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  1. More drying, bitter, and acidic.
    Less Fruity & less sweet.

    Use sweeter or more fruity wines
  2. It is essentially the northern half of Alsace.
    Similarly dry area.
  3. Strawberry and raspberry with hints of white pepper
    can develop leather, tar and coffee over time.
    Full bodied high alcohol with low soft tannins
  4. Furmint - concentrated acid, apples become nuts & honey with age
    Harslevelü - late ripe, botrytis, aromatic
    Sarga Muscotaly - (muscat) - aromatic, floral orange blossom
  5. The autolysis given during the riddling process
  6. Bordeaux
    Loire Valley - Sancerre, Pouilly-Fumè
    Marlborough, New Zealand
  7. Gravelly, Excellent Drainage, Heat Retaining Stone
  8. Fish oil used in fining wine
  9. Bonarda
  10. Argentina, in Cafayete and Mendoza
  11. Clarity - Intenisty - Color - Other Observations
  12. American staves are sawn (efficient) while European staves are split off
  13. Intense peach and apricot with high acidity
    can be made into a very rich and full style
  14. (cool climate) blueberry, prune, coffee, leather, pepper
    (warm climate) raspberry, blackberry, pepper, chocolate

    Both full bodied
  15. Gobelet
  16. Dried grapes (because Italy largely lacks Botrytis)
    Picked early to retain acidity and pressed weeks-months later
  17. There are many varying geologies!
    Slopes of Granite, Limestone, Clay, Sandstone, Volcanic, and Loam
    The plains are largely alluvial
  18. Egri Bikaver or Bull's Blood - powerful reds
  19. Eight
  20. Chenin Blanc from South Africa
  21. YES - Long warm summers allow
  22. Penedès
  23. Either Trocken of Hab-Trocken (dry or off dry), higher must weight than Deutscher Wein (table wine)
  24. Minosegi Bor - Doc
    Vedett Eredetu Bor - Docg (Special level)
  25. Cooler and Wetter than the rest of the country
  26. They barely use Reisling, instead they focus on Muller Thurgau and Silvaner
  27. Chalky soil
    Continental climate
  28. 102L/160kg
    First 82 Liters is Cuvee
    Last 20 Liters is Taille
  29. Grüner Veltliner
    green grapes, salad, white pepper
    develops honey and toast
  30. Big ripe fruit and Oak
  31. Slow inversion, gentle shake, and twist to allow yeast to slide to Crown Cap over time.
  32. The grapes will ripen at different rates
    farmers will pick in numerous 'Tries'
  33. The remaining grapes can swell in size and become diluted.
  34. Palo Cortado
  35. Garanega
  36. Russia River Valley, Carneros, and Santa Lucia Highlands
  37. Thick Skin
    Low acid, best grown in cooler areas that can maximize what small acid it has
    Carbonic maceration for strawberry scented Joven wine
    Blended with other typical spanish grapes
  38. More drying, bitter, acidic. Will firm tannins.
    Less sweet & less fruity.

    Pair with more fruity wines, limit tannins
  39. Must
  40. Picked and spends the winter on lees in tanks. Bottled the following spring and will maintain some petite bubbles as well as a yeasty bready taste. Will be very fresh as there is very little oxidization and handling. Delicate!
  41. Dry with Medium Acidity
    Unlike Champagne it is Smoky and Rubbery rather than Bread and Toast
  42. raspberry, cherry, spice
    Full bodied
  43. South African Chenin Blanc
  44. It gives the structural back bone of body and length
  45. Granite Schist
    Gamay loves Granite
  46. High alcohol, low acidity
    Exotic apricot, spices, floral aroma, rich mouthfeel (can become oily)
  47. Clarification, by removing the sedimented particles from the liquid
  48. ...
  49. Rully AC - White and Red
    Mercurey AC - Best Reds from Chalonnaise
    Givry AC - Smallest
    Mantagny AC - Only Whites
  50. Bodega
  51. Proximity to seas and lakes
    Sunlight hazards - Trees and vine's own leaves
  52. Taurasi DOCG
    High Acid, High Tannin, made with Anglianico
  53. Literally everything
  54. deep amber, high acid, intense aroma, oxidative characters from long oak aging,
    orange marmelade, apricots, honey
    can have rye bread, smoke, coffee, caramel
  55. 3 p... 60g/l
    4... 90 g/L
    5 ... 120 g/L
    6 ... 150 g/L
  56. "Ice-Wine" left until they meet -8ºC temp
    Crushed, frozen water skimmed off
    Intense Fruit and Acidity
  57. Coteaux is prone to botrytis while Savennieres is well exposed and air circulates to prevent noble rot but promotes vendange tardive wines.
    Both use chenin blanc
  58. Erste Lage - Best vineyard sites of VDP members, Limited to classic german grapes, Denoted on label with grape bunch and a '1'

    Grosses Gewachs - Erste Lage Wines that are Dry, somewhat redundant but important for quality
  59. ...
  60. Vigor
  61. It is on the west coast of Africa and it helps regulate coastal temperatures and keeps it cooler
  62. They are the easternmost contingent, deep in the central vineyards.
  63. Rotten
  64. Light pale lemon, low alcohol, made from local varietals, slight sparkle,
  65. Light tannin, red cherry and raspberry, barnyard, vegetal, can develop meaty,
  66. ...
  67. Zones I-III
  68. Indicates quality wine with special attributes from a single Bereich within an Anbaugebiete.
    May not receive enrichment but can be sweetened post fermentation with Süssreserve.

    Also must label which of the 6 Pradikat levels it belongs to.
  69. First fermentation
    Second fermentation
    maturation and Autolysis
  70. Used in champagne
    Buds late/good against frost
    Used in fruity Champagne made to enjoy young
  71. Huge diurnal range allows for higher acid production
  72. It develops sugars too fast and that crushes the delicate peach, pear and violet aromas
    Can be unbalanced and have too much alcohol
  73. N to South-
    Mosel - Reisling
    Rhieingau - Riesling
    Nahe - Riesling
    Rheinhassen - Riesling
    Pfalz - Riesling
    Baden - Pinot Noir
    Franken - Silvaner, Riesling
  74. Falernum
  75. Mid/High Priced Beaujolais Cru
    Part carbonic maceration
    Light/Medium bodied with low tannin, med acidity, some cherry fruit
  76. The neck of the wine is frozen in brine, freezing a top layer of wine and stabilizing the sediment to allow for removal of the sediment and temporary cork. Cap is ejected and Liquer d'expedition is added (
  77. Med Acidity, Fresh Green Apple & Melon
    Do not benefit from bottle aging
  78. Frost
  79. The southern plains - Half of vineyards
    Lake Balaton - largest lake in europe with moderating climate effects
  80. Rosés from Grenache and Cinsault
    Full bodied and intense flavor.
  81. German Sparkling wine made from either internationally grown grapes or German grown grapes (Deutscher Sekt and D.S.bA)
    Best made from Riesling
  82. Garnacha
  83. Chablis
    Cote de Nuits
    Dote De Beaune
    Cote Chalonnaise
  84. 1960's
  85. Syrah - Color and Tannin - South can be too hot
    Mourvedre - Deep color intense tannin, Northern limit of ripening in Rhone. Gamey, savoury aromas.
  86. Yellow Tuffeau - soft very chalky well drained soil. Helps with acidity and minerality.
  87. Drought and heat
  88. Viura, Malvasia, Garnacha Blanca
  89. ...
  90. Rosé
  91. Generic: AC Bordeaux, AC Bordeaux Superieure...
    District: AC Medoc, AC Entre Deux Mers, AC Libornais...
    Commune: AC Saint-Estephe, AC Saint-Julien, AC Pauillac...
  92. Malbec (Auxerrois)
    Minimum of 70% in any blend

