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672 Matching questions

  1. What is the designation for regional typicity in Austria?
  2. What is the meaning of Qualitatswein bestimter Anbaugebiete(QbA)?
  3. What is the varietal used in Bandol AC?
  4. Describe the cloning method "layering"
  5. What is the southernmost AC of Northern Rhone?
  6. What is the name for Portuguese Tempranillo?
  7. What are the two Prosecco Denominations?
  8. What are the 3 top Beaujolais Crus?
  9. What is the profile of a Zweigelt?
  10. What is the style of Vinho Verde in Portugal?
  11. What does passito entail?
  12. What is the soil composition of the Cote d'Or
  13. What is the north eastern Italian style of Pinot Grigio?
  14. What is the climate of Greece?
  15. What is acidification?
  16. What is liquer de Tirage?
  17. What comes first? Pressing or Crushing?
  18. What is the only significant geographical unit in South Africa?
  19. What is the king grape of Campania?
  20. How are grapes primarily grown in the hills of Priorat?
  21. What is the central town of Cote-Rotie AC?
  22. What are two regions (cooler) growing more refined old world style chardonnay?
  23. What are the white grapes of Entre Deux mers?
  24. What is typical of Reisling's profile?
  25. What are the 3 main regions producing quality Viognier?
  26. What are the eight AC styles of Northern Rhone?
  27. Why is the diurnal range in Ribera del Duero so good for Tempranillo production?
  28. What is the Garonne river famous for?
  29. What is Enrichment?
  30. what is the main city in Rioja?
  31. What is the South african style for Chenin Blanc Steen
  32. What style is the Burgenland known for?
  33. What is a region that can emulate the Vouvray style Chenin Blanc?
  34. where is the second fermentation in Champagne production?
  35. What are the 8 essential AC's in the southern Rhone?
  36. What are the levels of Burgundy Apellations?
  37. What is the longest Northern Rhone AC?
  38. What is Sulfur Dioxide used for?
  39. What is a common weather factor of the Napa benchlands?
  40. What are the 4 subregions of the Anjou-Sanmur in Loire?
  41. What is the most important international variety used in Chile?
  42. What is the Clay most common in Chablis?
  43. What are the manin grape varieties of Valpolicella?
  44. Why is Cabernet Sauvignon considered hearty?
  45. Red Wine Fermentation Temperature
  46. What effect will Salty food have on wine?
  47. Service Temp for Medium/Full-bodied Whites, Oaked Whites
  48. What is the german word for spice?
  49. Why are marsanne and roussane perfect blending partners?
  50. How many Ranks Are There in the Sauternes Classification?
  51. What ratio of juice liters to kilos of grape may be pressed in Champagne?
  52. What wine is Pantelleria Island known for?
  53. What are the italian word Large oak barrels and small oak barrels?
  54. What is the profile of a Fino Sherry?
  55. What are the 6 Pradikatswein Denominations?
  56. What is the core region in the north part of Oregon?
  57. If the flor fails in a fino sherry it becomes a
  58. Name 3 Systemic Diseases
  59. Name the 2 main regions within Catalunya
  60. What is Bloom?
  61. Name the three spanish regions on the Duero East to West
  62. What chemical can be used to lower acid content in wine?
  63. What is Portugal's most important red grape?
  64. Where is the Margaret River?
  65. What is the varietal of muscat used in Asti DOCG?
  66. Define ISINGLASS
  67. Name the Major Regions and Subregions in the Loire Valley (East to West)
  68. Is there much irrigation in Chile?
  69. What is the primary red grape of the Loire?
  70. What are THREE Regions just outside (SW France) that replicate Bordeaux Wines?
  71. What is Rioja traditionally know for?
  72. What are the characteristics of Rousanne Grape?
  73. What kind of grapes do best in Southern France?
  74. What are the main aspects of wine STRUCTURE?
  75. What is the principle wine of Cahors AC in SW France?
  76. How many Premier and Grand Crus are there in Burgundy?
  77. What are the 3 species of grapes used in root stock.
  78. Why is the Cabernet Franc grape ideal for Loire?
  79. Name the 2 CONCLUSION Categories for Tasting
  80. What is integrated pest management?
  81. What is the typical profile of a Welschrielsing?
  82. What region in NZ is producing fine quality Pinot Noir?
  83. What is the primary red grape of southern france and southern rhone?
  84. What is particular about the bodegas where Sherry is made
  85. What are the regulations on Vintage Champagnes?
  86. Does Saint-Emilion AC have White Wines?
  87. Describe the tank or Charmant method for making sparkling wine
  88. Describe the Burgundy Cru System
  89. What are the two best Bordeaux districts for Merlot?
  90. What is Italy's Climate?
  91. What's the primary white grape of Austria?
  92. What is the river that runs North to South through Burgundy?
  93. What does the word Steen Mean?
  94. What are the main Hungarian grape Varieties?
  95. What is the most common Mosel Riesling style?
  96. What is the profile of Xinomavro from Naoussa
  97. What AC in southern France uses Mourvedre exclusively?
  98. What are some typical Beaujolais flavor profiles?
  99. What is significant about the mistral and tramontne winds?
  100. How long are Cotes De Beaune whites aged for?
  101. What is the most extensively planted varietal in Bergerac (SW France)
  102. What are the three spanish regions on the Duero River?
  103. Name the 5 PREMIERS CRUS Red Producers in Bordeaux
  104. Is mechanical harvesting allowed in Champagne?
  105. What is a red grape showing particular promise in Chile's cooler locations?
  106. What 6 factors affect temperature in the vineyard?
  107. What are the characteristics of Melon Blanc?
  108. What are the flavor characteristics of Merlot in Both Cool and Hot Climates?
  109. What is the climate of Germany?
  110. What are the two main spanish varietals of Navarra?
  111. What is the name of the best soil type in Priorat?
  112. Describe the Solera system
  113. What style of wine is Verdejo used in?
  114. What are the 5 Burgundy regions north to south?
  115. What are the climates that distinguish Northern from Southern Rhone?
  116. Describe Classic Tokaji profile
  117. What challenges face the growers and Houses of Champagne?
  118. What grapes are used in Rosé production in Southern Rhone?
  119. What are the 5 Classic Pinot Noir regions?
  120. Describe the Pouilly-Fumé Style
  121. Name the 8 PALATE Categories for Tasting
  122. What is the name for the besttraditional South African sparkling wines?
  123. What are the most common red grapes in South Africa?
  124. What is the word for when ripening begins?
  125. Is Southern France producing more Reds or Whites?
  126. What is the geography of the Rhone Valley?
  127. What is the climate of Portugal?
  128. What is the climate of northern Rhone?
  129. WWhat makes Tokaji a perfect botrytis wine growing area?
  130. What is the requirement for 'Classic' PGI on Germany?
  131. Name the 7 most important Burgundy Districts from North to South.
  132. What is typical of Pays d'OC IGP styles
  133. What is particular about the Coteaux du Layon AC in Anjou-Sanmur?
  134. What is flor?
  135. What are congeners?
  136. What is the style of Loire Chenin Blanc?
  137. What is key about Olorosso Sherry?
  138. What are the defining characteristics of Zinfandel/Primitivo?
  139. What is the ideal Latitude range for wine making?
  140. What does Aszu mean in Hungarian?
  141. Give an overview of the Transfer method for making sparkling wine
  142. What is the most widely planted grape in spain?
  143. What are the 3 subregions of the Loire Central Valley?
  144. What does VQA stand for in Canada?
  145. What is the best known style from Emilia Romagna?
  146. What is the primary varietal of Oregon?
  147. What is particular about Salta's vineyards in Argentina?
  148. Define the Trockenbeerenauslese Pradikatt
  149. Where is the Ebro River?
  150. What is the one notable German Appellation producing Pinot Noir?
  151. Describe the famous soil of Sancerre
  152. What is the Climate of Meseta, Spain?
  153. Which Duero Valley apellation makes white wines?
  154. What is the essential gas in carbonic maceration?
  155. What is the very best American region for sparkling wines?
  156. Describe the characteristics of a typical Syrah
  157. What is the Superior Apellation Abreviation in Greece?
  158. What are 3 important Champagne subregions?
  159. Define the Beerenauslese Pradikatt
  160. Which Maconnais wine benefits most from age?
  161. What is the profile of a classic Tokaji swet wine?
  162. What pairs well with gewurztraminer?
  163. Describe the Bourgogne Haut Cotes de Beaune Rouge AC
  164. What two famous Spanish regions are on the Ebro River?
  165. What is the most maritime region in Loire?
  166. What is a unique aspect about the general composition of Alsace Soils?
  167. What is the northern most region of Burgundy and what does it produce?
  168. What is a specialty style from Nantais that's gaining popularity?
  169. What is the most widely planted red grape in CA?
  170. What are the typical characteristics of Syrah?
  171. What is the aging time for Gran Riserva level in Spain?
  172. How is prosecco produced?
  173. What is a Grosslage?
  174. What does the flor protect against?
  175. What defines a Loire style Sauvignon Blanc?
  176. What are the 6 Regions of Central Italy?
  177. What are the 2 primary rivers in Bordeaux?
  178. Describe the Le Montrachet AC from Burgundy
  179. What varietal is Condrieu famous for producing?
  180. What is Chaptalization?
  181. What is a Bereich?
  182. What are the 3 Major subregions in Rioja?
  183. What are the defining flavor characteristics of sangiovese?
  184. what is the minimum ageing for a non vintage champagne?
  185. What is the typical vine training method of (most of) Spain
  186. What are the core red varieties used for export in Chile?
  187. What is Spain's southernmost winemaking region?
  188. What is the style of a white zinfandel?
  189. What is the Alsasce style for Riesling?
  190. What are the three levels of Bordeaux Appellation?
  191. What is steen?
  192. What is peculiar about the first fermentation of sherry?
  193. What country uses Torrontes varietal?
  194. What is the wine made for Roman Emporers in Campania?
  195. What is the typical style of Valpolicella?
  196. What are the 7 important villages on the Cote de Beaune?
  197. What is the difference between passerillage and passito?
  198. What is the climate of Hungary?
  199. What is the process for making Muscadet Sur Lies?
  200. What is the sweetest level of Tokaji?
  201. What is the Bordeaux style of Merlot?
  202. What does RCGM stand for?
  203. What are the typical growing characteristics and issues of pinot noir?
  204. Where is Cava primarily made?
  205. What are typical characteristics of Pinot Noir?
  206. What is the name for Hungarian PDO?
  207. Describe an Alsace style Riesling
  208. Where is the Penedes DO?
  209. Describe the flavor profile of Tempranillo
  210. Compare Champagne Chardonnay with that of Chablis in Burgundy
  211. What are the 3 distinct climate zones of Penedès?
  212. What is a notable Davis zone 1 in California?
  213. Name 4 significant AC's in Southern France
  214. What are the three primary varietals used in Champagne?
  215. What are Colloids?
  216. What is the main DOC of Umbria?
  217. What are the 5 Key Wines of Tuscany?
  218. What is the Baga varietal's profile?
  219. What are the two additional Pradikats Austri uses in addition to Germany's 6?
  220. What Northern Rhone Cru must be made of 100% Syrah?
  221. How many regions have OPE Status in Greece?
  222. What is the typical soil of Right Bank Bordeaux?
  223. Where has Pinot Noir found a home in California?
  224. How are the Alsasce style and German style Rieslings different?
  225. What is the main grape variety in Soave?
  226. What is Pradikatswein?
  227. Service Temp for Full Bodied Red
  228. What is the typical profile of Rheingau Reisling?
  229. What are typical COLD climate Chardonnay Characteristics?
  230. What is the significance of 'Selection' PGI in Germany?
  231. What are the classic Chardonnay regions of the world? (4 countries)
  232. How is color added to spirits?
  233. What is the constantia district of South Africa known for?
  234. What is the classic grape of Rueda?
  235. How is the Beaujolais system composed?
  236. What are the 4 main Grape varieties of Burgundy?
  237. What are the main sparkling wine regions of Australia?
  238. What are the most important sparkling wine regions in New Zealand?
  239. What are Four non-systemic diseases that effect grapes?
  240. What are the defining flavors of Malbec?
  241. Define the Auslese Pradikatt
  242. What is Sale en Primeur?
  243. Describe the typical characteristics of sparkling Asti DOCG
  244. What are the 4 main Red varietals of Rioja DOCa?
  245. What are the differences in flavor of american and european oak?
  246. What is the appropriate wine storage temp?
  247. What is the essential quality of both Taille Chablis and Cordon de Royat pruning used in Champagne?
  248. What are the most important california varietals?
  249. What is the main grape of Marche?
  250. What style of Pinot Gris is popular for export in Hungary?
  251. What is the difference between American and European Oak Production?
  252. What does the Acronym SATABICO stand for?
  253. Contrast Coteaux du Layon with Savennieres
  254. What style wines come from Madiran AC, South of Bordeaux?
  255. What is the name of the person who Riddles wine?
  256. What are the top two sherry aging categories?
  257. What are the 3 primary native Hungarian red grapes?
  258. What does the Argentinian Parral training system help avoid?
  259. What aspects does skin impart on wine?
  260. What is the shallow soft press most commonly used in Champagne?
  261. What are the characteristics of Hermitage?
  262. What does the term Blanc de Noir refer to?
  263. Why was big vines management developed?
  264. What is the Alsatian style of Pinot Gris?
  265. What is the typical grape of Beaujolais?
  266. Describe the flavor profile of sangiovese
  267. What is the style of Uraguay often compared to?
  268. Describe the style of Reds from Toro, Spain
  269. Where in New Zealand does Cabernet Sauvignon Ripen well?
  270. What are the two tempranillo centric regions on the duero?
  271. What is the temperature at which vines consume more sugar than photosynthesis can produce?
  272. What has been the large scale shift in Italian winemaking?
  273. What is special about Sherry producers?
  274. What is an Ambaugebiet?
  275. What 2 regions define Northern Rhone?
  276. What are the three predominant soil types in Italy?
  277. What are the three leading white Varietals of Chile?
  278. What is the Montalicino Terroir?
