanne & Roussanne
    Crozes-Hermitage - Syrah, Marsanne & Roussanne
    Cornas - Syrah

          

  292. Describe a the typical characteristics of a quality LambruscoOff-dry to sweet (dry becoming more popular)
    Deeply pigmented, firm acidity
    Acidity perfect with food like Parmesan or Prosciutto

          

  293. What is the significance of 'Selection' PGI in Germany?Premium Quality, Minimum Must weight of Auslese level or better, comes from an Einzellage area, Generally Dry, rare classification that often qualifies for other certs

          

  294. What does the flor protect against?Prosecco DOC
    Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG - More elite

          

  295. What style are Penedès traditionally known for?Nantais

          

  296. What are some typical Viognier characteristics in Northern Rhone?Exotic- Apricot, spice, floral
    rich mouthfeel
    Low acidity, high alcohol

    picked late at high sugar ripeness

          

  297. What is Vendange Tardive? (VT)Late harvest in Alsace
    Must be one of the 4 Noble Grape varieties
    Minimum of 14% alcohol potential
    Dry to medium sweet wines, no sweetness regulation

          

  298. What is a farmer controlling with different training solutions?Vigor

          

  299. What is the warmest German region?Baden - Strip from east of Alsace fromSwiss border up through Manheim

          

  300. What are typical characteristics of Pinot Noir?Light tannin, red cherry and raspberry, barnyard, vegetal, can develop meaty,

          

  301. COME BACK AND DO THE GREEK SECTION...

          

  302. WhatThe yeast that's used in Sherry production, forms a cap on the top of the sherry and is allowed breathing room in the barrel or butt.

          

  303. Service Temp for Sweet WinesRoom Temperature 15-18ºC

          

  304. Do fino sherries develop in bottle?NO

          

  305. What distinguishes the Southern Rhone Style from The Northern?The Southern Rhone tends to blend more varying varietals while the north sticks with Syrah, Viognier, and Marsanne/Roussanne

          

  306. Does Saint-Emilion AC have White Wines?Rueda
    Verdejo, Sauvignon Blanc

          

  307. Describe the Climate of Tourraine in the LoireHalf continental and half maritime
    relatively early spring but with mild summer temps

          

  308. What is the style of a white zinfandel?Pale rose's that are fruity, low in alcohol, with medium sweetness

          

  309. What is the success story from Sicily?Pale lemon yellow, almonds, herbs, and dough
    can be tangy or salty

          

  310. Why is Ribera Del Duero so ideal for Tempranillo growing?Huge diurnal range allows for higher acid production

          

  311. What are the main sparkling wine regions of Australia?Muscadet AC
    Produced with Melon Blanc

          

  312. What are 3 important Champagne subregions?Proximity to seas and lakes
    Latitude
    Aspect
    Sunlight hazards - Trees and vine's own leaves

          

  313. What are the 3 main regions producing quality Viognier?France - Northern Rhone (Condrieu and Chateau Grillet)
    Australia
    California

          

  314. What is the core grape varietal of Naoussa?Xinomavro
    NeXus of wine in the North

          

  315. What style of Pinot Gris is popular for export in Hungary?Full bodied Garnacha/Monastrell Reds
    Cava

          

  316. What is Verband Deustcher Pradikatswein (VDP) ?Vitis Vinifera

          

  317. What do the words 'Cartizze' and 'Rive' mean in relation to Prosecco?Early harvest for more acidity and lower fruit, light, neutral, medium acidity,

          

  318. What are the two best Bordeaux districts for Merlot?Moulin-a-vent AC - Powerful and full bodied
    Morgon AC - Powerful and full bodied
    Brouilly AC - Most common and large production

          

  319. What is the Baga varietal's profile?Oltalom Alatt Allo Eredetmegjololes

          

  320. What is the best vineyard arrangement in Mosel?South aspect, steep slopes close to the river, lots of slate rock near surface to retain heat

          

  321. What are the italian word Large oak barrels and small oak barrels?Botte are large often slovenian oak
    Barrique are small 250 liter casks

          

  322. What are the typical characteristics of Tempranillo?Between the light Mosel and Full Rheingau style. Pronounced acidity like Mosel but fuller fruit like Rheingau

          

  323. What is the common profile of a Langhe nebbiolo?High alcohol, Tannin, and acidity. Excellent structure is hidden under light purple hued juice.
    Complex aromatics, red fruit, rose, licorice, hay

          

  324. Contrast Coteaux du Layon with SavennieresCoteaux is prone to botrytis while Savennieres is well exposed and air circulates to prevent noble rot but promotes vendange tardive wines.
    Both use chenin blanc

          

  325. What is an example of a warm mediterranean Region?Napa Valley/Chateauneuf du Pape

          

  326. What is the german word for spice?Gewürz - Like Gewurztraminer

          

  327. What is the modern style of Chardonnay?Big ripe fruit and Oak

          

  328. What are the style of the 4 New S. Rhone Crus? (Gigondas, Vacqeyras, Beaume de Venise, Vinsorbes)Cool regions like Tasmania, Yarra Valley, Adelaide hills

          

  329. What varietal is Condrieu famous for producing?Viognier

          

  330. Where are Pouilly-Fume and Sancerre located in terms of the Loire Valley?Grenache - Red
    Syrah & Mourvedre - Red
    Cinsault - Red

    Whites are a minority product
    Clairette, Grenache Blanc, Bourboulec, Viognier, Marsanne, Roussanne

          

  331. Compare a TBA Riesling with a Hungarian Tokaji...

          

  332. What is Sélection de Grains Nobles? (SGN)Baden - Strip from east of Alsace fromSwiss border up through Manheim

          

  333. What is the grape used in Sauternes Botrisyzed wines?Warm Mediterranean
    Long diurnal range, very hot in sumer

          

  334. Which Duero Valley apellation makes white wines?Fruit flavors

          

  335. What are the 2 supporting red grapes in the southern rhone?Grenache
    -Heat/drought resistant, wind resistant. Develops concentrated spicy red fruit flavor. in hot years it can become baked and jammy

          

  336. What is considered a unit of alcohol in the US?1 Drink

          

  337. What is a region that can emulate the Vouvray style Chenin Blanc?Only made from free run cuvee juice

          

  338. What are the core red varieties used for export in Chile?Tempranillo, Garnacha, Mazuelo, Graciano

          

  339. What are screw caps best at preserving?Fruit flavors

          

  340. What grape is Asti DOCG made from?The south Western Part of Aus, Under Perth

          

  341. Why was big vines management developed?To decrease vigor in areas with high temperatures an soil nutrients. By having more buds on a single permanent vine there is less distribution to each bud and thus less vigor

          

  342. What is the secondary sherry varietal?Furmint - High acid white varietal

          

  343. What are the 7 Main Grape Varieties of Alsace?Riesling
    Gewurztraminer
    Pinot Gris
    Muscat
    Pinot Blanc
    Sylvaner
    Pinot Noir

          

  344. Define Kabinett PradikatRare expensive sweet style with Botrytis (noble rot). Don't require noble rot, just need to meet minimum must weight.