    Also plant tannat and merlot
  93. Adding of sugars to grape must.
  94. Schisty soil is ideal for growing touriga nacional which is the core grape used in port
  95. Ribera Del Duero
  96. The Danube
  97. Baden - Strip from east of Alsace fromSwiss border up through Manheim
  98. Peach and apricot
    Rich and Balanced
  99. Baden - The warmest and southernmost region
  100. Pinot Noir
  101. Must is chilled until needed
    one fermentation in sealed tank
    fermentation interrupted, filtration, bottled
  102. Pungent aromatic and spicy
  103. from cardonnay and pinot noir in South africa
  104. Oiliness
    can be quite bodied
  105. Burying on cane down under ground to promote root growth, then separating it from the original plant.
  106. Sweetness
    Flavor Intensity
    Flavor Characteristics
    Other Observations - Finish
  107. Condition - Intensity - Aroma Characteristics - Development
  108. Catalunya
  109. Full bodied, oily, high alcohol, med-low acid
    Spicy, with melon, ripe banana, mango
  110. Deep from thick skinned clone of Tempranillo (tinta del toro).
    Noticeably high in alcohol
  111. Merlot
  112. High acid
    herbaceous, green pepper, grass, nettles
    joined with Passion Fruit or Elderflower
  113. Excellent conditions and incredibly high tech production and grape selection
  114. Tannat
  115. New Zealand, also has maritime influences
  116. Grenache
    -Heat/drought resistant, wind resistant. Develops concentrated spicy red fruit flavor. in hot years it can become baked and jammy
  117. Oak: allows for color and new flavor, oxidization and mellowing, and concentration though evaporation
  118. Matching production with demand and keeping everyone paid!
    Growers will make their own blending wine or champagnes at cooperatives to sell
    Champagne houses cannot expand their holdings and must rely on growers
  119. Vidal and Riesling
  120. Intensely grapey flavor
    Can contain grape, peach, rose, and citrus in best locations
  121. Maritime
    wet, mild climate
  122. Fresh Grape and Apple
    High acidity often balanced with residual sugar
  123. Dordogne
    They come together in the 'Gironde Estuary'
  124. Deep red with high acidity and tannin.
  125. Sweet nose of Chocolate, dark rum, and leather.
    Full body and intensely flavored.
    from the passito method
  126. Muscat - Grapey and candied orange
  127. High acid and tannin, medium alcohol
  128. Crossings both parents are vitis vinifera
    Hybrids - Vitis vinifera x Vitis "?" - two species combined, not used for wine much anymore
  129. Xinomavro
    NeXus of wine in the North
  130. Fino - light body
  131. Fume Blanc
  132. Moulin-a-vent AC - Powerful and full bodied
    Morgon AC - Powerful and full bodied
    Brouilly AC - Most common and large production
  133. Hot Mediterranean but the ocean winds can have a cooling (if not destructive) effect
  134. Gamay
  135. Multiple levels of continuous intensity through the still, can be drawn off individually at different intensity levels and reblended
  136. Moscato!
  137. They have strict limits est. in 1986 that severely limits grape yield for PGI and PDI wines
  138. Strawberry, cherry, Banana
  139. Cabernet Franc
    -Used in Chinon AC, Bourgueil AC, Touraine, Saumer, and others
  140. ...
  141. Called Licorella
    red slate with mica particles that shimmer int he sun
  142. Sweetness
    Other Obs/Finish
  143. American oak, with typical vanilla and sweet spice characteristics
    Many are turning towards French oak to give a more tannic and spicy character
  144. Pick early for medium body/alcohol, higher acid
    red fruits like raspberry, strawberry, and even vegetal leafy aroma
  145. Adding concentrated grape must.
  146. Cote Rotie AC - strictly Syrah
  147. Dosage
  148. The first 82 liters of juice is Cuvée, used in the finest champagne
  149. Tempranillo, Garnacha, Mazuelo, Graciano
  150. High acid white wine
    when young apples, develops into nuttiness and honey
  151. Deep amber, High acid, intense aromas, orange marmalade, apricots and honey. Best can have rye bread, smoke, coffee and caramel.
    Oxidated and held in oak for 3-6 years
  152. Albarinõ
    Cooler climate, delicate fruit, crisp acidity, refreshing young wine
  153. Virus and disease (Leaf roll virus primarily)
  154. Chablis - White Chardonay-Centric wines
    Cote d'Or
    -Cote de Nuits - Top Full Bodied Reds
    -Cote de Beaune - Top Whites (excluding Musigny Blanc)
    Cote Chalonnais
  155. Corvina, Rondinella, Molinara
  156. Exotic fruit like Banana, mango, fig
    Full bodied, high in alcohol, low in acidity
  157. Aromatic, high acid, late ripening, very hardy making it ideal for late harvest
  158. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah
  159. Semillon
    Sauvignon Blanc
  160. American AVA's, limited regulation
  161. Chaptalization
  162. Round tannins, deep color, high alc, blackberry and plum
  163. Riesling - Late Ripen, Hardy, High Acid, Floral to Ripe Peach
    Müller-Thurgau (Rivaner) - Lower acid and flavor intensity than Riesling, Simple floral and fruit
    Silvaner - White, moderate acidity, neutral fruit, can be earthy
    Spatburgunder (Pinot Noir)
    Dornfelder - Black grape - Deep color
  164. DOCG
  165. Use chemicals only when needed, introduce predators, staying ahead with monitoring
  166. Cane leaves only a piece of cane and the first few buds after pruning.