  279. What's the typical profile of a Roero Arneis?
  280. What is Libourne?
  281. What is the significance of 1855
  282. What grape is Asti DOCG made from?
  283. What are the most suitable climates (davis system) for premium wine growing?
  284. What levels of German Pradikatswein are possible to ferment to dryness?
  285. Who developed Biodynamic Agriculture?
  286. Define the Spälese Pradikat
  287. What are the typical characteristics of Gewurztraminer?
  288. What is particular about the Toaji Aszu winemaking process?
  289. What are the typical flavors of Austrian Grüner Veltliner?
  290. How are Gamay grapes generally trained in Beaujolais?
  291. What is the Castelao grape used in?
  292. What is the name for Malbec in SW France?
  293. What is the juice from pressing called?
  294. How many cru apellations are in Northern Rhone?
  295. What 5 factors effect wine style?
  296. What are the PDO Wine Stratas in Spain?
  297. What is the style often referred to Sauv blanc production in CA?
  298. What are the most common white varietals used in Southern France?
  299. What is particular about varietal uses in Franken?
  300. What are the characteristics of Saint-Joseph AC Syrah?
  301. What is the benefit of a continuous or coloum still?
  302. What is the geographic layout of the Penedes region
  303. What are the 7 Core winemaking regions in Germany?
  304. What are the three core regions of the Duero river Valley?
  305. What is Sekt?
  306. What is Retsina?
  307. What are Solutes?
  308. What area of Spain is Tempranillo Country?
  309. What is the primary white varietal in Portugal?
  310. What is the grape used in Soave?
  311. What are the differences between Cane and Spur Training?
  312. What river runs through the Neiderosterreich?
  313. What is the Grecian Appellation system based on?
  314. What are two important Puglian DOC's?
  315. What's particular about the Coteaux du Layon?
  316. More Free Run Juice...
  317. What are the two oxidized styles of Sherry?
  318. What are the 2 AC's for still wine in Alsace?
  319. What is the soil of Nantais?
  320. What are the 2 important Provence AC's?
  321. What are the 6 sweetness levels in Champagne?
  322. What is the max recommended consumption in the US?
  323. What is the most widely planted white grape in the world?
  324. What are the 7 labeling terms describing Champagne Sweetness?
  325. What are the typical Characteristics of Prosecco?
  326. What are the 8 steps in traditional methode champagnoise?
  327. What style are Penedès traditionally known for?
  328. What region in South West France Produces Bordeaux Style Wines?
  329. What are the three main PDO Austrian wine regions?
  330. What is Pfalz essentially a continuation of?
  331. What are typical characteristics of Viognier?
  332. Describe New World Style Merlot
  333. Describe Autolysis
  334. What is the main difficulty in growing Viognier?
  335. What are the 4 main commune appellations in Cote Chalonnaise, Burgundy?
  336. What are the 2 VDP labeling terms used in Germany?
  337. What are some of the issues particular to Chenin Blanc development in the vineyard?
  338. What are the defining Characteristics of Grenache/Garnacha?
  339. Name the 4 main Red Grape Varieties in Bordeaux
  340. What are the primary Canadian Icewine Varieties?
  341. What is typical of a Sauvignon Blanc in cool climate with poor soil?
  342. What are Chile's DO's similar to?
  343. What is Yeast Autolysis?
  344. Describe the climate of the Loire
  345. What is the risk of culling grapes after veraison?
  346. Describe the Malbec profile from Argentina
  347. What is the classic Hungarian Red style wine?
  348. What are the 6 main Grape Varietals in Austria?
  349. What style of wine is Provence most famous for?
  350. What is the climate of Bordeaux?
  351. Describe the levels of regulation of the AVA (American Viticultural Area)
  352. What is the profile of Assyrtiko
  353. What is a secondary use for sprinkler systems?
  354. Why is Cab Sauv able to be so expressive in California?
  355. What is the primary grape of Uraguay?
  356. What is an Einzellage?
  357. What are the Key Grand Cru Villages from Cote de Nuits? (north to south)
  358. What makes wine growing possible in Ontario?
  359. What is a particular of Baden's production?
  360. Describe a typical Cotes Du Rhone Villages AC
  361. What are the 9 most important North West Italian Wine PDO's?
  362. Where can Deutscher Wein grapes come from?
  363. What is a distinct feature of Australian Rieslings?
  364. What sides of the river Ebro are Navarra and Rioja on
  365. What is the difference between crossings and hybrids?
  366. What are common varietals used in Super Tuscans
  367. Describe the Climate of Tourraine in the Loire
  368. What is bentonite used for?
  369. What are the typical characteristics of Grenache (Garnacha Tinta)
  370. What is the term used for Spanish PGI Wines?
  371. What is considered the heart of Argentinian winemaking?
  372. What is the most common black grape in Southern France?
  373. What wine is Baga most important in?
  374. What is Liquer d'Expedition?
  375. What is the core issue with Syrah in the southern Rhone?
  376. What are the agricultural challenges faced by spain?
  377. Where does the Duero river flow?
  378. what is the northernmost Northern rhone AC?
  379. What are What are typical Moderate climate Chardonnay Characteristics?
  380. What are nematodes and what do they do?
  381. What are the 8 core AC's of Southern Rhone?
  382. Describe the body of a typical alsasce gewürztraminer
  383. Where are Pouilly-Fume and Sancerre located in terms of the Loire Valley?
  384. Service Temp for Sparkling Wines
  385. White Wine Fermentation Temperature
  386. How does the Humboldt Current affect grape growing in South America?
  387. What are the four methods used in Rosé winemaking?
  388. What effect will highly flavored food have on wine?
  389. How can a producer remove tartrate crystals?
  390. What is an acronym that will help remember all the chilean regions north to south?
  391. What are the typical characteristics of Tempranillo?
  392. What are screw caps best at preserving?
  393. What is the Climate like in Somontono?
  394. What is the primary sherry grape?
  395. What is the minimum aging for Riserva Wines in Spain?
  396. What are the red varieties seeing promise in the warmer BC regions
  397. What are the style of the 4 New S. Rhone Crus? (Gigondas, Vacqeyras, Beaume de Venise, Vinsorbes)
  398. What are the 5 core PDO's of Veneto?
  399. Is Hungary able to ripen red varietals like Cabernet Sauvignon?
  400. What are the two rosé producing subregions of Southern Rhone?
  401. What distinguishes the Southern Rhone Style from The Northern?
  402. What aspects does Pulp impart on wine?
  403. What is the Spanish word for Cantina?
  404. Service Temp for Light Bodied Red
  405. How does chili heat affect wine?
  406. What is particular about the shape of the Rhine in Rheingau?
  407. What is typical of California Zins?
  408. What region is Chateaux Haut-Brion from?
  409. What is continentality?
  410. Describe the Climate of the Loire Valley
  411. What does paddling during the tank process help express>?
  412. What effect will Sweet food have on wine?
  413. What is in a Prestige de Cuvee Champagne?
  414. What are the main characteristics of the Aligoté varietal?
  415. What grapes are grown in California?
  416. What are the to core regions of the Washington Wine World?
  417. What is the main viticultural challenge of South africa?
  418. What are the 3 main DAC's in Neiderosterreich?
  419. What are the 2 supporting red grapes in the southern rhone?
  420. What is Riddling?
  421. What's the typical profile of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo?
  422. How many months aging is required for crianza level?
  423. What are the 5 essential designations of SW France?
  424. Describe a California Merlot
  425. What does the term Garrafeira mean
  426. What is the other (french) name for Monastrell?
  427. What is the thick skinned clone of Tempranillo popular in Spain?
  428. What is the largest region in the northern rhone?
  429. What are the 4 price categories?
  430. What are the typical characteristics of Condrieu AC Viognier?
  431. How is Lambrusco made?
  432. Describe the Grenache grape
  433. What is the region just south of Cote Rotie?
  434. What is the most common Hungarian Varietal?
  435. What is the climate of Southern France?
  436. Describe the Graves (Pessac Leognan) Classification System
  437. What are the classic Cabernet Sauvignon Regions?
  438. What are 5 synthetic adjustments wine makers use on wine?
  439. What is the style of Vouvray AC?
  440. What do the words 'Cartizze' and 'Rive' mean in relation to Prosecco?
  441. What is the bloom?
  442. What is the second most grown grape in Argentina?
  443. What is millerandage?
  444. Contrast the typical flavor profile of Champagne and Cava
  445. What are the three core regions in Mendoza Province?
  446. What are the 3 Important Grecian wine making regions for WSET?
  447. What is the typical soil of Left Bank Bordeaux?
  448. What are a few other Spanish/Portugese names for Tempranillo?
  449. Describe the Meunier Varietal
  450. Name the Two main Spanish White Grape Varietals
  451. Describe the Fleurie AC from Burgundy
  452. What is a farmer controlling with different training solutions?
  453. What are the typical characteristics of a Cabernet Sauvignon?
  454. What is the primary white grape of Bordeaux?
  455. What is considered a unit of alcohol in the US?
  456. Name the six styles of Champagne
  457. What is unique about Austria's wine production?
  458. What are the Characteristics of the Marsanne grape?
  459. What are the 4 main white varietals of the Rioja DOCa?
  460. What is the modern style of Chardonnay?
  461. What is the flavor profile for Albarino?
  462. What part of Spain is ideal for Monastrell production?
  463. What is the second most important grape in Rueda?
  464. What is the second white of South Africa?
  465. Describe the tank method for sparkling wines
  466. What are the 6 levels of Hungarian wine quality?
  467. What are the Main regions of Italy's North East
  468. What are the 4 Spanish aging Categories?
  469. Describe the Secondary Fermentation of Champagne
  470. Describe a typical Chateauneuf-du-Pape AC
  471. What are the three core factors in Site Selection?
  472. What is the dominant grape in Ribera del Duero?
  473. What is sparkling Asti DOCG classically paired with?
  474. Describe the style of Loire Sauvignon Blanc
  475. What are the dominant red grape Varieties of Spain?
  476. What is the abbreviation for Grecian PDO?
  477. What are the defining flavor characteristics of Gamay?
  478. What does Szamorodni mean in Hungarian?
  479. What are typical characteristics of Cote-Rotie AC?
  480. What are the defining characteristics of Syrah in cool and warm climates?
  481. What is transpiration?
  482. Describe the reds of Chinon AC
  483. What does the word Honeepoot mean?
  484. What is the common Chardonnay style in CA?
  485. How many Ranks Are There in the Medoc Classifications?
  486. What is the soil type of Chablis?
  487. What differentiates Rueda from Ribero del Duero and Toro?
  488. Where is Cap Classique made?
  489. What is the premium appellation of Muscadet?
  490. What are the 7 Main Grape Varieties of Alsace?
  491. What is Verband Deustcher Pradikatswein (VDP) ?
  492. What is the South African Wine Origin Scheme and how does it work?
  493. What is peculiar about the history of vine training in Rias Baixas?
  494. Why is Ribera Del Duero so ideal for Tempranillo growing?
  495. What is the character or Nemea style Agiorgitiko?
  496. What are the 3 primary regions for Sauvignon Blanc?
  497. Define the Eiswein Pradikatt
  498. What is the warmest German region?
  499. What is special about the soil in Priorat?
  500. Where does the vast majority of South african wine come from?
  501. What is the typical profile of Austrian Grüner Veltliner?
  502. What are typical HOT climate Chardonnay Characteristics?
  503. What is the name for light colored sherries?
  504. What is the benefit of head grafting?
  505. What is the key grape in Vouvray?
  506. What are the 4 subregions of the Tourraine Region in Loire?
  507. Describe a common profile for Geruztraminer in Alsace.
  508. What is the largest agricultural challenge in Champagne?
  509. What are some typical Viognier characteristics in Northern Rhone?
  510. Describe the Methode Champagnoise
  511. What is the style of Chablis compared to that of Pouilly-Fuissé?
  512. What is the significance of the Catalunya DO?
  513. What is the style of Dao DOC?
  514. What is the heat regulating ocean breeze in South Africa?
  515. What is the profile of Pinotage?
  516. What is the famous white grape used in Santorini?
  517. How often does AC Semillion review its Crus?
  518. What does the term Prestige Cuvée mean?
  519. What is typical of cold weather Riesling?
  520. What are the two PDO designations in Austria?
  521. What is the profile of a classic Soave DOC?
  522. What is the flavor profile of Anglianico?
  523. What is disgorgement?
  524. Describe the Asti method for sparkling wine
  525. What are the two Hungarian PDO levels?
  526. What does the term riserva entail in Portugal?
  527. Describe the Torrontes varietal
  528. What is essential in the rack and return method?
  529. Describe the Badol AC style from Provence.
  530. Name the 3 main white grape varieties in Bordeaux
  531. What is a sparkling wine made from chenin blanc in Loire?
  532. What two-named region is in between Nantais and Tourraine?
  533. Describe the terroir of Champagne
  534. What are the three primary varietals used in Cava production?
  535. Where is the Benguela Current and what does it help with?
  536. Where is the Limestone Coast?
  537. What is the main wine of Nantais?
  538. What grape is Asti made with
  539. What is the crossing in Müller Thurgau?
  540. What are the 4 Main Varietals of Northern Rhone?
  541. What is the structure of the St. Emillion cru system
  542. What effect will Umami food have on wine?
  543. What are two regions in Catalunya
  544. How are the assyrtiko grapes grown in Santorini?
  545. What is a major challenge to new world sparkling wine production?
  546. What is the typical Nahe Riesling style?
  547. What are the flavor characteristics of Botrytis affected Semillon?
  548. What does AC stand for in France?
  549. What is the largest wine growing region in Germany?
  550. What is varietal used in Pouilly-Fuissé
  551. Describe a typical Cotes Du Rhone AC
  552. What is the dominant central plateau of spain?
  553. What is the common profile of a Langhe nebbiolo?
  554. Name the 2 primary regions of North-West Spain
  555. What effect will Acidic food have on wine?