          

  345. Describe the famous soil of SancerreChalky soil with excellent water water retnetion and very low nutrients

          

  346. What is the style of Dao DOC?Deep colored red, soft tannin, bramble fruit

          

  347. What are the levels of Burgundy Apellations?Regional - Broad, include all of Burgundy
    Restricted Regions- ex. Bourgogne-HautesCotedeBeaune
    Commune AC's- i.e. Beaune, all within a town
    Single Vineyard AC's - Premier or Grand Crus only

          

  348. What are the agricultural challenges faced by spain?Drought and heat

          

  349. What is particular about the Coteaux du Layon AC in Anjou-Sanmur?Frost protection

          

  350. What pairs well with gewurztraminer?When the development of the berry is disturbed it may develop without seeds and remain small
    Will be intensely sweet and seedless

          

  351. Describe Crèmant wineThe Right Bank of Bordeaux

          

  352. What are the two oxidized styles of Sherry?Olorosso and Amontadillo

          

  353. Where is the Margaret River?The south Western Part of Aus, Under Perth

          

  354. What is the second most grown grape in Argentina?Continental, it is landlocked and surrounded by mountains.
    Hot summer, cool winter.

          

  355. What are the 6 key AC's in Languedoc-Roussillon?Languedoc AC
    Minervois AC
    Corbieres AC
    Fitou AC
    Cotes du Roussillon AC
    Cotes du Roussillon Villages AC
    Pay d'Oc IGP

          

  356. What are the 3 primary native Hungarian red grapes?Dordogne
    Garrone
    They come together in the 'Gironde Estuary'

          

  357. Service Temp for Full Bodied RedRoom Temperature 15-18ºC

          

  358. Name the Major Regions and Subregions in the Loire Valley (East to West)Central Vineyards
    -Pouilly-Fume - Sauvignon Blanc
    -Sancerre - Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc
    -Menetou-Salon - Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc
    Tourraine
    -Tourraine - Generic AC, Many styles
    -Vouvray - Chenin Blanc
    -Bourgueil - Cab Franc
    -Chinnon - Cab Franc
    Anjou-Sanmur
    -Sanmur - Chenin Blanc & Cab Franc
    -Anjou - Chenin Blanc, Cab Franc, And some Rosé
    -Coteaux du Layon - Chenin Blanc
    -Savennieres - Chenin Blanc
    Nantais
    -Muscadet - Melon Blanc
    -Muscadet de Svre et Main - Melon Blanc
    -Muscadet de Svre et Marine Sur Lie - Melon Blanc

          

  359. What are the 5 core PDO's of Veneto?Valpolicella
    Amarone della Valpolicella
    Soave
    Recioto della Valpolicella
    Bardolino

          

  360. What distinguishes the geography of the Southern Rhone from the north?The Rhone Valley opens up much more South of Valence the terrain is much flatter, Soil with large "Galet" stones that help hold heat.

          

  361. What is the climate of the central vineyards?Hot summers, very cold winters. More linked to Burgundy than the rest of Loire

          

  362. How is the Beaujolais system composed?Palmela DOC in the south of Portugal
    low yeild, fruity, complex, rich textured reds that become nutty with age.

          

  363. What is sparkling Asti DOCG classically paired with?Fruit desserts

          

  364. What is the most extensively planted varietal in Bergerac (SW France)Sauvignon Blanc
    - for dry white wines

          

  365. What is the name of the person who Riddles wine?The Remueur

          

  366. What is a specialty style from Nantais that's gaining popularity?Furmint - High acid white varietal

          

  367. What is Enrichment?The average temperature difference between winter and summer

          

  368. Describe the Asti method for sparkling wine...

          

  369. What AC in southern France uses Mourvedre exclusively?Bandol AC

          

  370. What are the differences in flavor of american and european oak?Cane leaves only a piece of cane and the first few buds after pruning.

    Spur leaves a permanent cordon with spurs and a bud on each every year.

    http://www.pawpaw.kysu.edu/viticulture/Information/Trelli11.gif

    https://go.dmacc.edu/programs/viticulture/blog/Lists/Posts/Attachments/43/TrainCaneSpur_3_65E91108.jpg

          

  371. What are the flavor characteristics of Botrytis affected Semillon?concentrated with sweet fruit, roasted nut and honey coated, tropical flavors

          

  372. What are the three levels of Bordeaux Appellation?Mendoza, Maipu and Uco Valley

          

  373. What kind of grapes do best in Southern France?Warm weather varietals like:
    Carignan
    Mourvedre
    Grenache
    Syrah
    Cinsault
    Marsanne and Roussane

          

  374. What is the king grape of Campania?Can switch from one variety to another on existing stock (though must wait 3 years to produce good fruit) and allows producers to adjust quickly to market changes.

          

  375. What are the main characteristics of the Aligoté varietal?Thin high acid wines. Generally two-dimensional flavor.
    Used in sparkling burgundies, blended to add acidity.

          

  376. What are the 4 subregions of the Tourraine Region in Loire?-Tourraine - Generic AC, Many styles
    -Vouvray - Chenin Blanc
    -Bourgueil - Cab Franc
    -Chinnon - Cab Franc

          

  377. What is the core issue with Syrah in the southern Rhone?Too hot sometimes!

          

  378. Describe the body of a typical alsasce gewürztraminerMedium Bodied, Fruity, and Simple
    Many use carbonic maceration to limit tannins

          

  379. What ratio of juice liters to kilos of grape may be pressed in Champagne?Frost

          

  380. What is the varietal used in Bandol AC?Chardonnay

          

  381. What are the 3 subregions of the Nantais in Loire?-Muscadet - Melon Blanc
    -Muscadet de Svre et Main - Melon Blanc
    -Muscadet de Svre et Marine Sur Lie - Melon Blanc

          

  382. What are the most important california varietals?Chardonnay
    Zinfandel
    Cabernet Sauvignon
    Merlot
    Pinot Noir
    Sauvignon Blanc

          

  383. What aspects does skin impart on wine?More drying, bitter, acidic. Will firm tannins.
    Less sweet & less fruity.

    Pair with more fruity wines, limit tannins

          

  384. What are the characteristics of Rousanne Grape?Delicate peach, pear, and violet
    silky texture and mineral

          

  385. What are the 3 primary regions for Sauvignon Blanc?Bordeaux
    Loire Valley - Sancerre, Pouilly-Fumè
    Marlborough, New Zealand

          

  386. How many Ranks Are There in the Sauternes Classification?Anglianoco del Vulture - High altitude plantings, like Taurasi in style

          

  387. What is the designation for regional typicity in Austria?Full bodied, oily, high alcohol, med-low acid
    Spicy, with melon, ripe banana, mango

          

  388. What is the essential white grape of Burgundy?Tannat

          

  389. What does Szamorodni mean in Hungarian?As it comes - picking the whole bunch when only a few grapes have botrytis

          

  390. What is the meaning of Qualitatswein bestimter Anbaugebiete(QbA)?Corvina, Rondinella, Molinara

          

  391. What is unique about Austria's wine production?They have strict limits est. in 1986 that severely limits grape yield for PGI and PDI wines

          

  392. What is the South African Wine Origin Scheme and how does it work?60 Months red, 48 months white
    18 oak red, 6 oak white