    Spur leaves a permanent cordon with spurs and a bud on each every year.
  167. Mountainous region with continental weather
    ruby wines with red fruit, soft tannins, high acid, and good aging potential
  168. The temperature regulation of the great lakes
  169. Verdicchio - White with hints of Fennel, Candied Fruit, and Mineral Nuance.
  170. Tempranillo
    Very little Garnacha Tinto is blended
  171. Often referred to as Muscadet
    Neutral, green apple, grassy aroma
    food friendly
  172. ...
  173. Barolo
    Barbera d'Asti
    Dolcetto d'Alba
    Roero Arneis
  174. Nebbiolo-like
    High tannin and acid
  175. tank method
  176. Second fermentation takes place in a sealed tank rather than a bottle
    Can use paddles to stir sediment and encourage autolytic fermentation like champagne
  177. Garganega, high acid, floral perfume, camomile and iris
  178. Martinborough
  179. Muscat from South Africa
  180. St-Amour AC
    Julienas AC
    Chénas AC
    Moulin-à-Vent AC
    Chiroubles AC
    Fleurie AC
    Morgon AC
    Regnie AC
    Cote de Brouilly AC
    Brouilly AC
  181. High pigment, acidity, and fruit aroma.
    Local clone called Tinto Fino as it is naturally darker than most tempranillo
  182. Well Chilled 6-8ºC
  183. -Pouilly-Fume - Sauvignon Blanc
    -Sancerre - Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc
    -Menetou-Salon - Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc
  184. Often Oxidised Rosé wine
    made from garnacha
  185. Cabernet Sauvignon
  186. Medium temperature fermentation limit the herbaceous and fruitiness. Much more restrained than NZ style.
  187. the searing heat close to the ground
  188. The Meseta
  189. Carneros AVA
    2nd - Anderson Valley in Medocino - Cool ocean wind with thick fog
  190. Can switch from one variety to another on existing stock (though must wait 3 years to produce good fruit) and allows producers to adjust quickly to market changes.
  191. Varying from Hermitage intensity to light bodied carbonically macerated wines with raspberry and pepper perfumes.
  192. Anjou-Sanmur
  193. Largest Cru in S. Rhone, Diverse Terroir, typically Grenache and Mourvedre.
    Full bodied, rich texture, spiced red fruit, high alcohol.
  194. Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains
    Most complex and full spectrum muscat
  195. Ribera del Duero
  196. Coastal Plain - Hottest, mediterranean, dry. Full bodied Reds
    Valleys - Temperate, white wines, Cava
    Hills - up to 800m, cool, good for int. varietals like riesling.
  197. In the bottle.
  198. A blend of Wine, sugar, yeast nutrients, and a clarifying agent added to promote the secondary fermentation
  199. Tannat
  200. St. Emillion and Pomerol
  201. Low nutrient craggy soils, limestone
  202. Ull de Llebre
    Tinto de Pais
    Tinta Roriz
  203. Cool the wine, then filter
  204. Maritime-Alpine hybrid
    Warm air comes up through the Orcia Valley to Montalcino Massif in the center of the Apennines to moderate daytime temps.
  205. The island wide IGT Sicilia
  206. A grecian wine made with tree resin, racked off, and can be made anywhere in Greece
  207. Aloxe-Corton AC
    Beaune AC
    Pommard AC
    Volnay AC
    Meursault AC
    Puligny-Montrachet AC
    Chassagne-Montrachet AC
  208. Citrus, Peach, Pineapple
  209. Makes for higher quality wine.
  210. Off-dry to sweet (dry becoming more popular)
    Deeply pigmented, firm acidity
    Acidity perfect with food like Parmesan or Prosciutto
  211. An Einzellage is an individual vineyard. Only PDO producers may mention the Einzellage on Label.
  212. -Tourraine - Generic AC, Many styles
    -Vouvray - Chenin Blanc
    -Bourgueil - Cab Franc
    -Chinnon - Cab Franc
  213. Pouilly-Fuissé
  214. Too hot sometimes!
  215. France - Burgundy and Champagne
    USA - Russian River, Carneros
    Australia - Adelaide Hills, Geelong, Mornington Peninsula
    New Zealand - Gisbourne and Marlborough
  216. Under Adelaide in Southern Aus. Home to coonawara
  217. Catalunya
    wide variety of wines
  218. As broad as a state
    a county sized area
    a geographical area like the central coast
  219. Tajbor
  220. They blow to southern Frances from the north and help to cool the east and west.
  221. Formerly, Priorat produced opaque, dense full bodied wines that were picked late and had a raisiny quality.
    Nowadays they are still full bodied and deep in color, but with lower alcohol and concentrated aromas of black fruit with toasty french oak.
  222. Can be very bordeaux in style. Some syrah blends are huge full bodied reds with high alcohol, and some beaujolais style Pinotage blends exist
  223. Rioja
  224. OPE
  225. Inclement weather leads to uneven years of production. Wine sealed anaerobically from years past allows fixes for lacking vintages.
    It allows for consistent house style wines
  226. Flavors in spirits
  227. ...
  228. Wines made in France outside of Champagne using the traditional method
    Allowed 100L/150kg pressed juice
    Made with the best still white wine of the regions
  229. Napa Valley/Chateauneuf du Pape
  230. Carneros and Russian River Valley?
  231. LLicorella - red slate with small particles of Mica (that sparkle), low in nutrients but retain water well
  232. Full bodied, dry, medium/+ alcohol, High acid
  233. Buds late to protect from frost
    has thick skin to protect from insects and rot
    gives low yield, with high tannin and acid
  234. Saint-Joseph AC - Syrah, Marsanne & Roussane
  235. Tinta de Toro
  236. Chemicals dissolved in wines - i.e. Tartaric, lactic, and Malic acid...
  237. VORS - Very old rare sherry
    VOS - Very old sherry

    both at least average of 30 years
  238. Super premium Champagne made form the very best parcels of land.
    Can be NV or Vintage
  239. Merlot
    Cabernet Franc
  240. Cabernet, Merlot, Syrah, Camenère blends
  241. Higher rates of Botrytis that are absolutely world class.
    Super high acidity, 12-14%, botrytis adds body and texture
  242. Upper Ebro
    Duero Valley
    North Western Spain
    Castilla-La Mancha
    The Levante
  243. White. Green Grapes, Salad, and White Pepper that becomes honeyed and toasted as the wine ages
    Can express exaggerated minerality.
    Often allowed to breath in new oak
  244. Review of producers every 10 years,
    enter system as a grand cru
    after 10 years consistent G. Cru performance can become a Grand Cru Classé
    Top tier is Premier G. Cru Classe
  245. Pinot Noir and Cinsault
  246. Alsace
  247. Airen - Primary grape of La Mancia Spain
  248. Acidity
    therefore it must be grown in cooler climates or regulating bodies like the sea
  249. All the liquid is pumped out, then mixed back in with the cap.
  250. N to S-
    Niederosterreich* -
    Burgenland* -
  251. Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
  252. Half continental and half maritime
    relatively early spring but with mild summer temps
  253. East towards the River Ill
  254. Barossa Valley
  255. Languedoc AC
    Minervois AC (inside Languedoc)
    Fitou AC (inside Corbieres)
    Cotes de Roussillon AC
  256. The river goes east to west giving all of the vineyards in the north a perfect southern aspect
  257. Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscat d'Alexandria
  258. Beaujolais AC - Lowest Quality, Can produce Nouveau or Premieur
    Beaujolais Villages AC - Can produce Nouveau or Premieur
    Beaujolais Crus - Ten Crus
  259. Fruit flavors
  260. France - Haut Mèdoc, Graves,
    Australia - Coonawara, Margaret River,
    USA - Napa
    New Zealand - Hawkes Bay
    Chile - Colchagua
  261. Cornas AC
    Syrah production only
  262. The Benguela Current
  263. Vineyard and winemaking techniques are more obviously important
  264. Valpolicella
    Amarone della Valpolicella
    Recioto della Valpolicella
  265. Quality Level
    Level of Readiness for Drinking/Potential for Aging
  266. They both leave significant amounts of hard wood which assists in frost protection.
  267. Hot summers, very cold winters. More linked to Burgundy than the rest of Loire
  268. Same as traditional up until the riddling process when all bottles are emptied into a tank, filtered, then rebottled into new bottles.
  269. It cools the air that might otherwise be too warm in Chile
  270. Logroño
  271. Chateau Haut-Brion
  272. Elegant, Deep color, full bodied, spicy

    the best have floral aromas and textural elegance
  273. Warm and Dry
  274. There is no ranking! All listed wines may call themselves Crus Classé. All lie within the Pessac Leognan AC.
    Chateau Haut-Brion is the only exception in that it is part of the 1855 Premiers Crus Classification.
  275. Kimmeridigian Clay
  276. 24 months red 18 white
    min of 6 in oak, none for white
  277. (cool climate) plum, vanilla, cherry
    (warm climate) cherry, plum, chocolate, mint
  278. ...
  279. Full bodied and rich oily texture
  280. #1 - Tempranillo - 70%
    #2 - Garnacha
  281. Ausbruch - Between Beerenauslese and Trockenbeeranauslese
    Strohwein/Schilfwein - Grapes laid on straw to dry through the winter
  282. Vienne in the North
    Valence in the South
  283. Less bitter and acidic.
    Increases Fruit, Sweetness, and Richness.