  556. How are geographical units broken down in South Africa?
  557. What are the primary varietals of MonBazillac?
  558. What is the dominant varietal of the southern Rhone?
  559. Name the 7 AOC sub-regions of Haut-Medoc
  560. What are fourfactors effecting sunlight?
  561. What are the Italian PDO's?
  562. What are the core flavors of Pouilly-Fuissé?
  563. Name the 4 NOSE Categories for Tasting
  564. What is the minimum ageing necessary for a vintage champagne?
  565. Name the 6 Principal Districts in Bordeaux
  566. What is Sélection de Grains Nobles? (SGN)
  567. What are the 10 Beaujolais Crus?
  568. What is the style of the southern Rhone?
  569. What are the 2 primary grape varieties used in Red Wines from Libourne?
  570. What is the ideal temperature range for grape growing?
  571. What is the name for darker colored sherrys?
  572. What is the geography of Greece?
  573. Do fino sherries develop in bottle?
  574. What is the typical profile of an Amarone della Valpolicella?
  575. What are basic Gamay Flavors without Carbonic Maceration?
  576. What are the ideal conditions for Noble Rot?
  577. What is the name for Hungarian PGI Wines?
  578. How is Cru Borgeouis Classification Awarded in Medoc?
  579. What is significant about the number 82 in terms of Champagne?
  580. What is the chemical responsible for Cork Taint?
  581. What is the grape of the Nemea OPAP?
  582. What area is the Albarino grape most grown in?
  583. Which type of oak is most common in Spanish quality wines?
  584. What is the profile of Austrian Blaufrankish?
  585. What are the two styles of whites produced in Rueda?
  586. What are the primary 3 grape varietals from Washington State?
  587. What are the 6 key AC's in Languedoc-Roussillon?
  588. What are 5 classic Riesling regions?
  589. Describe a the typical characteristics of a quality Lambrusco
  590. What are 4 alternative methods for sparkling wines
  591. Describe the characteristics of a typical Cava
  592. What is the dominant grape varietal of Rias Baixas?
  593. What is the minimum operating temperature for vines?
  594. What is the sugar in Liquer d'expedition referred to?
  595. What are the requirements for Landwein (German PGI)
  596. What texture is semillon famously known for?
  597. What are the 5 Main Grape Varietals of Germany?
  598. What are the 6 geographical zones in Spain?
  599. Describe the differences between Coop and Negociant system
  600. What are the typical styles of the Tavel and Lirac AC's?
  601. What is the dominant grape variety used in Rias Baixas in North Western Spain?
  602. What are the characteristics of the Carignan varietal?
  603. What is the primary red grape varietal from Argentina?
  604. What are the 5 primary native grape varietals of Hungary?
  605. Why is Champagne dependent on blending?
  606. What are the two main acids in Wine?
  607. What is the style of South African Red Blends
  608. Where does Pinot Gris produce the best wines?
  609. What are the four growing climate classifications and associated temps?
  610. Describe the Sancerre style
  611. What is the most important yeast in wine making?
  612. What are the 3 subregions of the Nantais in Loire?
  613. What process can Racking help with?
  614. How long is the Gran Riserva aging Qualification for Reds and Whites?
  615. What is the DOC of Note in Basilicata?
  616. What is a regulating weather force in Chile?
  617. What is the primary grape varietal used in Carinena and Calatayud Spain?
  618. Name the 4 APPEARANCE Categories for Tasting
  619. What is the typical Furmint profile?
  620. Describe Pinot Noir's role in Champagne
  621. What indicates an oaked Sauv Blanc in CA?
  622. What is the regulating current in South Africa?
  623. Name the 1 red Premiers Cru Chateau outside Medoc
  624. What is the most widely planted grape in Bordeaux?
  625. What are the primary grapes used in the Southern Rhone?
  626. What is the success story from Sicily?
  627. What is the flavor profile of Grenache?
  628. What is the style of Duoro DOC?
  629. What is the secondary sherry varietal?
  630. What is particular about the primary fermentation of the best Champagnes?
  631. What is "the barolo of the south"?
  632. What distinguishes the geography of the Southern Rhone from the north?
  633. What is typical of a Sauvignon Blanc from Warm climates?
  634. What are the two most famous Mosel Towns?
  635. What are lees?
  636. What type of soil and climate is typical of Rueda?
  637. Where are the Hungarian wine regions?
  638. Where are the best Tempranillo wines made?
  639. What kind of wine is Cotes de Gascogne, SE of Bordeaux, Famous for?
  640. What is the climate classification system at Davis designed upon?
  641. What conditions does Muscat need to grow well?
  642. What are the important restrictions on AVA?
  643. Define Kabinett Pradikat
  644. What is the species of grape used in Wine?
  645. How are the style of wine in touraine divided geographically?
  646. What is the crossing of Pinotage?
  647. What is the typical soil profile of Beaujolais?
  648. What are the benefits of Chardonnay's non-aromatic profile?
  649. What are the 3 most important styles from Friuli Venezia Giulia?
  650. What is the most famous communal appellation in Mâconnais?
  651. Which aspect do the best Alsasce vineyards face?
  652. How are prosecco's fermented?
  653. Where are the best Granaches/Garnachas made?
  654. What does the word "Taille" refer to?
  655. What is an example of a warm mediterranean Region?
  656. What Australian area is most associated with Shiraz?
  657. How are most grecian vines trained?
  658. Service Temp for Light-Medium Bodied White
  659. What are the core flavors of the Sangiovese grape?
  660. What is the key varietal used in Bierzo spain?
  661. What is the range of Puttonyos levels?
  662. What are the 3 designations of Wachau, Austria style white wines?
  663. What are the typical qualities of all Muscats?
  664. What is the grape used in Sauternes Botrisyzed wines?
  665. What are the main regions of Italy's North West
  666. What american AVA makes sparkling wines well?
  667. What is the only black grape variety allowed in Northern Rhone?
  668. Describe Crèmant wine
  669. What is the core grape varietal of Naoussa?
  670. What does the tempranillo grape lack?
  671. What is typical of Late harvest Riesling
  672. What is the difference between old style Priorat wine and modern?
  1. a It varies! From cool continental in the central vineyards to maritime in the Nantais and Anjou
  2. b Used in champagne
    Buds late/good against frost
    Used in fruity Champagne made to enjoy young
  3. c France - Burgundy, Champagne
    USA- Carneros & Sonoma
    South Africa - Walker Bay
    New Zealand - Martinborough, Central Otago, Marlborough
  4. d France - Burgundy and Champagne
    USA - Russian River, Carneros
    Australia - Adelaide Hills, Geelong, Mornington Peninsula
    New Zealand - Gisbourne and Marlborough
  5. e To decrease vigor in areas with high temperatures an soil nutrients. By having more buds on a single permanent vine there is less distribution to each bud and thus less vigor
  6. f Limestone under Kimmeridigan Clay (Marine fossil clay)
  7. g Bonarda
  8. h Moulin-a-vent AC - Powerful and full bodied
    Morgon AC - Powerful and full bodied
    Brouilly AC - Most common and large production
  9. i Light pale lemon, low alcohol, made from local varietals, slight sparkle,
  10. j Salice Salentino
    Both are port-esque based on negroamaro and Malvasia nero
  11. k Raspberry
  12. l Mendoza, Maipu and Uco Valley
  13. m Vintners Quality Alliance
    Equivalent to the european AC
  14. n South African Chenin Blanc
  15. o Chemicals dissolved in wines - i.e. Tartaric, lactic, and Malic acid...
  16. p On steep terraced hills, with small densely powerful fruit.
  17. q German Sparkling wine made from either internationally grown grapes or German grown grapes (Deutscher Sekt and D.S.bA)
    Best made from Riesling
  18. r A group of Vineyards, only producers of PDO wines may label the vineyards on label
  19. s They barely use Reisling, instead they focus on Muller Thurgau and Silvaner
  20. t Rias Baixas - Regularly carying vintage quality from weather
    Bierzo - Red region, using the Mencia grape
  21. u They blow to southern Frances from the north and help to cool the east and west.
  22. v ...
  23. w Sèmillon and Sauvignon Blanc
    -excellent sauternes clone
  24. x Navarra and Rioja
  25. y Chablis is steely, high acid and lean, extremely refined
    Pouilly Fuissé and Cote D'Or Chardonnay is rich, textured, often barrel aged and left on lees.
  26. z Sweetness
    Other Obs/Finish
  27. aa Delicate peach, pear, and violet
    silky texture and mineral
  28. ab Exotic fruit like Banana, mango, fig
    Full bodied, high in alcohol, low in acidity
  29. ac Strawberry, cherry, Banana
  30. ad Anti Septic/Anti Oxidant
    an make wines seem harsh and lacking in fruit at high levels
  31. ae (cool climate) plum, vanilla, cherry
    (warm climate) cherry, plum, chocolate, mint
  32. af Ampuis, in the north of Northern Rhone
  33. ag Cote du Rhone AC
    Cote Du Rhone Villages AC
    Rhone Satellites
    Chateauneuf du pape
  34. ah Moderate tannin, strong minerality, crisp acid, sour cherry, peppery
    Age in oak for softer acid and sweeter fruit character
  35. ai Only made from free run cuvee juice
  36. aj Districtus Austriae Controllatus (DAC)
    -Based on agreements of local producers on what is typical within a certain region
  37. ak Pale rose's that are fruity, low in alcohol, with medium sweetness
  38. al Airen - Primary grape of La Mancia Spain
  39. am Muscadet Sevréet Maine AC
  40. an Never bush trained, because of the cool humid maritime climate. They used pergolas but have begun to use more sophisticated systems
  41. ao Dosage
  42. ap Mountainous region with continental weather
    ruby wines with red fruit, soft tannins, high acid, and good aging potential
  43. aq Catalunya
  44. ar <$10 - Inexpensive
    $10-$20 - Mid Priced
    $20-$40 - High Priced
    >$40 - Premium
  45. as The autolysis given during the riddling process
  46. at Well Chilled 6-8ºC
  47. au Penedès
  48. av Tannat
  49. aw Chateau Margeaux (Maurgaux)
    Chateau Lafite-Rothschild (Pauillac)
    Chateau Latour (Pauillac)
    Chateau Mouton-Rothschild (Pauillac)
    Chateau Haut-Brion (Pessac-Leognan, Graves)
  50. ax Can be very bordeaux in style. Some syrah blends are huge full bodied reds with high alcohol, and some beaujolais style Pinotage blends exist
  51. ay Lightly Chilled 13ºC
  52. az American oak, with typical vanilla and sweet spice characteristics
    Many are turning towards French oak to give a more tannic and spicy character
  53. ba The reds are made in the west in Chinon and Bourgeuil
    The whites are made in the east at Vouvray
  54. bb Pale lemon yellow, almonds, herbs, and dough
    can be tangy or salty
  55. bc Bush trained
  56. bd Makes for higher quality wine.
  57. be Concentrated perfumey, high acid and alcohol
    naturally dehydrated on the vine with hot sun
    wind is so intense it will stop photosynthesis to keep high acid
  58. bf Albarino - Delicate fruit character, crisp high acid, best drank young
  59. bg Yellow Tuffeau - soft very chalky well drained soil. Helps with acidity and minerality.
  60. bh 5
  61. bi Tank Method
  62. bj Vouvray
  63. bk -Tourraine - Generic AC, Many styles
    -Vouvray - Chenin Blanc
    -Bourgueil - Cab Franc
    -Chinnon - Cab Franc
  64. bl Piesport and Berkastel
  65. bm Rueda
    Verdejo, Sauvignon Blanc
  66. bn High alcohol
    Can produce intense full bodied reds or lighter Rosados
  67. bo -Sanmur - Chenin Blanc & Cab Franc
    -Anjou - Chenin Blanc, Cab Franc, And some Rosé
    -Coteaux du Layon - Chenin Blanc
    -Savennieres - Chenin Blanc
  68. bp American staves are sawn (efficient) while European staves are split off
  69. bq Nantais
  70. br Carneros and Russian River Valley?
  71. bs New Zealand, also has maritime influences
  72. bt The temperature regulation of the great lakes
  73. bu It gives the structural back bone of body and length
  74. bv Signature White from Argentina
    -Intense fruity floral aroma, medium body and acidity
  75. bw -Muscadet - Melon Blanc
    -Muscadet de Svre et Main - Melon Blanc
    -Muscadet de Svre et Marine Sur Lie - Melon Blanc
  76. bx Full bodied, oily, high alcohol, med-low acid
    Spicy, with melon, ripe banana, mango
  77. by It varies. Largest influence is the atlantic but it has continental. Duero regulates the temp in that region
  78. bz Thick Skin
    Low acid, best grown in cooler areas that can maximize what small acid it has
    Carbonic maceration for strawberry scented Joven wine
    Blended with other typical spanish grapes
  79. ca Super premium Champagne made form the very best parcels of land.
    Can be NV or Vintage
  80. cb Grüner Veltliner - 1/3 of High Quality production.
    Welchsriesling - 2nd most
    Riesling -Use din dry full bodied whites
    Zweigelt - (Blaufrankish x St Laurent) - Widest Planting
    Blaufrankish - Highest regarded
    St Laurent - Similar to Pinot Noir
  81. cc Distinct lime characteristics
  82. cd Spicy foods (Thai and Chinese), smoked fish, strong cheese
  83. ce VdlT - Vinos de la Terra
  84. cf Fanleaf Virus - dirupts canopy growth
    Leafroll Virus-Disrupts canopy growth
    Pierce's Disease - Spread by sharpshooters
  85. cg Rueda grows white wines primarily.
  86. ch Pouilly-Fuissé AC - Amphitheater hills that produce the richest white wines in Burgundy (up to 14% abv).
    Characteristics of ripe Peach, Melon with savory or nutty flavors of new oak.
  87. ci Vintage wines from any DoC or IGP with distinctive organoleptic qualities, require 30 months aging for reds, 12 for whites
  88. cj Pinot Noir
    Pinot Grisis also grown
  89. ck Narrow and steep following the river
    Granitic soil
    Plantings on the Southern facing aspects
    Continental with warm summers
  90. cl Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains
    Most complex and full spectrum muscat
  91. cm Higher rates of Botrytis that are absolutely world class.
    Super high acidity, 12-14%, botrytis adds body and texture
  92. cn Penedes - Closest to Barcelona
    Priorat - South of Penedès
  93. co Above average quality and alcohol, Dry White, Single varietal/region... ie. Riesling Classic from Rheingau or Spätburgunder classic from Baden
  94. cp Garnacha
  95. cq They will ripen unevenly and by the time they're all ripe there will be some raisins on the bunch.
    Black fruit, high alcohol, and some residual sugars
  96. cr 10º-15ºC, or 55ºF
  97. cs Quality Level
    Level of Readiness for Drinking/Potential for Aging
  98. ct A district within an Ambaugebiet. Often a famous village within a great PDO region.
  99. cu Chenin Blanc
  100. cv Liguria
  101. cw Grenache - Red
    Syrah & Mourvedre - Red
    Cinsault - Red