          

  393. What is the profile of a Fino Sherry?Pale lemon yellow, almonds, herbs, and dough
    can be tangy or salty

          

  394. What is the structure of the St. Emillion cru systemReview of producers every 10 years,
    enter system as a grand cru
    after 10 years consistent G. Cru performance can become a Grand Cru Classé
    Top tier is Premier G. Cru Classe

          

  395. What is the flavor profile of Anglianico?Overtly floral red, black berry and black cherry, matches well with new oak

          

  396. What are the four growing climate classifications and associated temps?Cool - <16.5º
    Moderate -16.5-18.5º
    Warm - 18.5-21º
    Hot - > 21º

          

  397. Describe the Meunier VarietalUsed in champagne
    Buds late/good against frost
    Used in fruity Champagne made to enjoy young

          

  398. Name the 7 most important Burgundy Districts from North to South.Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

          

  399. What kind of wine is Cotes de Gascogne, SE of Bordeaux, Famous for?Crisp, Light whites made from Armagnac.

          

  400. What are the classic Cabernet Sauvignon Regions?France- Médoc & Graves
    Napa
    Australia - Coonawara and Margaret River
    NZ - Hawkes Bay and Colchuga

          

  401. Where can Deutscher Wein grapes come from?Anywhere in Germany

          

  402. Name the 2 main regions within CatalunyaPenedes - Closest to Barcelona
    Priorat - South of Penedès

          

  403. What is the flavor profile of Grenache?Hot Mediterranean but the ocean winds can have a cooling (if not destructive) effect

          

  404. What are the typical characteristics of Condrieu AC Viognier?High tannin
    Black Fruit, Black Pepper, Floral
    Develop Gamey aromas

          

  405. What is disgorgement?The neck of the wine is frozen in brine, freezing a top layer of wine and stabilizing the sediment to allow for removal of the sediment and temporary cork. Cap is ejected and Liquer d'expedition is added (

          

  406. What is the profile of a Zweigelt?Red berry fruit, can be made beaujolais style or full bodied with spicy notes

          

  407. What does passito entail?Adding concentrated grape must.

          

  408. What aspects does Pulp impart on wine?Sugars
    Juice
    Acids

          

  409. What is peculiar about the first fermentation of sherry?Mediterranean

          

  410. What is the constantia district of South Africa known for?Condrieu

          

  411. What is the thick skinned clone of Tempranillo popular in Spain?Mediterranean

          

  412. What is the word for when ripening begins?Veraison

          

  413. What is the soil of Nantais?Adding concentrated grape must.

          

  414. What is the temperature at which vines consume more sugar than photosynthesis can produce?22ºC - This is the cause for unripened grapes

          

  415. What are 4 alternative methods for sparkling winesViognier

          

  416. What are basic Gamay Flavors without Carbonic Maceration?Chardonnay
    Zinfandel
    Cabernet Sauvignon
    Merlot
    Pinot Noir
    Sauvignon Blanc

          

  417. What is the difference between crossings and hybrids?Intense peach and apricot with high acidity
    can be made into a very rich and full style

          

  418. Where is Cap Classique made?from cardonnay and pinot noir in South africa

          

  419. What does the term riserva entail in Portugal?That the wine has more than .5% higher alcohol than minimum and is in glass bottles.

          

  420. What is the term used for Spanish PGI Wines?VdlT - Vinos de la Terra

          

  421. What is integrated pest management?Baden - Strip from east of Alsace fromSwiss border up through Manheim

          

  422. What is a Bereich?A district within an Ambaugebiet. Often a famous village within a great PDO region.

          

  423. What is the sugar in Liquer d'expedition referred to?Cote Rotie AC - strictly Syrah

          

  424. What are the two additional Pradikats Austri uses in addition to Germany's 6?Ausbruch - Between Beerenauslese and Trockenbeeranauslese
    Strohwein/Schilfwein - Grapes laid on straw to dry through the winter

          

  425. What are the two PDO designations in Austria?Upper Ebro
    Catalunya
    Duero Valley
    North Western Spain
    Castilla-La Mancha
    The Levante

          

  426. Where are the best Granaches/Garnachas made?East towards the River Ill

          

  427. What is typical of a Sauvignon Blanc from Warm climates?They will ripen unevenly and by the time they're all ripe there will be some raisins on the bunch.
    Black fruit, high alcohol, and some residual sugars

          

  428. What is Sekt?South African Chenin Blanc

          

  429. What wine is Pantelleria Island known for?Passito di Pantelleria DOC - a dried moscat grape style

          

  430. Which type of oak is most common in Spanish quality wines?American oak, with typical vanilla and sweet spice characteristics
    Many are turning towards French oak to give a more tannic and spicy character

          

  431. What is the climate of Hungary?Anglianico
    High acid, high tannin

          

  432. Service Temp for Light Bodied RedSignature White from Argentina
    -Intense fruity floral aroma, medium body and acidity

          

  433. What are the typical characteristics of Gewurztraminer?Viura, Malvasia, Garnacha Blanca

          

  434. What are the PDO Wine Stratas in Spain?Upper Ebro
    Catalunya
    Duero Valley
    North Western Spain
    Castilla-La Mancha
    The Levante

          

  435. What are the classic Cabernet Sauvignon Regions?France - Haut Mèdoc, Graves,
    Australia - Coonawara, Margaret River,
    USA - Napa
    New Zealand - Hawkes Bay
    Chile - Colchagua

          

  436. Describe the tank method for sparkling winesHalf continental and half maritime
    relatively early spring but with mild summer temps

          

  437. What is essential in the rack and return method?Trick question: Wines can have huge range from light/med bodied fruity fresh to high tannin full bodied red.
    All producers must manage tannin levels in the hot rhone valley!

          

  438. What is the largest agricultural challenge in Champagne?Frost

          

  439. What are the typical characteristics of a Cabernet Sauvignon?Thick Skin
    Low acid, best grown in cooler areas that can maximize what small acid it has
    Carbonic maceration for strawberry scented Joven wine
    Blended with other typical spanish grapes

          

  440. What are the 5 wine regions in Spain's Upper Ebro region?Rioja
    Navarra
    Cariñera
    Calatayud
    Somontano

          

  441. What is the main difficulty in growing Viognier?It develops sugars too fast and that crushes the delicate peach, pear and violet aromas
    Can be unbalanced and have too much alcohol

          

  442. What are the 8 essential AC's in the southern Rhone?Aloxe-Corton AC
    Beaune AC
    Pommard AC
    Volnay AC
    Meursault AC
    Puligny-Montrachet AC
    Chassagne-Montrachet AC

          

  443. What style wines come from Madiran AC, South of Bordeaux?Highly structured reds from Tannat Grapes

          

  444. What are the typical qualities of all Muscats?Fullest body in Northern Rhone
    Age for a long time, some to 50+ years

          

  445. What is Sale en Primeur?Futures sales of early rated vintages from top producers in Bordeaux

          

  446. How is Lambrusco made?An Einzellage is an individual vineyard. Only PDO producers may mention the Einzellage on Label.