    Pair with High acid wines.
  284. Assyrtiko - two S's for a sassy santorini
    concentrated perfume high in acid and alcohol
  285. Rare expensive sweet style with Botrytis (noble rot). Don't require noble rot, just need to meet minimum must weight.
  286. 12º-22ºC
    Helps maintain Fruit Characteristics
  287. Lightly Chilled 10-13ºC
  288. Saint-Joseph - Follows the Rhone north to south
    Make Syrah, Roussane and Marsanne
  289. Overtly floral red, black berry and black cherry, matches well with new oak
  290. Latitude
    Ocean Currents
    Soil - How much heat can the soil hold and reflect
  291. Non Vintage
    Blanc de Blancs
    Blanc de Noirs
    Prestige Cuvée
  292. Vouvray
  293. Naturally high tannin, acidity and color
    lacks fruit and finesse
  294. Vintners Quality Alliance
    Equivalent to the european AC
  295. Between the light Mosel and Full Rheingau style. Pronounced acidity like Mosel but fuller fruit like Rheingau
  296. 16-21ºC
  297. Full bodied
    Dry, medium/medium+ alcohol
    High acidity and flinty minerality
    Unlike the light german style
  298. Pedro Ximinez (PX)
  299. Rive Sâone
  300. Sèmillon and Sauvignon Blanc
    -excellent sauternes clone
  301. Joven - Immediate release
    Crianza - red: 6 mnth barrel, 24 total. White total 18 mnth
    Reserva - reds 12 mnth barrel, 36 mnth total. White, 18 total, 6 in barrel
    Gran Riserva - Exceptional vintages only, minimum 60 months, 18 in barrel for red, 48 for white and rosé
  302. Palomino - thrives on the chalky albarizo soils
  303. Xarel-Lo
  304. The yeast that's used in Sherry production, forms a cap on the top of the sherry and is allowed breathing room in the barrel or butt.
  305. Sémillon
    Sauvignon Blanc
    Muscadelle (used in Semillion and Balsac)
  306. Concentrated perfumey, high acid and alcohol
    naturally dehydrated on the vine with hot sun
    wind is so intense it will stop photosynthesis to keep high acid
  307. Full bodied Garnacha/Monastrell Reds
  308. Highly structured reds from Tannat Grapes
  309. High tannin
    Black Fruit, Black Pepper, Floral
    Develop Gamey aromas
  310. New Zealand style
    - High acid and crisp from the central coast
  311. Piesport and Berkastel
  312. Limestone and Marl Clay
  313. Tavel and Lirac
  314. Anti Septic/Anti Oxidant
    an make wines seem harsh and lacking in fruit at high levels
  315. Thin skinned, sweet grapes. Tolerant of drought. Requires heat.
    Produce high alcohol with soft tannins with high oxidization potential
    Can show browning in the rim quite early in development
    red fruit: strawberry, raspberry, and white pepper
  316. Italian style - light and neutral
  317. Signature White from Argentina
    -Intense fruity floral aroma, medium body and acidity
  318. Starts with dry base wine
    Aszu grapes are added and macerated for up to 36 hours
    mixture is pressed
    matured for a minimum of 3 years, two in oak
  319. ...
  320. Palmela DOC in the south of Portugal
    low yeild, fruity, complex, rich textured reds that become nutty with age.
  321. Transfer
  322. Lambrusco - Refreshing, bone dry, frothy red
    Perfect with Prosciuto
  323. Heat if these regions makes for higher alcohol which is bad. Need to pick at 10-10.5% alcohol to stay balanced
    Need to have lost herbaceousness, and be high in acid
  324. Chalky soil with excellent water water retnetion and very low nutrients
  325. Columbia Valley
    Yakima Valley
    And Walla Walla
  326. Kirsch
    Bubble Gum
    Cinnamon spices
  327. Temperature difference between day and night.
  328. Vitis Riparia
    Vitis Berlandia
    Vitis Rupestris
  329. Botte are large often slovenian oak
    Barrique are small 250 liter casks
  330. Peach and Melon, Nuttiness from new oak
    Can taste quite 'New World'
  331. Cornas AC - Southern most Cru in Northern Rhone

    Most under valued!
  332. Brut Nature - 0-3g/l
    Extra Brut - 0-6g/l
    Brut - 0-12g/l
    Extra Sec - 12-20g/l
    Sec - 17-32g/l
    Demi-Sec - 32-50g/l
    Doux - 50+g/l
  333. Garnacha, but Tempranillo is heavily promoted and on the rise.
  334. Agiorgitko
  335. Salice Salentino
    Both are port-esque based on negroamaro and Malvasia nero
  336. Flowers and ripens early
  337. They are huge buildings kept cool by high lofty windows and ceilings with a continually damp earthen floor to maintain humidity levels (which regulate oxidization in the barrels)
  338. Steely, light-medium body, high acidity, apple, pear, green plum
  339. at 10ºC or near-abouts
  340. Every 10 years
  341. Flinty like Sancerre
  342. Mediterranean
  343. Coquard Press, now used alongside modern pneumatic presses
  344. VdlT - Vinos de la Terra
  345. Alsace AC -70% of Prod. Mostly White.
    Alsace Grand Cru AC - 51 Vineyards, Single Noble Grape Varieties, Many problems with system
  346. Best suited for Rosé the best will have a medium+ acidity and have high levels of round tannins, sweet spice and red fruit
  347. Waxy grape surface that contains yeast
  348. Pungent, Gamey nose with high tannin, alcohol, and acidity.
  349. Complex fruit spectrum from earth to blueberry to sour cherry.
  350. Syrah
  351. Sauvignon Blanc
    - for dry white wines
  352. Cartizze is a hill of 120 producers considered to make the Grand Crus of Proseccos
    Rive is a group of 43 top producers in Coneglionano-Valdobbiadene DOCG that produce on really steep hills
  353. Chardonnay
    Cabernet Sauvignon
    Pinot Noir
    Sauvignon Blanc
  354. Viognier
  355. Frost
  356. Grenache - thrives on the hot weather
  357. Mediterranean
  358. Citrus, Melon, Peach flavors
  359. Sauvignon Blanc - benefits from cool night climates
  360. High in acidity with sour red cherry, astringent tannin, earthy/dusty aromas like tea leaves or tobacco
  361. A group of Vineyards, only producers of PDO wines may label the vineyards on label
  362. <$10 - Inexpensive
    $10-$20 - Mid Priced
    $20-$40 - High Priced
    >$40 - Premium
  363. Distinctly Grapey, Candied Orange overlaid with floral notes
    Sweet, low alcohol, avoids autolysis
  364. Anglianoco del Vulture - High altitude plantings, like Taurasi in style
  365. 30º-32ºC
  366. Extra Brut
    Extra Sec
    Demi Sec
  367. Mendoza
  368. They ferment at a warm temperature which kills much of the fruit in the white wines. good for a neutral base wine.
  369. The Rhone Valley opens up much more South of Valence the terrain is much flatter, Soil with large "Galet" stones that help hold heat.
  370. Full body, ripe peachiness, full fruit flavor. Humidity allows for much TbA production, as the river gets over 1 km wide in some areas.
  371. Ampuis, in the north of Northern Rhone
  372. Continental, cut off from Maritime by the mountains
    Very high altitude plantings help mitigate summer heat and allow for large diurnal temp shifts that are great for Tempranillo.
  373. Warm Mediterranean
    Long diurnal range, very hot in sumer
  374. Fruit desserts
  375. Made from selected super ripe bunches
    Huge style range for Riesling
    Can be from a bit more concentrated than Spätlese up to full botrytis effect.

    Highest category allowed to be dry wine.
  376. Spain - Rioja and Ribera del Duero
  377. Most delicate pradikatswein style
    Ideal aperatif
    Reislings Light in body, High acidity, with green apple, citrus, and some residual sugars.