    Whites are a minority product
    Clairette, Grenache Blanc, Bourboulec, Viognier, Marsanne, Roussanne
  102. cx Deep colored red, soft tannin, bramble fruit
  103. cy Cabernet Sauvignon
  104. cz Merlot
  105. da Agiorgitko
  106. db Italian style - light and neutral
  107. dc Cool continental with warm but not too hot summers
  108. dd Fresh Grape and Apple
    High acidity often balanced with residual sugar
  109. de Wine and Cane Sugar added after disgorgement of champagne
  110. df All the liquid is pumped out, then mixed back in with the cap.
  111. dg Light tannin, red cherry and raspberry, barnyard, vegetal, can develop meaty,
  112. dh Starts with dry base wine
    Aszu grapes are added and macerated for up to 36 hours
    mixture is pressed
    matured for a minimum of 3 years, two in oak
  113. di The process of Yeast breaking down and becoming bready flavored and will help to keep the wine tasting freesh
  114. dj A region distinguished by a PDO or Denomination in Germany. There are 13 in Germany.
  115. dk Champagne is toasty and Bready
    Cava is Rubbery and Smoky
  116. dl Rheinhessen, south of the Rheingau. The best slopes are on the west side of the Rhine, East aspects. Fullest bodied Rieslings in Germany.
    Flatter areas in the center are producing fine wines from flat farms.
  117. dm Muscat from South Africa
  118. dn High acid
    herbaceous, green pepper, grass, nettles
    joined with Passion Fruit or Elderflower
  119. do Elegant, Deep color, full bodied, spicy