          

  447. What is the style of Vouvray AC?Schisty granite and sand

          

  448. Which Maconnais wine benefits most from age?Pouilly-Fuissé

          

  449. What are the 5 Burgundy regions north to south?Penedes - Closest to Barcelona
    Priorat - South of Penedès

          

  450. What are the ideal conditions for Noble Rot?Proximity to a consistently evaporative body of water that will create a fog layer in the vineyard. Botrytis must also be present. The fog should lift and the vineyard should dry out with the mid day sun as well, allowing to grapes to shrivel and the botrytis to cease.
    Continued wet weather can lead to more serious fungal infections like grey rot, that will destroy a grape crop.

          

  451. What is the north eastern Italian style of Pinot Grigio?TCA - Trichloroanisole
    Mouldy Cardboard aroma!

          

  452. Describe the style of Reds from Toro, SpainDeep from thick skinned clone of Tempranillo (tinta del toro).
    Noticeably high in alcohol

          

  453. What is a typical structure of Sangiovese wines?Citrus, Peach, Pineapple

          

  454. What are the 5 Classic Pinot Noir regions?Verdejo - elegant white that's high acid with aromatic flavor

          

  455. Describe the typical qualities of a Sonoma Chardonnay...

          

  456. What is particular about the primary fermentation of the best Champagnes?Varietals and Cuvée/Taille are fermented separately.
    Most will undergo some MLF

          

  457. Describe the levels of regulation of the AVA (American Viticultural Area)As broad as a state
    a county sized area
    a geographical area like the central coast

          

  458. What is the primary white varietal in Portugal?Light pale lemon, low alcohol, made from local varietals, slight sparkle,

          

  459. What is typical of cold weather Riesling?Kimmeridigian Clay

          

  460. What are the most important sparkling wine regions in New Zealand?Marlborough, Hawkes Bay, and Gisbourne

    Marlborough is the southernmost of the main sparkling regions

          

  461. What do Dosage sugars and left over yeast protein in Champagne create?The complex flavors of bicuit, honey, walnut, and toast

          

  462. What is the Climate from Catalunya to Levante in Spain?Mediterranean

          

  463. What are the 3 subregions of the Loire Central Valley?-Pouilly-Fume - Sauvignon Blanc
    -Sancerre - Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc
    -Menetou-Salon - Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc

          

  464. What is the most maritime region in Loire?Rioja Alavesa - High alt 800m, Chalky, light wines with finesse
    Rioja Baja - Heavy clay, strong continental climate, HOT
    Rioja Alta - 500-800m, limestone clay with red iron,

          

  465. What is the climate of Ribera del Duero?Cool Continental

          

  466. What are the typical characteristics of Syrah?High tannin
    Black Fruit, Black Pepper, Floral
    Develop Gamey aromas

          

  467. Why is Cabernet Sauvignon considered hearty?The average temperature difference between winter and summer

          

  468. What style of wine is Verdejo used in?Sherry style
    It is very oxidative and is perfect for sherry style. It can also be made crisp through anaerobic winemaking

          

  469. What is the Bordeaux style of Merlot?Cool Continental

          

  470. What is the most widely planted white grape in the world?Airen - Primary grape of La Mancia Spain

          

  471. What are the main Hungarian grape Varieties?Minosegi Bor - Doc
    Vedett Eredetu Bor - Docg (Special level)

          

  472. Describe the asti methodRegional AC's - Aligoté, Rouge (P. Noir), Blanc (Chard)
    Commune AC's - Chablis, Beaune, Gevrey Chambertin
    Single Vineyard AC's - Premier and Grand Crus - Vineyards individually owned unlike Bordeaux Chateaux

          

  473. What is a common weather factor of the Napa benchlands?Solid morning fog that clears in the afternoon

          

  474. What is Portugal's most important red grape?Baden - Strip from east of Alsace fromSwiss border up through Manheim

          

  475. What is the primary white grape of Bordeaux?Hot Mediterranean but the ocean winds can have a cooling (if not destructive) effect

          

  476. Is Hungary able to ripen red varietals like Cabernet Sauvignon?YES - Long warm summers allow

          

  477. What does the word "Taille" refer to?Schisty soil is ideal for growing touriga nacional which is the core grape used in port

          

  478. What are the defining characteristics of Zinfandel/Primitivo?raspberry, cherry, spice
    Full bodied

          

  479. what is the main city in Rioja?Logroño

          

  480. What is the core region in the north part of Oregon?Cote Rotie AC - strictly Syrah

          

  481. What is Diurnal Range?Adding concentrated grape must.

          

  482. What are the typical flavors of Austrian Grüner Veltliner?green grapes, salad, white pepper
    develops honey and toast

          

  483. Describe the Fleurie AC from Burgundy"Late Harvest"
    More concentrated flavor than Kabinett
    More ripe Riesling flavors, no green apple, more citrus and stone fruit (peach & Apricot)

          

  484. What is typical of Pays d'OC IGP stylesHigh acid white wine
    when young apples, develops into nuttiness and honey

          

  485. How is color added to spirits?Futures sales of early rated vintages from top producers in Bordeaux

          

  486. What are the top two sherry aging categories?VORS - Very old rare sherry
    VOS - Very old sherry

    both at least average of 30 years

          

  487. What chemical can be used to lower acid content in wine?Calcium Bicarbonate

          

  488. What style is the Burgenland known for?Top quality sweet wines

          

  489. What challenges face the growers and Houses of Champagne?Matching production with demand and keeping everyone paid!
    Growers will make their own blending wine or champagnes at cooperatives to sell
    Champagne houses cannot expand their holdings and must rely on growers

          

  490. Is there much irrigation in Chile?Yes, most places

          

  491. What is "the barolo of the south"?Pale lemon yellow, almonds, herbs, and dough
    can be tangy or salty

          

  492. How long is the Gran Riserva aging Qualification for Reds and Whites?Carneros AVA
    2nd - Anderson Valley in Medocino - Cool ocean wind with thick fog

          

  493. What is particular about Salta's vineyards in Argentina?Malbec

          

  494. What is steen?The waxy film around the grape that contains natural yeast

          

  495. What is the most important international variety used in Chile?Cabernet Sauvignon

          

  496. What does Aszu mean in Hungarian?Rotten

          

  497. What is the grape of the Nemea OPAP?3 p... 60g/l
    4... 90 g/L
    5 ... 120 g/L
    6 ... 150 g/L

          

  498. What is the typical Furmint profile?High acid white wine
    when young apples, develops into nuttiness and honey

          

  499. What is the species of grape used in Wine?Cabernet Franc
    -Used in Chinon AC, Bourgueil AC, Touraine, Saumer, and others

          

  500. What is a secondary use for sprinkler systems?Frost protection

          

  501. What is the heat regulating ocean breeze in South Africa?Virus and disease (Leaf roll virus primarily)

          

  502. What are the 8 core AC's of Southern Rhone?Trick question: Wines can have huge range from light/med bodied fruity fresh to high tannin full bodied red.
    All producers must manage tannin levels in the hot rhone valley!