    Varying sugar levels.
  378. Downy Mildew - Damages Leaves, slows ripening
    Powdery Mildew - Effects buds/leaves, splits grapes open
    Grey Rot - Attacks berries, taints flavor,
    Botrytis - Makes grapes delicious - Can lead to grey rot
  379. Regional - Broad, include all of Burgundy
    Restricted Regions- ex. Bourgogne-HautesCotedeBeaune
    Commune AC's- i.e. Beaune, all within a town
    Single Vineyard AC's - Premier or Grand Crus only
  380. Rias Baixas - Regularly carying vintage quality from weather
    Bierzo - Red region, using the Mencia grape
  381. Tokaji Eszencia - sweetest best grapes - 450 g/L minimum
    low alcohol, less than 5%
  382. Mencia - aromatic fruity intensity balanced with natural high acidity.
  383. By a panel, not to the chateaux but to each individual vintage. Done yearly.
  384. 1 Drink
  385. Futures sales of early rated vintages from top producers in Bordeaux
  386. Producers may only use up to 80% vintage wine as to not deplete reserve stocks.
  387. On steep terraced hills, with small densely powerful fruit.
  388. Delicate peach, pear, and violet
    silky texture and mineral
  389. Bush trained
  390. Rueda grows white wines primarily.
  391. Must is kept near frozen until needed
    put in tank and warmed
    fermentation allowed with CO2 release until 6% ABV
    Then sealed and allowed to ferment to 7-7.5%, chilled, bottled, sealed
  392. Cool Continental with cool air coming off the Pyrenees, good rainfall as well.
  393. Cabernet Sauvignon
    some of the best in the world are in napa
  394. Environmental Conditions
    Business considerations - Proximity to power/distribution/workforce
    Grape Variety
  395. Mantagne de Riems
    Vallee de la Marne
    Cotes de Blancs
  396. Tight bunches-prone to rot
    Thin skins with low soft tannins
  397. All Chenin Blanc
    Can be many styles though, dry, sweet, sparkling etc
  398. The south where it's really hot and will allow full ripening.
  399. Tank Method
  400. Verdejo - elegant white that's high acid with aromatic flavor
  401. Deep colored red, soft tannin, bramble fruit
  402. Districtus Austriae Controllatus (DAC)
    -Based on agreements of local producers on what is typical within a certain region
  403. The Southern Rhone tends to blend more varying varietals while the north sticks with Syrah, Viognier, and Marsanne/Roussanne
  404. Bergerac
  405. Cote du Rhone AC
    Cote Du Rhone Villages AC
    Rhone Satellites
    Chateauneuf du pape
  406. Qualitatswein and Pradikatswein
    35 permitted grape varieties
  407. black cherries, raspberries, spice
    Oxidizes Very Readily! Can be browninsh.
  408. Passerillage is done on the vine
    Passito is dried indoors
  409. Cabernet Sauvignon
  410. Marsanne has richness and weight
    Roussane has acidity and perfumed fruit
  411. Only made from free run cuvee juice
  412. -Sanmur - Chenin Blanc & Cab Franc
    -Anjou - Chenin Blanc, Cab Franc, And some Rosé
    -Coteaux du Layon - Chenin Blanc
    -Savennieres - Chenin Blanc
  413. Oxidization
  414. A region distinguished by a PDO or Denomination in Germany. There are 13 in Germany.
  415. European - Toast, Vanilla, fine tannin
    American - more aromatic, bright flavors, sweet vanilla and coconut
  416. Spicy nose
    Lychee, Baking Spices
    Golden Color
    Oily Texture
    High Alcohol
    Medium to low acidity
  417. Avoidance of excessive grassiness or fruitiness
    Fermentation in old oak
    restrained style unlike new world
  418. Rudolf Steiner and Maria Thun
  419. Crisp, Light whites made from Armagnac.
  420. Pale lemon yellow, almonds, herbs, and dough
    can be tangy or salty
  421. ...
  422. Furmint - high acid, apples to nutty honey, botrytis
    Harslevelu - late ripening, botrytis
    Sarga Muscatolay - aromatic, orange blossom
    Olasz Rizling - (Welsch Reisling) light dry whites
    Irsai Oliver- intense aromatic, spicy like muscat or gewurtz
  423. 5
  424. Appelation Controlee
  425. Simple, Sappy Quaffing Wine
    Botrytis affected, very good desert wine
  426. Sherry style
    It is very oxidative and is perfect for sherry style. It can also be made crisp through anaerobic winemaking
  427. Hawkes Bay
  428. The humbolt current spews cool air that cools the valleys and also makes the fog on the coasts
  429. South Africa
  430. Light body with low alcohol and high acidity balanced by medium sweetness.
    Floral, green fruit
  431. Premium Quality, Minimum Must weight of Auslese level or better, comes from an Einzellage area, Generally Dry, rare classification that often qualifies for other certs
  432. 6-9 months in oak barrels
  433. Inexpensive/mid priced red
    Pinot Noir
    light bodied, simple cherry fruit, higher acidity
    lower in oak so lower price
  434. Mediterranean
  435. Gewürz - Like Gewurztraminer
  436. Cap Classique
    must stay on lees for 9 months
  437. Rioja Alavesa - High alt 800m, Chalky, light wines with finesse
    Rioja Baja - Heavy clay, strong continental climate, HOT
    Rioja Alta - 500-800m, limestone clay with red iron,
  438. Particles that cloud the wine, are suspended in the liquid and do not deposit. Most important are tannins and color compounds
  439. Arinto - Semi aromatic, fresh fruity wines. Stays acidic in hot conditions
  440. Liquer de tirage added and bottle corked, cellared at 10-12ºC.
    6-8 Weeks
    Pressure rises to 6 Atmospheres
  441. As it comes - picking the whole bunch when only a few grapes have botrytis
  442. Red berry fruit, can be made beaujolais style or full bodied with spicy notes
  443. sour cherry, raspberry, spice, anise
  444. Cool Continental
  445. The Right Bank of Bordeaux
  446. Exotic- Apricot, spice, floral
    rich mouthfeel
    Low acidity, high alcohol

    picked late at high sugar ripeness
  447. Vintage wines from any DoC or IGP with distinctive organoleptic qualities, require 30 months aging for reds, 12 for whites
  448. Richness and weight
    Develop honeyed aromas

    -More dominant in Rhone as Rousanne is temperamental to weather
  449. The maritime climate of Bordeaux
    Can make excellent Bordeaux Blends
  450. France - Burgundy, Champagne
    USA- Carneros & Sonoma
    South Africa - Walker Bay
    New Zealand - Martinborough, Central Otago, Marlborough
  451. Malbec
  452. It covers the entire region and promotes blending of varietals from all over.
  453. The process of drawing water up through the roots. Determined by temperature.
    Higher temp, higher metabolism, higher transpiration
  454. Columbard
  455. Muscadet Sur Lies
  456. concentrated with sweet fruit, roasted nut and honey coated, tropical flavors
  457. OPAP
  458. Marlborough, Hawkes Bay, and Gisbourne