    the best have floral aromas and textural elegance
  120. dp The Cape Doctor, brings ocean air further inland
  121. dq Medium temperature fermentation limit the herbaceous and fruitiness. Much more restrained than NZ style.
  122. dr Eight
  123. ds Egri Bikaver or Bull's Blood - powerful reds
  124. dt Kimmeridigian Clay
  125. du Deep color, black fruit, spicy aroma
    High tannin with blackberry, pepper, and mint

    Hot climate can soften the tannin and fruit to be more jammy, leathery, and earthy
  126. dv Off-dry to sweet (dry becoming more popular)
    Deeply pigmented, firm acidity
    Acidity perfect with food like Parmesan or Prosciutto
  127. dw Full bodied
    Dry, medium/medium+ alcohol
    High acidity and flinty minerality
    Unlike the light german style
  128. dx 95% of wine comes from Vintage date
    85% of wine comes from the specific AVA
    75% of wine must be varietal stated on label
    100% of grapes must come from estate if labelled
  129. dy Marsanne has richness and weight
    Roussane has acidity and perfumed fruit
  130. dz Exotic- Apricot, spice, floral
    rich mouthfeel
    Low acidity, high alcohol

    picked late at high sugar ripeness
  131. ea Excellent conditions and incredibly high tech production and grape selection
  132. eb Deep amber, High acid, intense aromas, orange marmalade, apricots and honey. Best can have rye bread, smoke, coffee and caramel.
    Oxidated and held in oak for 3-6 years
  133. ec Chardonnay
    Cabernet Sauvignon
    Pinot Noir
    Sauvignon Blanc
  134. ed the searing heat close to the ground
  135. ee The north, central and Maritime areas
  136. ef Picked and spends the winter on lees in tanks. Bottled the following spring and will maintain some petite bubbles as well as a yeasty bready taste. Will be very fresh as there is very little oxidization and handling. Delicate!
  137. eg Chaptalization
  138. eh Has up to 14 levels or Cridera, equal parts from each butt distributed down the line over time and finally reaches the solera level where the sherry is taken from
  139. ei Self-elected board of best German Producers
    Quality control group that has own terms used on labels
  140. ej Best suited for Rosé the best will have a medium+ acidity and have high levels of round tannins, sweet spice and red fruit
  141. ek When the development of the berry is disturbed it may develop without seeds and remain small
    Will be intensely sweet and seedless
  142. el Continental, it is landlocked and surrounded by mountains.
    Hot summer, cool winter.
  143. em Cabernet Franc
    -Used in Chinon AC, Bourgueil AC, Touraine, Saumer, and others
  144. en Syrah
  145. eo Baden - The warmest and southernmost region
  146. ep Environmental Conditions
    Business considerations - Proximity to power/distribution/workforce
    Grape Variety
  147. eq Alsace AC -70% of Prod. Mostly White.
    Alsace Grand Cru AC - 51 Vineyards, Single Noble Grape Varieties, Many problems with system
  148. er Citrus, Melon, Peach flavors
  149. es 12º-22ºC
    Helps maintain Fruit Characteristics
  150. et Generic: AC Bordeaux, AC Bordeaux Superieure...
    District: AC Medoc, AC Entre Deux Mers, AC Libornais...
    Commune: AC Saint-Estephe, AC Saint-Julien, AC Pauillac...
  151. eu Passito di Pantelleria DOC - a dried moscat grape style
  152. ev Higher min. alcohol/percentage of Grenache, Mourvedre, and Syrah, lower yeilds.
    18 Villages may add their names
  153. ew Syrah - Color and Tannin - South can be too hot
    Mourvedre - Deep color intense tannin, Northern limit of ripening in Rhone. Gamey, savoury aromas.
  154. ex Thin skinned, sweet grapes. Tolerant of drought. Requires heat.
    Produce high alcohol with soft tannins with high oxidization potential
    Can show browning in the rim quite early in development
    red fruit: strawberry, raspberry, and white pepper
  155. ey Multiple levels of continuous intensity through the still, can be drawn off individually at different intensity levels and reblended
  156. ez Russia River Valley, Carneros, and Santa Lucia Highlands
  157. fa Chianti
    Emilia Romagna
    Abruzzo and Molise
  158. fb High tannin
    Black Fruit, Black Pepper, Floral
    Develop Gamey aromas
  159. fc same as traditional but all in tanks after second fermentation
    Can keep down autolytic character so ideal for aromatic grapes
  160. fd Pungent aromatic and spicy
  161. fe Trick question: Wines can have huge range from light/med bodied fruity fresh to high tannin full bodied red.
    All producers must manage tannin levels in the hot rhone valley!
  162. ff Full bodied, dry, medium/+ alcohol, High acid
  163. fg Semillon
    Sauvignon Blanc is Second
    Muscadelle is Third
  164. fh Palmela DOC in the south of Portugal
    low yeild, fruity, complex, rich textured reds that become nutty with age.
  165. fi Heat if these regions makes for higher alcohol which is bad. Need to pick at 10-10.5% alcohol to stay balanced
    Need to have lost herbaceousness, and be high in acid
  166. fj Anglianico
    High acid, high tannin
  167. fk France - Haut Mèdoc, Graves,
    Australia - Coonawara, Margaret River,
    USA - Napa
    New Zealand - Hawkes Bay
    Chile - Colchagua
  168. fl Fish oil used in fining wine
  169. fm High acid, tannic, deep color
    Fresh black currants in cooler climes, to black cherry and black currant jam in warm and hot climates
    can be accompanied with green capsicum, mint, and cedarwood, even menthol
  170. fn High pigment, acidity, and fruit aroma.
    Local clone called Tinto Fino as it is naturally darker than most tempranillo
  171. fo Tinta de Toro
  172. fp Martinborough
  173. fq Simple, Sappy Quaffing Wine
    Botrytis affected, very good desert wine
  174. fr Cote-Rotie AC - Red Syrah
    Condrieu AC - White Viognier
    Chateau Grillet AC- Similar to Condrieu
    Saint Joseph AC - Syrah, Marsanne & Roussanne
    Hermitage AC - Syrah, Marsanne & Roussanne
    Crozes-Hermitage - Syrah, Marsanne & Roussanne
    Cornas - Syrah
  175. fs raspberry, cherry, spice
    Full bodied
  176. ft Intense peach and apricot with high acidity
    can be made into a very rich and full style
  177. fu black cherries, raspberries, spice
    Oxidizes Very Readily! Can be browninsh.
  178. fv Trentino-Alto Adige
    Friuli-Venezia Giulia
  179. fw Ribera del Duero
  180. fx Full bodied and rich oily texture
  181. fy Direct Pressing - Same style as white wine, no on skin maceration
    Drawing off - Limited Maceration, taken out early
    Bleeding - Only a portion is taken out early, leftover macerating wine gets extra macerated
    Blending - Small portion of red added to white for color. Not allowed in EU
  182. fz Vineyard and winemaking techniques are more obviously important
  183. ga Room Temperature 15-18ºC
  184. gb In the bottle.
  185. gc Cool water that affects FOG and thus perfect BOTRYTIS conditions in Southern Bordeaux
  186. gd High acidity and perfumed fruit
    Develop honeyed aromas

    -used for blending in northern rhone
  187. ge Arinto - Semi aromatic, fresh fruity wines. Stays acidic in hot conditions
  188. gf Qualitatswein and Pradikatswein
    35 permitted grape varieties
  189. gg 30º-50º Latitude
  190. gh Touriga Nacional - low yeild intense color, flavor and tannin
  191. gi Calcium Bicarbonate
  192. gj Mourvedre Based
    Dark, full bodied, powerful tannin, require bottle age
    Bramble, gamey, meat, licorice
  193. gk The Southern Rhone tends to blend more varying varietals while the north sticks with Syrah, Viognier, and Marsanne/Roussanne
  194. gl Cane leaves only a piece of cane and the first few buds after pruning.

    Spur leaves a permanent cordon with spurs and a bud on each every year.
  195. gm The south where it's really hot and will allow full ripening.
  196. gn Jerez
  197. go France - Northern Rhone (Condrieu and Chateau Grillet)
  198. gp deep amber, high acid, intense aroma, oxidative characters from long oak aging,
    orange marmelade, apricots, honey
    can have rye bread, smoke, coffee, caramel
  199. gq Less bitter and acidic.
    Increases Fruit, Sweetness, and Richness.

    Pair with High acid wines.
  200. gr Chenin Blanc from South Africa
  201. gs Cooled by the Cape Doctor, high on the table Mountain it produces Sauvignon Blanc
  202. gt The process of drawing water up through the roots. Determined by temperature.
    Higher temp, higher metabolism, higher transpiration
  203. gu American AVA's, limited regulation
  204. gv Viura, Malvasia, Garnacha Blanca
  205. gw Spain - Rioja and Ribera del Duero
  206. gx Vitis Vinifera
  207. gy Degree Days
  208. gz Erste Lage - Best vineyard sites of VDP members, Limited to classic german grapes, Denoted on label with grape bunch and a '1'

    Grosses Gewachs - Erste Lage Wines that are Dry, somewhat redundant but important for quality
  209. ha Sémillon
    Sauvignon Blanc
    Muscadelle (used in Semillion and Balsac)
  210. hb Overtly floral red, black berry and black cherry, matches well with new oak
  211. hc Richness and weight
    Develop honeyed aromas

    -More dominant in Rhone as Rousanne is temperamental to weather
  212. hd Vastly varies: from dry to sweet, still to sparkling. It is dynamic.
  213. he That the wine has more than .5% higher alcohol than minimum and is in glass bottles.
  214. hf Firms tannins, increases bitterness, astringency, acidity, and alcohol burn.

    Pair with low alcohol sweet or fruity whites.
  215. hg Sauvignon Blanc - benefits from cool night climates
  216. hh Tannin
  217. hi Often Oxidised Rosé wine
    made from garnacha
  218. hj Wine can be overwhelmed.
    Pair with wine of similar flavor intensity.
  219. hk 22ºC - This is the cause for unripened grapes
  220. hl Cabernet Sauvignon
  221. hm Mediterranean
  222. hn It is essentially the northern half of Alsace.
    Similarly dry area.
  223. ho Called Licorella
    red slate with mica particles that shimmer int he sun
  224. hp Liquer de tirage added and bottle corked, cellared at 10-12ºC.
    6-8 Weeks
    Pressure rises to 6 Atmospheres
  225. hq Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah
  226. hr Light, Fruity, and best consumed young with duck, ham, or salami
  227. hs Prosecco DOC
    Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG - More elite
  228. ht Chateau Haut-Brion
  229. hu Rare expensive sweet style with Botrytis (noble rot). Don't require noble rot, just need to meet minimum must weight.
  230. hv The neck of the wine is frozen in brine, freezing a top layer of wine and stabilizing the sediment to allow for removal of the sediment and temporary cork. Cap is ejected and Liquer d'expedition is added (
  231. hw They are the highest in the world
  232. hx Valpolicella
    Amarone della Valpolicella
    Recioto della Valpolicella
  233. hy Catalunya
    wide variety of wines
  234. hz Albarinõ
    Cooler climate, delicate fruit, crisp acidity, refreshing young wine
  235. ia concentrated with sweet fruit, roasted nut and honey coated, tropical flavors
  236. ib Alsasce has full bodied, dry, with medium + alcohol while the germans are either more austere or quite sweet.
    Will almost certainly have higher alcohol with some residual sugar while germans will focus more on full sweetness
  237. ic Largest Cru in S. Rhone, Diverse Terroir, typically Grenache and Mourvedre.
    Full bodied, rich texture, spiced red fruit, high alcohol.
  238. id AC Bergerac - Both Red and White
    AC Monbazzillac - Sweet Whites (botrytis)
    AC Montravel - Dry Whites
  239. ie from cardonnay and pinot noir in South africa
  240. if Tartaric
    Malic - Becomes Lactic through Malolactic fermentation
  241. ig Tokaji Eszencia - sweetest best grapes - 450 g/L minimum
    low alcohol, less than 5%
  242. ih They both leave significant amounts of hard wood which assists in frost protection.
  243. ii Condrieu
  244. ij Grown in basket shapes, woven together to protect from wind.
  245. ik Garnacha, but Tempranillo is heavily promoted and on the rise.
  246. il 3 years
  247. im LLicorella - red slate with small particles of Mica (that sparkle), low in nutrients but retain water well
  248. in Germany - Mosel, Rheingau, Pfalz, Nahe
    Austria - Wauchau
    France - Alsace
    Australia - Clare adn Eden Valley
  249. io Kekfrankos - (Blaufrankish) light peppery high acid purple wine
    Kadarka - prone to grey rot
    Zweigelt - Austrian Cross of Kekfrancos and St laurent
  250. ip Early harvest for more acidity and lower fruit, light, neutral, medium acidity,
  251. iq Saint-Joseph - Follows the Rhone north to south
    Make Syrah, Roussane and Marsanne
  252. ir N to S-
    Niederosterreich* -
    Burgenland* -
  253. is Flavors in spirits
  254. it Mid/High Priced Beaujolais Cru
    Part carbonic maceration
    Light/Medium bodied with low tannin, med acidity, some cherry fruit
  255. iu Carneros and Anderson Valley
  256. iv Pessac-Leognan in Graves
  257. iw Cote Rotie AC - strictly Syrah
  258. ix Peach and Melon, Nuttiness from new oak
    Can taste quite 'New World'
  259. iy Pedro Ximinez (PX)
  260. iz Must is kept near frozen until needed
    put in tank and warmed
    fermentation allowed with CO2 release until 6% ABV
    Then sealed and allowed to ferment to 7-7.5%, chilled, bottled, sealed
  261. ja CO2
  262. jb Full body, ripe peachiness, full fruit flavor. Humidity allows for much TbA production, as the river gets over 1 km wide in some areas.
  263. jc Rioja South
    Navarra North
  264. jd Cornas AC
    Syrah production only
  265. je Cornas AC - Southern most Cru in Northern Rhone