          

  503. What are 5 synthetic adjustments wine makers use on wine?The north west

          

  504. What is a sparkling wine made from chenin blanc in Loire?Vouvray

          

  505. Where is the Benguela Current and what does it help with?It is on the west coast of Africa and it helps regulate coastal temperatures and keeps it cooler

          

  506. Name the 8 PALATE Categories for Tasting<$10 - Inexpensive
    $10-$20 - Mid Priced
    $20-$40 - High Priced
    >$40 - Premium

          

  507. Describe the Sancerre styleSauvignon Blanc fermented in large Oak or stainless
    Gun Smoke, flinty, from chalky soil

          

  508. What 5 factors effect wine style?Climate
    Soil
    Varietal
    Viticulture
    Vinification/Maturation

          

  509. What are the white grapes of Entre Deux mers?Semillon
    Sauvignon Blanc

          

  510. Name the 2 primary regions of North-West SpainAmpuis, in the north of Northern Rhone

          

  511. Describe the style of Loire Sauvignon BlancMedium temperature fermentation limit the herbaceous and fruitiness. Much more restrained than NZ style.

          

  512. What is the climate of Portugal?It varies. Largest influence is the atlantic but it has continental. Duero regulates the temp in that region

          

  513. Define the Trockenbeerenauslese PradikattTokaji Eszencia - sweetest best grapes - 450 g/L minimum
    low alcohol, less than 5%

          

  514. What is the style often referred to Sauv blanc production in CA?New Zealand style
    - High acid and crisp from the central coast

          

  515. What is the Montalicino Terroir?Schisty granite and sand

          

  516. What is particular about the shape of the Rhine in Rheingau?The river goes east to west giving all of the vineyards in the north a perfect southern aspect

          

  517. What is the very best American region for sparkling wines?Carneros AVA
    2nd - Anderson Valley in Medocino - Cool ocean wind with thick fog

          

  518. What is liquer de Tirage?Continental
    Long warm summers and short cold winters

          

  519. What process can Racking help with?Clarification, by removing the sedimented particles from the liquid

          

  520. What defines a Loire style Sauvignon Blanc?Trick question: Wines can have huge range from light/med bodied fruity fresh to high tannin full bodied red.
    All producers must manage tannin levels in the hot rhone valley!

          

  521. What river runs through the Neiderosterreich?The Danube

          

  522. Name the six styles of ChampagneContinental
    Long warm summers and short cold winters

          

  523. What is the DOC of Note in Basilicata?Anglianoco del Vulture - High altitude plantings, like Taurasi in style

          

  524. What are the flavor characteristics of Merlot in Both Cool and Hot Climates?Off-dry to sweet (dry becoming more popular)
    Deeply pigmented, firm acidity
    Acidity perfect with food like Parmesan or Prosciutto

          

  525. What is the northern most region of Burgundy and what does it produce?-Tourraine - Generic AC, Many styles
    -Vouvray - Chenin Blanc
    -Bourgueil - Cab Franc
    -Chinnon - Cab Franc

          

  526. What effect will Salty food have on wine?Less drying and bitter, less acidic.
    Makes wine smoother and richer.

    Eases Tannins.

          

  527. What are the 5 primary native grape varietals of Hungary?Furmint - high acid, apples to nutty honey, botrytis
    Harslevelu - late ripening, botrytis
    Sarga Muscatolay - aromatic, orange blossom
    Olasz Rizling - (Welsch Reisling) light dry whites
    Irsai Oliver- intense aromatic, spicy like muscat or gewurtz

          

  528. How is prosecco produced?Tank Method

          

  529. What does paddling during the tank process help express>?The autolysis given during the riddling process

          

  530. What are the 3 species of grapes used in root stock.Dordogne
    Garrone
    They come together in the 'Gironde Estuary'

          

  531. What is the minimum operating temperature for vines?10ºC

          

  532. How often does AC Semillion review its Crus?Every 10 years

          

  533. What are the characteristics of Saint-Joseph AC Syrah?Varying from Hermitage intensity to light bodied carbonically macerated wines with raspberry and pepper perfumes.

          

  534. What is Chaptalization?A district within an Ambaugebiet. Often a famous village within a great PDO region.

          

  535. Name the 5 PREMIERS CRUS Red Producers in BordeauxChateau Margeaux (Maurgaux)
    Chateau Lafite-Rothschild (Pauillac)
    Chateau Latour (Pauillac)
    Chateau Mouton-Rothschild (Pauillac)
    Chateau Haut-Brion (Pessac-Leognan, Graves)

          

  536. What is the ideal temperature range for grape growing?16-21ºC

          

  537. What are some typical Beaujolais flavor profiles?Kirsch
    Bubble Gum
    Banana
    Cinnamon spices

          

  538. What are the defining Characteristics of Grenache/Garnacha?Med Acidity, Fresh Green Apple & Melon
    Do not benefit from bottle aging

          

  539. What is the primary red grape varietal from Argentina?Malbec

          

  540. How many Ranks Are There in the Medoc Classifications?5

          

  541. What is the geographic layout of the Penedes regionTrick question: Wines can have huge range from light/med bodied fruity fresh to high tannin full bodied red.
    All producers must manage tannin levels in the hot rhone valley!

          

  542. What is the longest Northern Rhone AC?Cool Continental

          

  543. What is the regulating current in South Africa?The Benguela Current

          

  544. What are the two Hungarian PDO levels?Minosegi Bor - Doc
    Vedett Eredetu Bor - Docg (Special level)

          

  545. Service Temp for Light-Medium Bodied WhiteMid/High Priced Beaujolais Cru
    Part carbonic maceration
    Light/Medium bodied with low tannin, med acidity, some cherry fruit

          

  546. What is varietal used in Pouilly-FuisséTartaric
    Malic - Becomes Lactic through Malolactic fermentation

          

  547. Describe the differences between a California Cabernet and a French ChablisChardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscat d'Alexandria

          

  548. Describe the typical qualities of a ChablisLimestone under Kimmeridigan Clay (Marine fossil clay)

          

  549. What are the climates that distinguish Northern from Southern Rhone?Northern is more Continental
    Southern is Mediteranean

          

  550. What are the most common white varietals used in Southern France?Cabernet, Merlot, Syrah, Camenère blends

          

  551. How are Gamay grapes generally trained in Beaujolais?Literally everything

          

  552. What is special about Sherry producers?Only a certain number of Bodegas can make it.

          

  553. What are the two main acids in Wine?DO - Denominacion de Origin
    DOCa - Denominacion de Origin Califcada
    VP - Vinos de Paya
    VCIG - Vinos de Calidad con Indicacion Geografica

          

  554. What is the region just south of Cote Rotie?Cornas AC
    Syrah production only

          

  555. Describe the differences between Coop and Negociant systemCane leaves only a piece of cane and the first few buds after pruning.