    Marlborough is the southernmost of the main sparkling regions
  459. Addition of synthetic acid to wine.
  460. Kabinett
  461. Away from dusty oxidized wines, to stainless steel production, quality oak, and better modern methods in general.
  462. High alcohol
    Can produce intense full bodied reds or lighter Rosados
  463. Thin high acid wines. Generally two-dimensional flavor.
    Used in sparkling burgundies, blended to add acidity.
  464. 3 years
  465. divided into 3 regions
    coastal plain is hottest and it cools up into the hills
  466. Pessac-Leognan in Graves
  467. Wine and Cane Sugar added after disgorgement of champagne
  468. Cooled by the Cape Doctor, high on the table Mountain it produces Sauvignon Blanc
  469. Tartaric
    Malic - Becomes Lactic through Malolactic fermentation
  470. Proximity to a consistently evaporative body of water that will create a fog layer in the vineyard. Botrytis must also be present. The fog should lift and the vineyard should dry out with the mid day sun as well, allowing to grapes to shrivel and the botrytis to cease.
    Continued wet weather can lead to more serious fungal infections like grey rot, that will destroy a grape crop.
  471. Champagne is toasty and Bready
    Cava is Rubbery and Smoky
  472. ...
  473. 3
    Chattea d'Yquem occupies the Premiers Rating Slot
  474. Germany - Mosel, Rheingau, Pfalz, Nahe
    Austria - Wauchau
    France - Alsace
    Australia - Clare adn Eden Valley
  475. Oltalom Alatt Allo Eredetmegjololes
  476. low yeild, intense color, tannic flavrful
    used in port
  477. Calcium Bicarbonate
  478. Grenache - Red
    Syrah & Mourvedre - Red
    Cinsault - Red

    Whites are a minority product
    Clairette, Grenache Blanc, Bourboulec, Viognier, Marsanne, Roussanne
  479. Top quality sweet wines
  480. Veraison
  481. Bergerac
    Cotes de Gascogne IGP
  482. Maritime - Clay over limestone (Valpolicella, barolo, Barbaresco)
    Volcanic - (Soave, Colli Euganei, Lacryma Christi, Etna)
    Alluvial - Bardolino and Piave
  483. ...
  484. TCA - Trichloroanisole
    Mouldy Cardboard aroma!
  485. Late harvest in Alsace
    Must be one of the 4 Noble Grape varieties
    Minimum of 14% alcohol potential
    Dry to medium sweet wines, no sweetness regulation
  486. Fullest body in Northern Rhone
    Age for a long time, some to 50+ years
  487. Has up to 14 levels or Cridera, equal parts from each butt distributed down the line over time and finally reaches the solera level where the sherry is taken from
  488. Condrieu
  489. Riesling and Madeleine Royale
  490. Chablis - Chardonnay based whites
  491. green grapes, salad, white pepper
    develops honey and toast
  492. Medium Bodied, Fruity, and Simple
    Many use carbonic maceration to limit tannins
  493. Varying among subregions
    Central Vineyards - Cool continental
    Anjou and Nantais - Western with more maritime influence
  494. It varies. Largest influence is the atlantic but it has continental. Duero regulates the temp in that region
  495. Albarino - Delicate fruit character, crisp high acid, best drank young
  496. Reds: 60 months total, minimum 18 in Oak
    Whites & Rosé: 48 months with a minimum of 6 in oak.
  497. Olorosso and Amontadillo
  498. Limited aromatic character, peach and grapefruit
    Can be oaked and called Fumè Blanc in the US
  499. Firms tannins, increases bitterness, astringency, acidity, and alcohol burn.

    Pair with low alcohol sweet or fruity whites.
  500. Muscadet Sevréet Maine AC
  501. Solid morning fog that clears in the afternoon
  502. 8
  503. Vastly varies: from dry to sweet, still to sparkling. It is dynamic.
  504. The reds are made in the west in Chinon and Bourgeuil
    The whites are made in the east at Vouvray
  505. Naoussa (macedonia) - Reds Xinomavro
    Nemea (Peloponnese) - Agiorgitiko
    Santorini - Assyrtiko
  506. Vitis Vinifera
  507. The Pouilly-Fuisse style or new world with lots of oak and fruit. Full body and low acid
    exotic fruit, complexity, peach, banana, butter, hazelnut, oak vanilla
  508. Pinot Noir and some Cabernet Blends
  509. Self-elected board of best German Producers
    Quality control group that has own terms used on labels
  510. Cool continental with warm but not too hot summers
  511. They often resemble new-world styles with international varietals.
  512. Climate
  513. Trick question: Wines can have huge range from light/med bodied fruity fresh to high tannin full bodied red.
    All producers must manage tannin levels in the hot rhone valley!
  514. Only majority Red wine producer in Germany - Is the warmest region - produce Pinot Noir (Spatburgunder)
  515. Pale rose's that are fruity, low in alcohol, with medium sweetness
  516. Less drying and bitter, less acidic.
    Makes wine smoother and richer.

    Eases Tannins.
  517. Bairrada DOC
    thick skin, high acid and tannin
  518. Smaragd - Fullest and most complex
    Federspiel - In the middle
    Steinfeder - Lightest and freshest style
  519. Crushing! - Breaks the skin and allows free-run juice to flow out - will be left on to macerate or pressed immediately for whites
  520. Left over lees and sediments
  521. Orvieto - Famous for whites made with Grechetto, Malvasia and Trebbiano
    Mantefalco Sagratino is a red that is demanding more attention now.
  522. Médoc
    Entre Deux Mers
  523. France- Médoc & Graves
    Australia - Coonawara and Margaret River
    NZ - Hawkes Bay and Colchuga
  524. Harvested late for optimum color, and fruit. Intense purple juice, blackberry and plums. Velvet textured Tannin with higher alcohol and possibly oak influence
  525. "Late Harvest"
    More concentrated flavor than Kabinett
    More ripe Riesling flavors, no green apple, more citrus and stone fruit (peach & Apricot)
  526. Coops pool grapes, can be given back to the producer or blended
    Negociants buy grapes/wine from producers and blends/sells it themselves
  527. Mourvedre Based
    Dark, full bodied, powerful tannin, require bottle age
    Bramble, gamey, meat, licorice
  528. That the wine has more than .5% higher alcohol than minimum and is in glass bottles.
  529. Alsasce has full bodied, dry, with medium + alcohol while the germans are either more austere or quite sweet.
    Will almost certainly have higher alcohol with some residual sugar while germans will focus more on full sweetness
  530. Minute quantities produced
    Undergo noble rot until absolutely shriveled
    very high residual sugar and acidity.
    Very $$
  531. High acidity and perfumed fruit
    Develop honeyed aromas