    Most under valued!
  266. jf Tannins
    Fruit Concentration
  267. jg Away from dusty oxidized wines, to stainless steel production, quality oak, and better modern methods in general.
  268. jh Inclement weather leads to uneven years of production. Wine sealed anaerobically from years past allows fixes for lacking vintages.
    It allows for consistent house style wines
  269. ji The year the Medoc Red and Sauternes White Crus was created.
    Based off the excessive 1855 market price for these wines
  270. jj Literally everything
  271. jk Cool - <16.5º
    Moderate -16.5-18.5º
    Warm - 18.5-21º
    Hot - > 21º
  272. jl Reibera del Duero
  273. jm The Danube
  274. jn Semillon
  275. jo Alsace
  276. jp Cartizze is a hill of 120 producers considered to make the Grand Crus of Proseccos
    Rive is a group of 43 top producers in Coneglionano-Valdobbiadene DOCG that produce on really steep hills
  277. jq Cabernet Sauvignon
    Cabernet Franc
    Petite Verdot (doesn't always ripen and small quantity)
  278. jr Bairrada DOC
    thick skin, high acid and tannin
  279. js Downy Mildew - Damages Leaves, slows ripening
    Powdery Mildew - Effects buds/leaves, splits grapes open
    Grey Rot - Attacks berries, taints flavor,
    Botrytis - Makes grapes delicious - Can lead to grey rot
  280. jt Languedoc AC
    Minervois AC
    Corbieres AC
    Fitou AC
    Cotes du Roussillon AC
    Cotes du Roussillon Villages AC
    Pay d'Oc IGP
  281. ju Lambrusco - Refreshing, bone dry, frothy red
    Perfect with Prosciuto
  282. jv Non Vintage
    Blanc de Blancs
    Blanc de Noirs
    Prestige Cuvée
  283. jw It's fortified early to kill flor and has a fuller body
  284. jx Palo Cortado
  285. jy The last 20 liters of pressed juice for Champagne
  286. jz Languedoc AC
    Minervois AC (inside Languedoc)
    Fitou AC (inside Corbieres)
    Cotes de Roussillon AC
  287. ka Schisty soil is ideal for growing touriga nacional which is the core grape used in port
  288. kb Fullest body in Northern Rhone
    Age for a long time, some to 50+ years
  289. kc Westward into Portugal's port producing regions
  290. kd Napa Valley/Chateauneuf du Pape
  291. ke Bordeaux
    Loire Valley - Sancerre, Pouilly-Fumè
    Marlborough, New Zealand
  292. kf Second fermentation takes place in a sealed tank rather than a bottle
    Can use paddles to stir sediment and encourage autolytic fermentation like champagne
  293. kg The remaining grapes can swell in size and become diluted.
  294. kh Spain - Navarra, Rioja, Priorat
    Australia - Mclaren Vale
    France - Southern Rhone and Midi, Chateneuf du Pape blend
  295. ki Low nutrient craggy soils, limestone
  296. kj NO
  297. kk Sauvignon Blanc
    - for dry white wines
  298. kl Kirsch
    Bubble Gum
    Cinnamon spices
  299. km DOCG
  300. kn Malbec
  301. ko Oiliness
    can be quite bodied
  302. kp Xinomavro
    NeXus of wine in the North
  303. kq Crossings both parents are vitis vinifera
    Hybrids - Vitis vinifera x Vitis "?" - two species combined, not used for wine much anymore
  304. kr Light body with low alcohol and high acidity balanced by medium sweetness.
    Floral, green fruit
  305. ks Argentina, in Cafayete and Mendoza
  306. kt Cotes de Provence AC - Rosés,
    Bandol AC - Mourvedre Red $$$
  307. ku Columbard
  308. kv Highly structured reds from Tannat Grapes
  309. kw Corvina, Rondinella, Molinara
  310. kx Top quality sweet wines
  311. ky Carneros
  312. kz There are many varying geologies!
    Slopes of Granite, Limestone, Clay, Sandstone, Volcanic, and Loam
    The plains are largely alluvial
  313. la Appelation Controlee
  314. lb Logroño
  315. lc St. Emillion and Pomerol
  316. ld Into regions - dominant geological features
    Then Districts - Share environtment features
    Then Wards - similar soil and geog within regions
    Then Estate Wines
  317. le Tight bunches-prone to rot
    Thin skins with low soft tannins
  318. lf Syrah, Viognier, Marsanne, and Roussanne
  319. lg They often resemble new-world styles with international varietals.
  320. lh It develops sugars too fast and that crushes the delicate peach, pear and violet aromas
    Can be unbalanced and have too much alcohol
  321. li Garanega
  322. lj As it comes - picking the whole bunch when only a few grapes have botrytis
  323. lk Vigor
  324. ll Oltalom Alatt Allo Eredetmegjololes
  325. lm Solid morning fog that clears in the afternoon
  326. ln Verdejo - elegant white that's high acid with aromatic flavor
  327. lo High in acidity with sour red cherry, astringent tannin, earthy/dusty aromas like tea leaves or tobacco
  328. lp Assyrtiko - two S's for a sassy santorini
    concentrated perfume high in acid and alcohol
  329. lq Semillon
    Sauvignon Blanc
  330. lr Complex fruit spectrum from earth to blueberry to sour cherry.
  331. ls green grapes, salad, white pepper
    develops honey and toast
  332. lt 15 months
  333. lu Saint-Joseph AC - Syrah, Marsanne & Roussane
  334. lv Tavel and Lirac
  335. lw Auxerrois
  336. lx Latitude
    Ocean Currents
    Soil - How much heat can the soil hold and reflect
  337. ly Adding concentrated grape must.
  338. lz Cool the wine, then filter
  339. ma Produced from grapes exclusively grown within one of the 13 Anbaugabiete.
    May undergo must enrichment.
  340. mb Regional AC's - Aligoté, Rouge (P. Noir), Blanc (Chard)
    Commune AC's - Chablis, Beaune, Gevrey Chambertin
    Single Vineyard AC's - Premier and Grand Crus - Vineyards individually owned unlike Bordeaux Chateaux
  341. mc It covers the entire region and promotes blending of varietals from all over.
  342. md Spur trained and head trained
  343. me Big ripe fruit and Oak
  344. mf Columbia Valley
    Yakima Valley
    And Walla Walla
  345. mg Cool regions like Tasmania, Yarra Valley, Adelaide hills
  346. mh High alcohol, Tannin, and acidity. Excellent structure is hidden under light purple hued juice.
    Complex aromatics, red fruit, rose, licorice, hay
  347. mi Yes, most places
  348. mj Most delicate pradikatswein style
    Ideal aperatif
    Reislings Light in body, High acidity, with green apple, citrus, and some residual sugars.

    Varying sugar levels.
  349. mk Loire style, both dry and sweet.
  350. ml Marlborough, Hawkes Bay, and Gisbourne

    Marlborough is the southernmost of the main sparkling regions
  351. mm Gevrey Chambertin AC
    Vougeot AC
    Vosne-Romanée AC
    Nuits-Saint-Georges AC
  352. mn Xarel-Lo
  353. mo The humbolt current spews cool air that cools the valleys and also makes the fog on the coasts
  354. mp It's a quality and geographical scheme that is guaranteed by a tasting panel.
  355. mq 3 p... 60g/l
    4... 90 g/L
    5 ... 120 g/L
    6 ... 150 g/L
  356. mr Verdejo - Susceptible to oxidization, used in Sherry. Can be made a light bodied crisp melon/peach with anaerobic winemaking.
    Albarino - Thick skin, resistant to fungas, aromatic with intense peach and apricot and high acidity. Can be full bodied.
  357. ms Verdicchio - White with hints of Fennel, Candied Fruit, and Mineral Nuance.
  358. mt Anglianoco del Vulture - High altitude plantings, like Taurasi in style
  359. mu 6-9 months in oak barrels
  360. mv Coquard Press, now used alongside modern pneumatic presses
  361. mw By a panel, not to the chateaux but to each individual vintage. Done yearly.
  362. mx Steely, light-medium body, high acidity, apple, pear, green plum
  363. my Ull de Llebre
    Tinto de Pais
    Tinta Roriz
  364. mz Schisty granite and sand
  365. na The Pouilly-Fuisse style or new world with lots of oak and fruit. Full body and low acid
    exotic fruit, complexity, peach, banana, butter, hazelnut, oak vanilla
  366. nb Use chemicals only when needed, introduce predators, staying ahead with monitoring
  367. nc Pinot Noir
  368. nd Vitis Riparia
    Vitis Berlandia
    Vitis Rupestris
  369. ne Waxy grape surface that contains yeast
  370. nf Formerly, Priorat produced opaque, dense full bodied wines that were picked late and had a raisiny quality.
    Nowadays they are still full bodied and deep in color, but with lower alcohol and concentrated aromas of black fruit with toasty french oak.
  371. ng Flinty like Sancerre
  372. nh Buds late to protect from frost
    has thick skin to protect from insects and rot
    gives low yield, with high tannin and acid
  373. ni 8
  374. nj Chianti/Chianti Classico
    Brunello di Montalcino
    Vino Nobile de Montepulciano
    Vernaccia di San Ginignano - White
    Toscana Igt - Super tuscans
  375. nk Transfer
  376. nl The first 82 liters of juice is Cuvée, used in the finest champagne
  377. nm Varying among subregions
    Central Vineyards - Cool continental
    Anjou and Nantais - Western with more maritime influence
  378. nn The yeast that's used in Sherry production, forms a cap on the top of the sherry and is allowed breathing room in the barrel or butt.
  379. no Sweet nose of Chocolate, dark rum, and leather.
    Full body and intensely flavored.
    from the passito method
  380. np The Benguela Current
  381. nq The WesternCape
  382. nr Mourvedre (exclusively)
  383. ns The Rhone Valley opens up much more South of Valence the terrain is much flatter, Soil with large "Galet" stones that help hold heat.
  384. nt Anywhere in Germany
  385. nu Oxidization
  386. nv Bandol AC
  387. nw Acidity
    therefore it must be grown in cooler climates or regulating bodies like the sea
  388. nx Chablis - Chardonnay based whites
  389. ny Riesling and Madeleine Royale
  390. nz Brut Nature - 0-3g/l
    Extra Brut - 0-6g/l
    Brut - 0-12g/l
    Extra Sec - 12-20g/l
    Sec - 17-32g/l
    Demi-Sec - 32-50g/l
    Doux - 50+g/l
  391. oa Frost
  392. ob There is no ranking! All listed wines may call themselves Crus Classé. All lie within the Pessac Leognan AC.
    Chateau Haut-Brion is the only exception in that it is part of the 1855 Premiers Crus Classification.
  393. oc 3
    Chattea d'Yquem occupies the Premiers Rating Slot
  394. od Fino - light body
  395. oe The river goes east to west giving all of the vineyards in the north a perfect southern aspect
  396. of Anjou-Sanmur
  397. og Pick early for medium body/alcohol, higher acid
    red fruits like raspberry, strawberry, and even vegetal leafy aroma
  398. oh 10ºC
  399. oi More drying, bitter, and acidic.
    Less Fruity & less sweet.