    Spur leaves a permanent cordon with spurs and a bud on each every year.

    http://www.pawpaw.kysu.edu/viticulture/Information/Trelli11.gif

    https://go.dmacc.edu/programs/viticulture/blog/Lists/Posts/Attachments/43/TrainCaneSpur_3_65E91108.jpg

          

  556. What grapes are grown in California?They will ripen unevenly and by the time they're all ripe there will be some raisins on the bunch.
    Black fruit, high alcohol, and some residual sugars

          

  557. What are the 6 Regions of Central Italy?-Pouilly-Fume - Sauvignon Blanc
    -Sancerre - Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc
    -Menetou-Salon - Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc

          

  558. What is the climate of South Africa?Mediterranean

          

  559. What is the one notable German Appellation producing Pinot Noir?Tempranillo
    Very little Garnacha Tinto is blended

          

  560. What are the three core factors in Site Selection?Generic: AC Bordeaux, AC Bordeaux Superieure...
    District: AC Medoc, AC Entre Deux Mers, AC Libornais...
    Commune: AC Saint-Estephe, AC Saint-Julien, AC Pauillac...

          

  561. How long are Cotes De Beaune whites aged for?6-9 months in oak barrels

          

  562. Describe the characteristics of a typical SyrahDeep color, black fruit, spicy aroma
    High tannin with blackberry, pepper, and mint

    Hot climate can soften the tannin and fruit to be more jammy, leathery, and earthy

          

  563. Name the 4 main Red Grape Varieties in BordeauxGaranega

          

  564. Describe the typical qualities of a Dry German Riesling...

          

  565. What is the common Chardonnay style in CA?Orvieto - Famous for whites made with Grechetto, Malvasia and Trebbiano
    Mantefalco Sagratino is a red that is demanding more attention now.

          

  566. What are the characteristics of Hermitage?Fullest body in Northern Rhone
    Age for a long time, some to 50+ years

          

  567. Define the Beerenauslese PradikattNorthern Spain running west to east

          

  568. What are the 4 price categories?<$10 - Inexpensive
    $10-$20 - Mid Priced
    $20-$40 - High Priced
    >$40 - Premium

          

  569. What are congeners?Schisty granite and sand

          

  570. What is the benefit of a continuous or coloum still?Multiple levels of continuous intensity through the still, can be drawn off individually at different intensity levels and reblended

          

  571. What is Sulfur Dioxide used for?Catalunya
    wide variety of wines

          

  572. What are the 6 sweetness levels in Champagne?N to South-
    Mosel - Reisling
    Rhieingau - Riesling
    Nahe - Riesling
    Rheinhassen - Riesling
    Pfalz - Riesling
    Baden - Pinot Noir
    Franken - Silvaner, Riesling

          

  573. Name 4 significant AC's in Southern FranceMediterranean

          

  574. What levels of sugar define dry-luscious for red/white/rose/sparkling/ and sweet wines......

          

  575. Describe the conditions necessary for Botrytissame as traditional but all in tanks after second fermentation
    Can keep down autolytic character so ideal for aromatic grapes

          

  576. Describe the tank or Charmant method for making sparkling wineSecond fermentation takes place in a sealed tank rather than a bottle
    Can use paddles to stir sediment and encourage autolytic fermentation like champagne

          

  577. Where does Pinot Gris produce the best wines?Alsace

          

  578. What is considered the heart of Argentinian winemaking?Vastly varies: from dry to sweet, still to sparkling. It is dynamic.

          

  579. What is the profile of a classic Soave DOC?Pale lemon yellow, almonds, herbs, and dough
    can be tangy or salty

          

  580. What are nematodes and what do they do?It is a fining agent.

          

  581. What american AVA makes sparkling wines well?Carneros and Anderson Valley

          

  582. What are the 2 VDP labeling terms used in Germany?Erste Lage - Best vineyard sites of VDP members, Limited to classic german grapes, Denoted on label with grape bunch and a '1'

    Grosses Gewachs - Erste Lage Wines that are Dry, somewhat redundant but important for quality

          

  583. What is the chemical responsible for Cork Taint?Gamay

          

  584. What are the 4 main commune appellations in Cote Chalonnaise, Burgundy?Ribera del Duero - in the east
    Rueda - in the middle
    Toro - in the west

          

  585. Is mechanical harvesting allowed in Champagne?NO!

          

  586. What is the most widely planted grape in Bordeaux?Merlot

          

  587. What is Bloom?A grecian wine made with tree resin, racked off, and can be made anywhere in Greece

          

  588. What are the important restrictions on AVA?Saint-Joseph AC - Syrah, Marsanne & Roussane

          

  589. What are typical characteristics of Cote-Rotie AC?Varying from Hermitage intensity to light bodied carbonically macerated wines with raspberry and pepper perfumes.

          

  590. Describe the Touriga Nacional grapelow yeild, intense color, tannic flavrful
    used in port

          

  591. Describe the Grenache grapeThin skinned, sweet grapes. Tolerant of drought. Requires heat.
    Produce high alcohol with soft tannins with high oxidization potential
    Can show browning in the rim quite early in development
    red fruit: strawberry, raspberry, and white pepper

          

  592. What is the typical style of Valpolicella?Full bodied, dry, medium/+ alcohol, High acid

          

  593. What is the max recommended consumption in the US?Frost

          

  594. What is particular about the bodegas where Sherry is madeThey are huge buildings kept cool by high lofty windows and ceilings with a continually damp earthen floor to maintain humidity levels (which regulate oxidization in the barrels)

          

  595. What are the 2 important Provence AC's?Cotes de Provence AC - Rosés,
    Bandol AC - Mourvedre Red $$$

          

  596. What is the primary white grape varietal of the Loire Valley?Chenin Blanc

          

  597. What is the Alsatian style of Pinot Gris?Strawberry and raspberry with hints of white pepper
    can develop leather, tar and coffee over time.
    Full bodied high alcohol with low soft tannins

          

  598. What is continentality?An Einzellage is an individual vineyard. Only PDO producers may mention the Einzellage on Label.

          

  599. What is the Castelao grape used in?Low nutrient craggy soils, limestone

          

  600. What is the main grape variety in Soave?Garanega

          

  601. What are the defining characteristics of Syrah in cool and warm climates?(cool climate) blueberry, prune, coffee, leather, pepper
    (warm climate) raspberry, blackberry, pepper, chocolate

    Both full bodied

          

  602. What is the dominant varietal of the southern Rhone?Grenache
    -Heat/drought resistant, wind resistant. Develops concentrated spicy red fruit flavor. in hot years it can become baked and jammy

          

  603. Which aspect do the best Alsasce vineyards face?Maritime
    wet, mild climate

          

  604. Describe Classic Tokaji profileDeep amber, High acid, intense aromas, orange marmalade, apricots and honey. Best can have rye bread, smoke, coffee and caramel.
    Oxidated and held in oak for 3-6 years

          

  605. What is the abbreviation for Grecian PDO?OPE

          

  606. Describe the Badol AC style from Provence.Strawberry and raspberry with hints of white pepper
    can develop leather, tar and coffee over time.
    Full bodied high alcohol with low soft tannins

          

  607. What Northern Rhone Cru must be made of 100% Syrah?Garanega

          

  608. What is the wine made for Roman Emporers in Campania?Must

          

  609. Name the 3 main white grape varieties in BordeauxMédoc
    Graves
    Sauternes
    Entre Deux Mers
    Saint-Emillion
    Pomerol

          

  610. What are THREE Regions just outside (SW France) that replicate Bordeaux Wines?-Muscadet - Melon Blanc
    -Muscadet de Svre et Main - Melon Blanc
    -Muscadet de Svre et Marine Sur Lie - Melon Blanc