    -used for blending in northern rhone
  532. Loire style, both dry and sweet.
  533. Carneros and Anderson Valley
  534. ...
  535. Microscopic worms
    attack roots
  536. plum, anise, earth
  537. 30º-50º Latitude
  538. ...
  539. It is a fining agent.
  540. Grown in basket shapes, woven together to protect from wind.
  541. To decrease vigor in areas with high temperatures an soil nutrients. By having more buds on a single permanent vine there is less distribution to each bud and thus less vigor
  542. Mendoza, Maipu and Uco Valley
  543. Cool water that affects FOG and thus perfect BOTRYTIS conditions in Southern Bordeaux
  544. The waxy film around the grape that contains natural yeast
  545. The WesternCape
  546. Cool regions like Tasmania, Yarra Valley, Adelaide hills
  547. Strong acidity, pronounced floral notes, camomille and Iris.
  548. Chardonnay
  549. same as traditional but all in tanks after second fermentation
    Can keep down autolytic character so ideal for aromatic grapes
  550. Semillon
    Sauvignon Blanc is Second
    Muscadelle is Third
  551. Mediterranean
  552. 36 months red, 18 white
    18 oak red, 6 white
  553. Cool - <16.5º
    Moderate -16.5-18.5º
    Warm - 18.5-21º
    Hot - > 21º
  554. Bandol AC
  555. Fresh simple fruity wines best drank young
    Complex full bodied and texture, skin macerated and barrel fermented
  556. Grenache + blend of Cinsault, Syrah, Mourvedre etc
  557. Sauvignon Blanc fermented in large Oak or stainless
    Gun Smoke, flinty, from chalky soil
  558. France
  559. Northern is more Continental
    Southern is Mediteranean
  560. Cool continental
    Vineyards are East and North of the Alps
  561. Cotes de Provence AC - Rosés,
    Bandol AC - Mourvedre Red $$$
  562. Sloping southern aspect hills in the far north east
    long dry autumns
    early morning humidity from the Bodrog and Tisza rivers
  563. Chardonnay
  564. Higher min. alcohol/percentage of Grenache, Mourvedre, and Syrah, lower yeilds.
    18 Villages may add their names
  565. Chardonnay
  566. Above average quality and alcohol, Dry White, Single varietal/region... ie. Riesling Classic from Rheingau or Spätburgunder classic from Baden
  567. Haut Medoc
    Saint Julien
    Moulis en Medoc
    Listrac Medoc
  568. Chardonnay
    Pinot Noir
  569. Rectified Constituted Grame Must - added to new world brands for sweetness - pure grape sugar extraction
  570. Mourvedre (exclusively)
  571. -Muscadet - Melon Blanc
    -Muscadet de Svre et Main - Melon Blanc
    -Muscadet de Svre et Marine Sur Lie - Melon Blanc
  572. Mourvedre
  573. Varietals and Cuvée/Taille are fermented separately.
    Most will undergo some MLF
  574. They are the highest in the world
  575. Ripe strawberry/plums
    often blended with other more distinctive grapes
  576. Jerez
  577. The average temperature difference between winter and summer
  578. Navarra and Rioja
  579. Champagne Chardonnay is usually lighter bodied with a high acidity and floral/citrus character, Burgundy Chardonnay has more body, and can produce lean steely high acid wine in Chablis or creamy complex bodied wines of Cote d'Or, or Highly fruity round wines from Macon
  580. Produced from grapes exclusively grown within one of the 13 Anbaugabiete.
    May undergo must enrichment.
  581. The year the Medoc Red and Sauternes White Crus was created.
    Based off the excessive 1855 market price for these wines
  582. Never bush trained, because of the cool humid maritime climate. They used pergolas but have begun to use more sophisticated systems
  583. Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc
  584. Muscadet AC
    Produced with Melon Blanc
  585. Passito di Pantelleria DOC - a dried moscat grape style
  586. NO!
  587. Deep color, black fruit, spicy aroma
    High tannin with blackberry, pepper, and mint

    Hot climate can soften the tannin and fruit to be more jammy, leathery, and earthy
  588. Distinct lime characteristics
  589. Semillon
  590. Anywhere in Germany
  591. Carneros
  592. Clay Soils, poor drainage, limited heat retention
  593. ...
  594. Using the tank method
  595. Cotes Du Rhone
    Cotes Du Rhone Villages
    Rhone Satellites
  596. Chateau Margeaux (Maurgaux)
    Chateau Lafite-Rothschild (Pauillac)
    Chateau Latour (Pauillac)
    Chateau Mouton-Rothschild (Pauillac)
    Chateau Haut-Brion (Pessac-Leognan, Graves)
  597. Champagne made exclusively from Pinot Noir and Meunier grapes
    more structured and with red fruit character
  598. Central Vineyards
    -Pouilly-Fume - Sauvignon Blanc
    -Sancerre - Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc
    -Menetou-Salon - Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc
    -Tourraine - Generic AC, Many styles
    -Vouvray - Chenin Blanc
    -Bourgueil - Cab Franc
    -Chinnon - Cab Franc
    -Sanmur - Chenin Blanc & Cab Franc
    -Anjou - Chenin Blanc, Cab Franc, And some Rosé
    -Coteaux du Layon - Chenin Blanc
    -Savennieres - Chenin Blanc
    -Muscadet - Melon Blanc
    -Muscadet de Svre et Main - Melon Blanc
    -Muscadet de Svre et Marine Sur Lie - Melon Blanc
  599. Grave del Friuli DOC- Light Bordeaux Style Blends
    Collio DOC** - Important Whites High acidity and Alcohol
    Colli Oriantali del Friuli DOC - Reds and Whites
  600. Tannin
  601. ...
  602. When the development of the berry is disturbed it may develop without seeds and remain small
    Will be intensely sweet and seedless
  603. 95% of wine comes from Vintage date
    85% of wine comes from the specific AVA
    75% of wine must be varietal stated on label
    100% of grapes must come from estate if labelled
  604. Anglianico
    High acid, high tannin
  605. Spicy foods (Thai and Chinese), smoked fish, strong cheese
  606. Gevrey Chambertin AC
    Vougeot AC
    Vosne-Romanée AC
    Nuits-Saint-Georges AC
  607. AC Bergerac - Both Red and White
    AC Monbazzillac - Sweet Whites (botrytis)
    AC Montravel - Dry Whites
  608. Willamette Valley - Cool winters, wet, warm dry summer with cooling from pacific
  609. The Remueur
  610. 10º-15ºC, or 55ºF
  611. Tannins
    Fruit Concentration
  612. Chateauneuf-du-Pape style.
    Full bodied spicy wines
  613. It's a quality and geographical scheme that is guaranteed by a tasting panel.
  614. Auxerrois
  615. A district within an Ambaugebiet. Often a famous village within a great PDO region.
  616. Continental, it is landlocked and surrounded by mountains.
    Hot summer, cool winter.
  617. over 600 Premier Crus
    33 Grand Crus
  618. Penedes - Closest to Barcelona
    Priorat - South of Penedès
  619. Regional AC's - Aligoté, Rouge (P. Noir), Blanc (Chard)
    Commune AC's - Chablis, Beaune, Gevrey Chambertin
    Single Vineyard AC's - Premier and Grand Crus - Vineyards individually owned unlike Bordeaux Chateaux
  620. NO
    - Only Merlot/Cab franc
  621. Warm weather varietals like:
    Marsanne and Roussane
  622. Rueda
    Verdejo, Sauvignon Blanc
  623. Schisty granite and sand
  624. ...
  625. E - elqui
    L - Limari
    Ch - Choapa
    A - Aconcagua
    Casa - Casablanca
    S- San Antonio

    Mai - Maipo
    Ca - Cachapoal
    Co - Colchuagua
    Cu - Curico
    Ma - Maule