    Use sweeter or more fruity wines
  400. oj St-Amour AC
    Julienas AC
    Chénas AC
    Moulin-à-Vent AC
    Chiroubles AC
    Fleurie AC
    Morgon AC
    Regnie AC
    Cote de Brouilly AC
    Brouilly AC
  401. ok Dry with Medium Acidity
    Unlike Champagne it is Smoky and Rubbery rather than Bread and Toast
  402. ol Sloping southern aspect hills in the far north east
    long dry autumns
    early morning humidity from the Bodrog and Tisza rivers
  403. om Sweetness
    Flavor Intensity
    Flavor Characteristics
    Other Observations - Finish
  404. on Viognier
  405. oo High alcohol, low acidity
    Exotic apricot, spices, floral aroma, rich mouthfeel (can become oily)
  406. op Rectified Constituted Grame Must - added to new world brands for sweetness - pure grape sugar extraction
  407. oq Producers may only use up to 80% vintage wine as to not deplete reserve stocks.
  408. or Minosegi Bor - Doc
    Vedett Eredetu Bor - Docg (Special level)
  409. os Pouilly-Fuissé
  410. ot Ausbruch - Between Beerenauslese and Trockenbeeranauslese
    Strohwein/Schilfwein - Grapes laid on straw to dry through the winter
  411. ou Less drying and bitter, less acidic.
    Makes wine smoother and richer.

    Eases Tannins.
  412. ov They are the easternmost contingent, deep in the central vineyards.
  413. ow Sugars
  414. ox Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
  415. oy Often referred to as Muscadet
    Neutral, green apple, grassy aroma
    food friendly
  416. oz E - elqui
    L - Limari
    Ch - Choapa
    A - Aconcagua
    Casa - Casablanca
    S- San Antonio

    Mai - Maipo
    Ca - Cachapoal
    Co - Colchuagua
    Cu - Curico
    Ma - Maule

    Ita - Itata
    Bio - Bio Bio
  417. pa Grenache
    -Heat/drought resistant, wind resistant. Develops concentrated spicy red fruit flavor. in hot years it can become baked and jammy
  418. pb Palomino - thrives on the chalky albarizo soils
  419. pc -Pouilly-Fume - Sauvignon Blanc
    -Sancerre - Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc
    -Menetou-Salon - Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc
  420. pd Wines made in France outside of Champagne using the traditional method
    Allowed 100L/150kg pressed juice
    Made with the best still white wine of the regions
  421. pe Wachau, Kamptal, and Kremstal
    All produce excellent Grüner Veltliner and Riesling
    Steep terraced vineyards with great ripening potential
  422. pf Proximity to a consistently evaporative body of water that will create a fog layer in the vineyard. Botrytis must also be present. The fog should lift and the vineyard should dry out with the mid day sun as well, allowing to grapes to shrivel and the botrytis to cease.
    Continued wet weather can lead to more serious fungal infections like grey rot, that will destroy a grape crop.
  423. pg Grenache + blend of Cinsault, Syrah, Mourvedre etc
  424. ph Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc
  425. pi Zones I-III
  426. pj Oak: allows for color and new flavor, oxidization and mellowing, and concentration though evaporation
  427. pk They ferment at a warm temperature which kills much of the fruit in the white wines. good for a neutral base wine.
  428. pl OPAP
  429. pm It is on the west coast of Africa and it helps regulate coastal temperatures and keeps it cooler
  430. pn Falernum
  431. po Same as traditional up until the riddling process when all bottles are emptied into a tank, filtered, then rebottled into new bottles.
  432. pp Hot Mediterranean but the ocean winds can have a cooling (if not destructive) effect
  433. pq 24 months red 18 white
    min of 6 in oak, none for white
  434. pr Dordogne
    They come together in the 'Gironde Estuary'
  435. ps NO!
  436. pt Either Trocken of Hab-Trocken (dry or off dry), higher must weight than Deutscher Wein (table wine)
  437. pu Baden - Strip from east of Alsace fromSwiss border up through Manheim
  438. pv Cool Continental
  439. pw Limestone and Marl Clay
  440. px DO - Denominacion de Origin
    DOCa - Denominacion de Origin Califcada
    VP - Vinos de Paya
    VCIG - Vinos de Calidad con Indicacion Geografica
  441. py Tempranillo, Garnacha, Mazuelo, Graciano
  442. pz Climate
  443. qa Chardonnay
  444. qb TCA - Trichloroanisole
    Mouldy Cardboard aroma!
  445. qc Médoc
    Entre Deux Mers
  446. qd Left over lees and sediments
  447. qe European - Toast, Vanilla, fine tannin
    American - more aromatic, bright flavors, sweet vanilla and coconut
  448. qf 36 months red, 18 white
    18 oak red, 6 white
  449. qg The western cape produces 90%
  450. qh Regional - Broad, include all of Burgundy
    Restricted Regions- ex. Bourgogne-HautesCotedeBeaune
    Commune AC's- i.e. Beaune, all within a town
    Single Vineyard AC's - Premier or Grand Crus only
  451. qi Pinot Noir
  452. qj Indicates quality wine with special attributes from a single Bereich within an Anbaugebiete.
    May not receive enrichment but can be sweetened post fermentation with Süssreserve.

    Also must label which of the 6 Pradikat levels it belongs to.
  453. qk Pinot Noir and some Cabernet Blends
  454. ql Garganega, high acid, floral perfume, camomile and iris
  455. qm Strawberry and raspberry with hints of white pepper
    can develop leather, tar and coffee over time.
    Full bodied high alcohol with low soft tannins
  456. qn Cabernet Sauvignon
    some of the best in the world are in napa
  457. qo Slow inversion, gentle shake, and twist to allow yeast to slide to Crown Cap over time.
  458. qp Central Vineyards
    -Pouilly-Fume - Sauvignon Blanc
    -Sancerre - Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc
    -Menetou-Salon - Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc
    -Tourraine - Generic AC, Many styles
    -Vouvray - Chenin Blanc
    -Bourgueil - Cab Franc
    -Chinnon - Cab Franc
    -Sanmur - Chenin Blanc & Cab Franc
    -Anjou - Chenin Blanc, Cab Franc, And some Rosé
    -Coteaux du Layon - Chenin Blanc
    -Savennieres - Chenin Blanc
    -Muscadet - Melon Blanc
    -Muscadet de Svre et Main - Melon Blanc
    -Muscadet de Svre et Marine Sur Lie - Melon Blanc
  459. qq Chalky soil with excellent water water retnetion and very low nutrients
  460. qr High acid white wine
    when young apples, develops into nuttiness and honey
  461. qs Muscadet Sur Lies
  462. qt Distinctly Grapey, Candied Orange overlaid with floral notes
    Sweet, low alcohol, avoids autolysis
  463. qu Barossa Valley
  464. qv Sherry style
    It is very oxidative and is perfect for sherry style. It can also be made crisp through anaerobic winemaking
  465. qw Sauvignon Blanc fermented in large Oak or stainless
    Gun Smoke, flinty, from chalky soil
  466. qx Inexpensive/mid priced red
    Pinot Noir
    light bodied, simple cherry fruit, higher acidity
    lower in oak so lower price
  467. qy Avoidance of excessive grassiness or fruitiness
    Fermentation in old oak
    restrained style unlike new world
  468. qz Coops pool grapes, can be given back to the producer or blended
    Negociants buy grapes/wine from producers and blends/sells it themselves
  469. ra A grecian wine made with tree resin, racked off, and can be made anywhere in Greece
  470. rb Maritime
    wet, mild climate
  471. rc The waxy film around the grape that contains natural yeast
  472. rd Must
  473. re Only a certain number of Bodegas can make it.
  474. rf Furmint - high acid, apples to nutty honey, botrytis
    Harslevelu - late ripening, botrytis
    Sarga Muscatolay - aromatic, orange blossom
    Olasz Rizling - (Welsch Reisling) light dry whites
    Irsai Oliver- intense aromatic, spicy like muscat or gewurtz
  475. rg It is a fining agent.
  476. rh Rosé
  477. ri Naoussa (macedonia) - Reds Xinomavro
    Nemea (Peloponnese) - Agiorgitiko
    Santorini - Assyrtiko
  478. rj Tinta Roriz
  479. rk Pinot Noir and Cinsault
  480. rl Mendoza
  481. rm Hawkes Bay
  482. rn Every 10 years
  483. ro Cool Continental with cool air coming off the Pyrenees, good rainfall as well.
  484. rp Moscato!
  485. rq Made from selected super ripe bunches
    Huge style range for Riesling
    Can be from a bit more concentrated than Spätlese up to full botrytis effect.