          

  611. What is special about the soil in Priorat?Called Licorella
    red slate with mica particles that shimmer int he sun

          

  612. What are the most suitable climates (davis system) for premium wine growing?30º-50º Latitude

          

  613. Describe the Le Montrachet AC from BurgundyPremium Priced Grand Cru White
    Chardonnay
    Full Bodied, med/high acid, peach and apricot fruit
    oak aged

          

  614. What does the term Garrafeira meanVintage wines from any DoC or IGP with distinctive organoleptic qualities, require 30 months aging for reds, 12 for whites

          

  615. What are the 2 primary rivers in Bordeaux?Fullest body in Northern Rhone
    Age for a long time, some to 50+ years

          

  616. Why is the Cabernet Franc grape ideal for Loire?Flowers and ripens early

          

  617. What is typical of a Sauvignon Blanc in cool climate with poor soil?They will ripen unevenly and by the time they're all ripe there will be some raisins on the bunch.
    Black fruit, high alcohol, and some residual sugars

          

  618. Describe the climate of the LoireIt varies! From cool continental in the central vineyards to maritime in the Nantais and Anjou

          

  619. What are the 2 primary grape varieties used in Red Wines from Libourne?Cabernet, Merlot, Syrah, Camenère blends

          

  620. What is the primary red grape of the Loire?Verdicchio - White with hints of Fennel, Candied Fruit, and Mineral Nuance.

          

  621. What is the essential quality of both Taille Chablis and Cordon de Royat pruning used in Champagne?They both leave significant amounts of hard wood which assists in frost protection.

          

  622. Why are marsanne and roussane perfect blending partners?Proximity to seas and lakes
    Latitude
    Aspect
    Sunlight hazards - Trees and vine's own leaves

          

  623. What are the primary 3 grape varietals from Washington State?Garanega

          

  624. How are geographical units broken down in South Africa?Into regions - dominant geological features
    Then Districts - Share environtment features
    Then Wards - similar soil and geog within regions
    Then Estate Wines

          

  625. What is Pfalz essentially a continuation of?It is essentially the northern half of Alsace.
    Similarly dry area.

          

  626. What are the to core regions of the Washington Wine World?Bordeaux
    Loire Valley - Sancerre, Pouilly-Fumè
    Marlborough, New Zealand

          

  627. What is typical of Reisling's profile?Aromatic, high acid, late ripening, very hardy making it ideal for late harvest

          

  628. What grape is Asti made withMuscat - Grapey and candied orange

          

  629. What is the climate of Sherry?Hot Mediterranean but the ocean winds can have a cooling (if not destructive) effect

          

  630. What is the typical soil profile of Beaujolais?Muscadet AC
    Produced with Melon Blanc

          

  631. What is typical of Late harvest RieslingCitrus, Peach, Pineapple

          

  632. Describe the differences between Burgundy and Bordeaux's Ownership and Wine Making OrganizationChablis - Chardonnay based whites

          

  633. What are the 6 levels of Hungarian wine quality?Non-botrytis Dry Wines - Can be premium
    Tokaji Szamorodni - Dry or sweet, noble rot character, aged
    Tokaji Aszu - base of healthy grapes concentrated must, matured for 3 years, can be extremely sweet
    Aszu Eszencia - Very rare, min 180g/L Sugar
    Tokaji Eszencia - Very rare, free run from Aszu.. minimum 450 g/L sugar. Hi acid, concentrated
    Modern Sweet Wine - less barrel contact than others

          

  634. What are the benefits of Chardonnay's non-aromatic profile?Vineyard and winemaking techniques are more obviously important

          

  635. What is a unique aspect about the general composition of Alsace Soils?There are many varying geologies!
    Slopes of Granite, Limestone, Clay, Sandstone, Volcanic, and Loam
    The plains are largely alluvial

          

  636. Describe a California MerlotDeep amber, High acid, intense aromas, orange marmalade, apricots and honey. Best can have rye bread, smoke, coffee and caramel.
    Oxidated and held in oak for 3-6 years

          

  637. How does chili heat affect wine?Wines made in France outside of Champagne using the traditional method
    Allowed 100L/150kg pressed juice
    Made with the best still white wine of the regions

          

  638. What is the soil composition of the Cote d'OrLimestone and Marl Clay

          

  639. State laws differ from AVA regulations...

          

  640. What are Chile's DO's similar to?American AVA's, limited regulation

          

  641. What are the 3 most important styles from Friuli Venezia Giulia?Grave del Friuli DOC- Light Bordeaux Style Blends
    Collio DOC** - Important Whites High acidity and Alcohol
    Colli Oriantali del Friuli DOC - Reds and Whites

          

  642. What does VQA stand for in Canada?Vintners Quality Alliance
    Equivalent to the european AC

          

  643. Name the 6 Principal Districts in BordeauxDO - Denominacion de Origin
    DOCa - Denominacion de Origin Califcada
    VP - Vinos de Paya
    VCIG - Vinos de Calidad con Indicacion Geografica

          

  644. What is the name for Portuguese Tempranillo?Tinta Roriz

          

  645. What are the two styles of whites produced in Rueda?Fresh simple fruity wines best drank young
    Complex full bodied and texture, skin macerated and barrel fermented

          

  646. Define the Auslese Pradikatt"Ice-Wine" left until they meet -8ºC temp
    Crushed, frozen water skimmed off
    Intense Fruit and Acidity

          

  647. What is particular about the Toaji Aszu winemaking process?They are the highest in the world

          

  648. Describe the Bourgogne Haut Cotes de Beaune Rouge ACAmpuis, in the north of Northern Rhone

          

  649. What type of soil and climate is typical of Rueda?Médoc
    Graves
    Sauternes
    Entre Deux Mers
    Saint-Emillion
    Pomerol

          

  650. What are the requirements for Landwein (German PGI)Either Trocken of Hab-Trocken (dry or off dry), higher must weight than Deutscher Wein (table wine)

          

  651. What is the Clay most common in Chablis?Limestone under Kimmeridigan Clay (Marine fossil clay)

          

  652. Describe New World Style MerlotRound tannins, deep color, high alc, blackberry and plum

          

  653. What sides of the river Ebro are Navarra and Rioja onContinental, cut off from Maritime by the mountains
    Very high altitude plantings help mitigate summer heat and allow for large diurnal temp shifts that are great for Tempranillo.