    Ita - Itata
    Bio - Bio Bio
  626. Cabernet Sauvignon
    Cabernet Franc
    Petite Verdot (doesn't always ripen and small quantity)
  627. CO2
  628. Death of yeast releases proteins and other chemicals into wine providing bready toasty flavors.
  629. Into regions - dominant geological features
    Then Districts - Share environtment features
    Then Wards - similar soil and geog within regions
    Then Estate Wines
  630. Fanleaf Virus - dirupts canopy growth
    Leafroll Virus-Disrupts canopy growth
    Pierce's Disease - Spread by sharpshooters
  631. Only a certain number of Bodegas can make it.
  632. ...
  633. The western cape produces 90%
  634. The north west
  635. 15 months
  636. Chianti
    Emilia Romagna
    Abruzzo and Molise
  637. 10ºC
  638. Sugars
  639. ...
  640. Moderate tannin, strong minerality, crisp acid, sour cherry, peppery
    Age in oak for softer acid and sweeter fruit character
  641. Early harvest for more acidity and lower fruit, light, neutral, medium acidity,
  642. Wachau, Kamptal, and Kremstal
    All produce excellent Grüner Veltliner and Riesling
    Steep terraced vineyards with great ripening potential
  643. Chardonnay, Merlot, Cab Sauv
  644. Pouilly-Fuissé AC - Amphitheater hills that produce the richest white wines in Burgundy (up to 14% abv).
    Characteristics of ripe Peach, Melon with savory or nutty flavors of new oak.
  645. Pinot Noir
    Pinot Grisis also grown
  646. Kekfrankos - (Blaufrankish) light peppery high acid purple wine
    Kadarka - prone to grey rot
    Zweigelt - Austrian Cross of Kekfrancos and St laurent
  647. Rheinhessen, south of the Rheingau. The best slopes are on the west side of the Rhine, East aspects. Fullest bodied Rieslings in Germany.
    Flatter areas in the center are producing fine wines from flat farms.
  648. Lightly Chilled 13ºC
  649. The Cape Doctor, brings ocean air further inland
  650. Narrow and steep following the river
    Granitic soil
    Plantings on the Southern facing aspects
    Continental with warm summers
  651. Reibera del Duero
  652. Northern Spain running west to east
  653. NO
  654. Reds - 75% of production
  655. Syrah
  656. France - Northern Rhone (Condrieu and Chateau Grillet)
  657. Non-botrytis Dry Wines - Can be premium
    Tokaji Szamorodni - Dry or sweet, noble rot character, aged
    Tokaji Aszu - base of healthy grapes concentrated must, matured for 3 years, can be extremely sweet
    Aszu Eszencia - Very rare, min 180g/L Sugar
    Tokaji Eszencia - Very rare, free run from Aszu.. minimum 450 g/L sugar. Hi acid, concentrated
    Modern Sweet Wine - less barrel contact than others
  658. Chilled 7-10ºC
  659. The last 20 liters of pressed juice for Champagne
  660. Verdejo - Susceptible to oxidization, used in Sherry. Can be made a light bodied crisp melon/peach with anaerobic winemaking.
    Albarino - Thick skin, resistant to fungas, aromatic with intense peach and apricot and high acidity. Can be full bodied.
  661. Grenache
  662. Raspberry
  663. 22ºC - This is the cause for unripened grapes
  664. Spain - Navarra, Rioja, Priorat
    Australia - Mclaren Vale
    France - Southern Rhone and Midi, Chateneuf du Pape blend
  665. Liguria
  666. Continental
    Long warm summers and short cold winters
  667. Touriga Nacional - low yeild intense color, flavor and tannin
  668. DO - Denominacion de Origin
    DOCa - Denominacion de Origin Califcada
    VP - Vinos de Paya
    VCIG - Vinos de Calidad con Indicacion Geografica
  669. Prosecco DOC
    Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG - More elite
  670. Wine can be overwhelmed.
    Pair with wine of similar flavor intensity.
  671. Trentino-Alto Adige
    Friuli-Venezia Giulia
  672. The complex flavors of bicuit, honey, walnut, and toast
  673. Light, Fruity, and best consumed young with duck, ham, or salami
  674. Syrah, Viognier, Marsanne, and Roussanne
  675. The north, central and Maritime areas
  676. Pinot Noir
  677. NO
  678. Limestone under Kimmeridigan Clay (Marine fossil clay)
  679. Alsace only
    selection of botrytis affected grapes
    minimum of 16.4-18.2% alcohol potential
    noble grapes only
    not produced every year
    always sweet
  680. South aspect, steep slopes close to the river, lots of slate rock near surface to retain heat
  681. Kabinett, Spätlese, Auslese can all potentially be made dry
  682. The process of Yeast breaking down and becoming bready flavored and will help to keep the wine tasting freesh
  683. Frost protection
  684. Ribera del Duero - in the east
    Rueda - in the middle
    Toro - in the west
  685. A DO that covers non-contiguous parts of Spain
    Uses Traditional Method
    Must spend 9 months on Lees
    Made from Xarel-lo, Parellada, Garnacha, and Monastrel
  686. 3 styles of Cab Franc:
    Lightest- sandy soils of Rive Vienne
    Medium- Gravelly Clay Plateau -firmer body
    Finest - Limestone Slopes
  687. Riesling
    Pinot Gris
    Pinot Blanc
    Pinot Noir
  688. Yes, most places
  689. High alcohol, Tannin, and acidity. Excellent structure is hidden under light purple hued juice.
    Complex aromatics, red fruit, rose, licorice, hay
  690. Tempranillo - #1
    Garnacha Tinta - Spanish Grenache
    Monastrell - Spanish Mourvedre
    Graciano - Mainly in Rioja, Strong Structure
    Carinera - Lower acid, High in Tannin and Color
    Mencia - better in cooler climate, herbaceous, high acid
  691. It varies! From cool continental in the central vineyards to maritime in the Nantais and Anjou
  692. Cote-Rotie AC - Red Syrah
    Condrieu AC - White Viognier
    Chateau Grillet AC- Similar to Condrieu
    Saint Joseph AC - Syrah, Marsanne & Roussanne
    Hermitage AC - Syrah, Marsanne & Roussanne
    Crozes-Hermitage - Syrah, Marsanne & Roussanne
    Cornas - Syrah
  693. men - 14 units / week (2/day)
    women - 7 units/week (1/day)
  694. Spur trained and head trained
  695. Premium Priced Grand Cru White
    Full Bodied, med/high acid, peach and apricot fruit
    oak aged
  696. The south Western Part of Aus, Under Perth
  697. Chianti/Chianti Classico
    Brunello di Montalcino
    Vino Nobile de Montepulciano
    Vernaccia di San Ginignano - White
    Toscana Igt - Super tuscans
  698. Chenin Blanc
  699. Room Temperature 15-18ºC
  700. Well Chilled 6-8ºC
  701. It's fortified early to kill flor and has a fuller body
  702. Nantais
  703. Direct Pressing - Same style as white wine, no on skin maceration
    Drawing off - Limited Maceration, taken out early
    Bleeding - Only a portion is taken out early, leftover macerating wine gets extra macerated
    Blending - Small portion of red added to white for color. Not allowed in EU
  704. Westward into Portugal's port producing regions
  705. Ripe red spicy black fruit, can be floral from higher altitudes
  706. Furmint - High acid white varietal
  707. 60 Months red, 48 months white
    18 oak red, 6 oak white
  708. Olorosso - Develop little to no flor. Fortified to 17% to kill Flor
  709. Degree Days
  710. Chenin Blanc
  711. Chablis is steely, high acid and lean, extremely refined
    Pouilly Fuissé and Cote D'Or Chardonnay is rich, textured, often barrel aged and left on lees.
  712. They will ripen unevenly and by the time they're all ripe there will be some raisins on the bunch.
    Black fruit, high alcohol, and some residual sugars
  713. It is botrytis affected! There is a lot of water around allowing for misty mornings. It is in contrast to the vendange tardive style of Savennieres on the north side of the Loire.
    Will be high in alcohol, distinctly Acidic, and good body from the botrytis.
  714. Tinta Roriz
  715. Grüner Veltliner - 1/3 of High Quality production.
    Welchsriesling - 2nd most
    Riesling -Use din dry full bodied whites
    Zweigelt - (Blaufrankish x St Laurent) - Widest Planting
    Blaufrankish - Highest regarded
    St Laurent - Similar to Pinot Noir
  716. High acid, tannic, deep color
    Fresh black currants in cooler climes, to black cherry and black currant jam in warm and hot climates
    can be accompanied with green capsicum, mint, and cedarwood, even menthol
  717. Rioja South
    Navarra North
  718. 3 years
  719. Languedoc AC
    Minervois AC
    Corbieres AC
    Fitou AC
    Cotes du Roussillon AC
    Cotes du Roussillon Villages AC
    Pay d'Oc IGP