          

  654. What are the typical growing characteristics and issues of pinot noir?Tight bunches-prone to rot
    Thin skins with low soft tannins

          

  655. What's the typical profile of a Roero Arneis?Peach and apricot
    Rich and Balanced

          

  656. Name the 4 APPEARANCE Categories for TastingClarity - Intenisty - Color - Other Observations

          

  657. What temperatures promote budburst?at 10ºC or near-abouts

          

  658. What is Yeast Autolysis?Particles that cloud the wine, are suspended in the liquid and do not deposit. Most important are tannins and color compounds

          

  659. What is the primary white Varietal of Burgundy?Chardonnay

          

  660. What is a major challenge to new world sparkling wine production?Heat if these regions makes for higher alcohol which is bad. Need to pick at 10-10.5% alcohol to stay balanced
    Need to have lost herbaceousness, and be high in acid

          

  661. What is the range of Puttonyos levels?The island wide IGT Sicilia

          

  662. What is the typical soil of Left Bank Bordeaux?High acid white wine
    when young apples, develops into nuttiness and honey

          

  663. What are the main regions of Italy's North West-Muscadet - Melon Blanc
    -Muscadet de Svre et Main - Melon Blanc
    -Muscadet de Svre et Marine Sur Lie - Melon Blanc

          

  664. What are the core flavors of the Sangiovese grape?Complex fruit spectrum from earth to blueberry to sour cherry.

          

  665. What is the primary sherry grape?Palomino - thrives on the chalky albarizo soils

          

  666. What are the most common red grapes in South Africa?Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah

          

  667. Service Temp for Medium/Full-bodied Whites, Oaked WhitesLightly Chilled 10-13ºC

          

  668. What is the only black grape variety allowed in Northern Rhone?Riesling - Late Ripen, Hardy, High Acid, Floral to Ripe Peach
    Müller-Thurgau (Rivaner) - Lower acid and flavor intensity than Riesling, Simple floral and fruit
    Silvaner - White, moderate acidity, neutral fruit, can be earthy
    Spatburgunder (Pinot Noir)
    Dornfelder - Black grape - Deep color

          

  669. What is the style of Loire Chenin Blanc?Agiorgitko
    NemeAgiorgitiko

          

  670. Describe the Torrontes varietal...

          

  671. What is the profile of Pinotage?Red berry fruit, can be made beaujolais style or full bodied with spicy notes

          

  672. What differentiates Rueda from Ribero del Duero and Toro?Dordogne
    Garrone
    They come together in the 'Gironde Estuary'

          

  673. How does the Humboldt Current affect grape growing in South America?It cools the air that might otherwise be too warm in Chile

          

  674. What are some of the issues particular to Chenin Blanc development in the vineyard?Calcium Bicarbonate

          

  675. Describe the Burgundy Cru SystemNorthern Spain running west to east

          

  676. What are the 5 essential designations of SW France?Bergerac
    Monbazillac
    Cahors
    Madiran
    Cotes de Gascogne IGP

          

  677. How are the assyrtiko grapes grown in Santorini?Verdicchio - White with hints of Fennel, Candied Fruit, and Mineral Nuance.

          

  678. Who developed Biodynamic Agriculture?Rudolf Steiner and Maria Thun

          

  679. White Wine Fermentation Temperature12º-22ºC
    Helps maintain Fruit Characteristics

          

  680. How are most grecian vines trained?Spur trained and head trained

          

  681. What's the primary white grape of Austria?Cabernet Franc
    -Used in Chinon AC, Bourgueil AC, Touraine, Saumer, and others

          

  682. What is the geography of the Rhone Valley?Pedro Ximinez (PX)

          

  683. What are the Italian PDO's?Left over lees and sediments

          

  684. Describe the cloning method "layering"...

          

  685. What is a red grape showing particular promise in Chile's cooler locations?Lambrusco - Refreshing, bone dry, frothy red
    Sparkling
    Perfect with Prosciuto

          

  686. What is Rioja traditionally know for?Often Oxidised Rosé wine
    made from garnacha

          

  687. What is the best known style from Emilia Romagna?Saint-Joseph AC - Syrah, Marsanne & Roussane

          

  688. Describe an Alsace style RieslingMourvedre Based
    Dark, full bodied, powerful tannin, require bottle age
    Bramble, gamey, meat, licorice

          

  689. How can a producer remove tartrate crystals?Moulin-a-vent AC - Powerful and full bodied
    Morgon AC - Powerful and full bodied
    Brouilly AC - Most common and large production

          

  690. What is the Alsasce style for Riesling?Hot Mediterranean but the ocean winds can have a cooling (if not destructive) effect

          

  691. Define the Spälese Pradikat"Late Harvest"
    More concentrated flavor than Kabinett
    More ripe Riesling flavors, no green apple, more citrus and stone fruit (peach & Apricot)

          

  692. What are What are typical Moderate climate Chardonnay Characteristics?Citrus, Melon, Peach flavors

          

  693. What are Solutes?Chemicals dissolved in wines - i.e. Tartaric, lactic, and Malic acid...

          

  694. What is Italy's Climate?Wine and Cane Sugar added after disgorgement of champagne

          

  695. What are the manin grape varieties of Valpolicella?Corvina, Rondinella, Molinara

          

  696. What is a particular of Baden's production?Strong acidity, pronounced floral notes, camomille and Iris.

          

  697. What is the largest wine growing region in Germany?Rheinhessen, south of the Rheingau. The best slopes are on the west side of the Rhine, East aspects. Fullest bodied Rieslings in Germany.
    Flatter areas in the center are producing fine wines from flat farms.

          

  698. What does AC stand for in France?Rotten

          

  699. What is the central town of Cote-Rotie AC?Anglianico
    High acid, high tannin

          

  700. Compare Champagne Chardonnay with that of Chablis in BurgundyPinot Noir
    Gamay
    Chardonay
    Aligoté

          

  701. Describe the typical qualities of a California Cabernet SauvignonDeep from thick skinned clone of Tempranillo (tinta del toro).
    Noticeably high in alcohol

          

  702. What is the climate of Germany?It varies. Largest influence is the atlantic but it has continental. Duero regulates the temp in that region

          

  703. What are the 9 most important North West Italian Wine PDO's?N to S-
    Niederosterreich* -
    Burgenland* -
    Styria

          

  704. What country uses Torrontes varietal?Argentina, in Cafayete and Mendoza

          

  705. What is the crossing of Pinotage?Pinot Noir and Cinsault

          

  706. What is the largest region in the northern rhone?-Muscadet - Melon Blanc
    -Muscadet de Svre et Main - Melon Blanc
    -Muscadet de Svre et Marine Sur Lie - Melon Blanc

          

  707. What are the core flavors of Pouilly-Fuissé?All Chenin Blanc
    Can be many styles though, dry, sweet, sparkling etc

          

  708. What is the typical soil of Right Bank Bordeaux?Clay Soils, poor drainage, limited heat retention

          

  709. What is a notable Davis zone 1 in California?Literally everything

          

  710. What is typical of California Zins?Citrus, Peach, Pineapple

          

  711. What is the typical grape of Beaujolais?Anglianico
    High acid, high tannin

          

  712. What is the crossing in Müller Thurgau?Riesling and Madeleine Royale

          

  713. What is the requirement for 'Classic' PGI on Germany?Above average quality and alcohol, Dry White, Single varietal/region... ie. Riesling Classic from Rheingau or Spätburgunder classic from Baden

          

  714. What does the word Steen Mean?The Right Bank of Bordeaux

          

  715. What is Pradikatswein?South African Chenin Blanc

          

  716. How many months aging is required for crianza level?Tannat

          

  717. What levels of German Pradikatswein are possible to ferment to dryness?Rosé

          

  718. What region is Chateaux Haut-Brion from?Oltalom Alatt Allo Eredetmegjololes

          

  719. What is the primary grape of Uraguay?Tannat