    Highest category allowed to be dry wine.
  486. rr Continental
    Long warm summers and short cold winters
  487. rs 102L/160kg
    First 82 Liters is Cuvee
    Last 20 Liters is Taille
  488. rt over 600 Premier Crus
    33 Grand Crus
  489. ru East towards the River Ill
  490. rv YES - Long warm summers allow
  491. rw Strong acidity, pronounced floral notes, camomille and Iris.
  492. rx Spicy nose
    Lychee, Baking Spices
    Golden Color
    Oily Texture
    High Alcohol
    Medium to low acidity
  493. ry A blend of Wine, sugar, yeast nutrients, and a clarifying agent added to promote the secondary fermentation
  494. rz Dried grapes (because Italy largely lacks Botrytis)
    Picked early to retain acidity and pressed weeks-months later
  495. sa Alsace only
    selection of botrytis affected grapes
    minimum of 16.4-18.2% alcohol potential
    noble grapes only
    not produced every year
    always sweet
  496. sb Crisp, Light whites made from Armagnac.
  497. sc Extra Brut
    Extra Sec
    Demi Sec
  498. sd Chateauneuf-du-Pape style.
    Full bodied spicy wines
  499. se Clay Soils, poor drainage, limited heat retention
  500. sf Muscat - Grapey and candied orange
  501. sg Cap Classique
    must stay on lees for 9 months
  502. sh Virus and disease (Leaf roll virus primarily)
  503. si Aloxe-Corton AC
    Beaune AC
    Pommard AC
    Volnay AC
    Meursault AC
    Puligny-Montrachet AC
    Chassagne-Montrachet AC
  504. sj Warm Mediterranean
    Long diurnal range, very hot in sumer
  505. sk 3 styles of Cab Franc:
    Lightest- sandy soils of Rive Vienne
    Medium- Gravelly Clay Plateau -firmer body
    Finest - Limestone Slopes
  506. sl #1 - Tempranillo - 70%
    #2 - Garnacha
  507. sm Joven - Immediate release
    Crianza - red: 6 mnth barrel, 24 total. White total 18 mnth
    Reserva - reds 12 mnth barrel, 36 mnth total. White, 18 total, 6 in barrel
    Gran Riserva - Exceptional vintages only, minimum 60 months, 18 in barrel for red, 48 for white and rosé
  508. sn Naturally high tannin, acidity and color
    lacks fruit and finesse
  509. so Champagne Chardonnay is usually lighter bodied with a high acidity and floral/citrus character, Burgundy Chardonnay has more body, and can produce lean steely high acid wine in Chablis or creamy complex bodied wines of Cote d'Or, or Highly fruity round wines from Macon
  510. sp Ripe red spicy black fruit, can be floral from higher altitudes
  511. sq Particles that cloud the wine, are suspended in the liquid and do not deposit. Most important are tannins and color compounds
  512. sr Willamette Valley - Cool winters, wet, warm dry summer with cooling from pacific
  513. ss Addition of synthetic acid to wine.
  514. st Barolo
    Barbera d'Asti
    Dolcetto d'Alba
    Roero Arneis
  515. su Burying on cane down under ground to promote root growth, then separating it from the original plant.
  516. sv 16-21ºC
  517. sw The north west
  518. sx "Late Harvest"
    More concentrated flavor than Kabinett
    More ripe Riesling flavors, no green apple, more citrus and stone fruit (peach & Apricot)
  519. sy Chilled 7-10ºC
  520. sz Clarity - Intenisty - Color - Other Observations
  521. ta tank method
  522. tb Lightly Chilled 10-13ºC
  523. tc Cabernet, Merlot, Syrah, Camenère blends
  524. td The Right Bank of Bordeaux
  525. te Citrus, Peach, Pineapple
  526. tf Gamay
  527. tg Peach and apricot
    Rich and Balanced
  528. th Ripe strawberry/plums
    often blended with other more distinctive grapes
  529. ti Northern Spain running west to east
  530. tj Frost protection
  531. tk Condition - Intensity - Aroma Characteristics - Development
  532. tl An Einzellage is an individual vineyard. Only PDO producers may mention the Einzellage on Label.
  533. tm Mencia - aromatic fruity intensity balanced with natural high acidity.
  534. tn Matching production with demand and keeping everyone paid!
    Growers will make their own blending wine or champagnes at cooperatives to sell
    Champagne houses cannot expand their holdings and must rely on growers
  535. to The grapes will ripen at different rates
    farmers will pick in numerous 'Tries'
  536. tp All Chenin Blanc
    Can be many styles though, dry, sweet, sparkling etc
  537. tq Fruit desserts
  538. tr Granite Schist
    Gamay loves Granite
  539. ts Can switch from one variety to another on existing stock (though must wait 3 years to produce good fruit) and allows producers to adjust quickly to market changes.
  540. tt plum, anise, earth
  541. tu Coastal Plain - Hottest, mediterranean, dry. Full bodied Reds
    Valleys - Temperate, white wines, Cava
    Hills - up to 800m, cool, good for int. varietals like riesling.
  542. tv Riesling - Late Ripen, Hardy, High Acid, Floral to Ripe Peach
    Müller-Thurgau (Rivaner) - Lower acid and flavor intensity than Riesling, Simple floral and fruit
    Silvaner - White, moderate acidity, neutral fruit, can be earthy
    Spatburgunder (Pinot Noir)
    Dornfelder - Black grape - Deep color
  543. tw Furmint - concentrated acid, apples become nuts & honey with age
    Harslevelü - late ripe, botrytis, aromatic
    Sarga Muscotaly - (muscat) - aromatic, floral orange blossom
  544. tx Too hot sometimes!
  545. ty It is botrytis affected! There is a lot of water around allowing for misty mornings. It is in contrast to the vendange tardive style of Savennieres on the north side of the Loire.
    Will be high in alcohol, distinctly Acidic, and good body from the botrytis.
  546. tz Drought and heat
  547. ua Mantagne de Riems
    Vallee de la Marne
    Cotes de Blancs
  548. ub Clarification, by removing the sedimented particles from the liquid
  549. uc Chablis
    Cote de Nuits
    Dote De Beaune
    Cote Chalonnaise
  550. ud Merlot
    Cabernet Franc
  551. ue Futures sales of early rated vintages from top producers in Bordeaux
  552. uf Pungent, Gamey nose with high tannin, alcohol, and acidity.
  553. ug Orvieto - Famous for whites made with Grechetto, Malvasia and Trebbiano
    Mantefalco Sagratino is a red that is demanding more attention now.
  554. uh Cotes Du Rhone
    Cotes Du Rhone Villages
    Rhone Satellites
  555. ui Crushing! - Breaks the skin and allows free-run juice to flow out - will be left on to macerate or pressed immediately for whites
  556. uj France
  557. uk Kabinett, Spätlese, Auslese can all potentially be made dry
  558. ul Warm and Dry
  559. um Microscopic worms
    attack roots
  560. un Vienne in the North
    Valence in the South
  561. uo Red berry fruit, can be made beaujolais style or full bodied with spicy notes
  562. up White. Green Grapes, Salad, and White Pepper that becomes honeyed and toasted as the wine ages
    Can express exaggerated minerality.
    Often allowed to breath in new oak
  563. uq Using the tank method
  564. ur The Meseta
  565. us Premium Priced Grand Cru White
    Full Bodied, med/high acid, peach and apricot fruit
    oak aged
  566. ut Smaragd - Fullest and most complex
    Federspiel - In the middle
    Steinfeder - Lightest and freshest style
  567. uu Gewürz - Like Gewurztraminer
  568. uv Rudolf Steiner and Maria Thun
  569. uw Grave del Friuli DOC- Light Bordeaux Style Blends
    Collio DOC** - Important Whites High acidity and Alcohol
    Colli Oriantali del Friuli DOC - Reds and Whites
  570. ux The south Western Part of Aus, Under Perth
  571. uy Carneros AVA
    2nd - Anderson Valley in Medocino - Cool ocean wind with thick fog
  572. uz As broad as a state
    a county sized area
    a geographical area like the central coast
  573. va Half continental and half maritime
    relatively early spring but with mild summer temps
  574. vb Tempranillo - #1
    Garnacha Tinta - Spanish Grenache
    Monastrell - Spanish Mourvedre
    Graciano - Mainly in Rioja, Strong Structure
    Carinera - Lower acid, High in Tannin and Color
    Mencia - better in cooler climate, herbaceous, high acid
  575. vc Riesling
    Pinot Gris
    Pinot Blanc
    Pinot Noir
  576. vd The average temperature difference between winter and summer
  577. ve Rive Sâone
  578. vf It cools the air that might otherwise be too warm in Chile
  579. vg Deep from thick skinned clone of Tempranillo (tinta del toro).
    Noticeably high in alcohol
  580. vh Harvested late for optimum color, and fruit. Intense purple juice, blackberry and plums. Velvet textured Tannin with higher alcohol and possibly oak influence
  581. vi Veraison
  582. vj Fresh simple fruity wines best drank young
    Complex full bodied and texture, skin macerated and barrel fermented
  583. vk The island wide IGT Sicilia
  584. vl Malbec (Auxerrois)
    Minimum of 70% in any blend

    Also plant tannat and merlot
  585. vm Minute quantities produced
    Undergo noble rot until absolutely shriveled
    very high residual sugar and acidity.
    Very $$
  586. vn Chablis - White Chardonay-Centric wines
    Cote d'Or
    -Cote de Nuits - Top Full Bodied Reds
    -Cote de Beaune - Top Whites (excluding Musigny Blanc)
    Cote Chalonnais
  587. vo Bodega
  588. vp Vidal and Riesling
  589. vq Tajbor
  590. vr First fermentation
    Second fermentation
    maturation and Autolysis
  591. vs Varietals and Cuvée/Taille are fermented separately.
    Most will undergo some MLF
  592. vt Olorosso and Amontadillo
  593. vu Varying from Hermitage intensity to light bodied carbonically macerated wines with raspberry and pepper perfumes.
  594. vv Rully AC - White and Red
    Mercurey AC - Best Reds from Chalonnaise
    Givry AC - Smallest
    Mantagny AC - Only Whites
  595. vw Huge diurnal range allows for higher acid production
  596. vx Maritime-Alpine hybrid
    Warm air comes up through the Orcia Valley to Montalcino Massif in the center of the Apennines to moderate daytime temps.
  597. vy Beaujolais AC - Lowest Quality, Can produce Nouveau or Premieur
    Beaujolais Villages AC - Can produce Nouveau or Premieur
    Beaujolais Crus - Ten Crus
  598. vz divided into 3 regions
    coastal plain is hottest and it cools up into the hills
  599. wa Intensely grapey flavor
    Can contain grape, peach, rose, and citrus in best locations
  600. wb Fume Blanc
  601. wc Between the light Mosel and Full Rheingau style. Pronounced acidity like Mosel but fuller fruit like Rheingau
  602. wd Medium Bodied, Fruity, and Simple
    Many use carbonic maceration to limit tannins
  603. we Taurasi DOCG
    High Acid, High Tannin, made with Anglianico
  604. wf Death of yeast releases proteins and other chemicals into wine providing bready toasty flavors.
  605. wg Premium Quality, Minimum Must weight of Auslese level or better, comes from an Einzellage area, Generally Dry, rare classification that often qualifies for other certs
  606. wh The southern plains - Half of vineyards
    Lake Balaton - largest lake in europe with moderating climate effects
  607. wi Grüner Veltliner
    green grapes, salad, white pepper
    develops honey and toast
  608. wj Reds - 75% of production
  609. wk Rosés from Grenache and Cinsault
    Full bodied and intense flavor.
  610. wl Deep red with high acidity and tannin.
  611. wm Aromatic, high acid, late ripening, very hardy making it ideal for late harvest
  612. wn Northern is more Continental
    Southern is Mediteranean
  613. wo Furmint - High acid white varietal
  614. wp Bergerac
    Cotes de Gascogne IGP
  615. wq Chardonnay, Merlot, Cab Sauv
  616. wr N to South-
    Mosel - Reisling
    Rhieingau - Riesling
    Nahe - Riesling
    Rheinhassen - Riesling
    Pfalz - Riesling
    Baden - Pinot Noir
    Franken - Silvaner, Riesling
  617. ws sour cherry, raspberry, spice, anise
  618. wt Warm weather varietals like:
    Marsanne and Roussane
  619. wu Rioja Alavesa - High alt 800m, Chalky, light wines with finesse
    Rioja Baja - Heavy clay, strong continental climate, HOT
    Rioja Alta - 500-800m, limestone clay with red iron,
  620. wv Chardonnay
    Pinot Noir
  621. ww Non-botrytis Dry Wines - Can be premium
    Tokaji Szamorodni - Dry or sweet, noble rot character, aged
    Tokaji Aszu - base of healthy grapes concentrated must, matured for 3 years, can be extremely sweet
    Aszu Eszencia - Very rare, min 180g/L Sugar
    Tokaji Eszencia - Very rare, free run from Aszu.. minimum 450 g/L sugar. Hi acid, concentrated
    Modern Sweet Wine - less barrel contact than others
  622. wx Ribera del Duero - in the east
    Rueda - in the middle
    Toro - in the west
  623. wy Under Adelaide in Southern Aus. Home to coonawara
  624. wz OPE
  625. xa Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscat d'Alexandria
  626. xb Haut Medoc
    Saint Julien
    Moulis en Medoc
    Listrac Medoc
  627. xc Grenache
  628. xd Olorosso - Develop little to no flor. Fortified to 17% to kill Flor
  629. xe NO
    - Only Merlot/Cab franc
  630. xf Chalky soil
    Continental climate
  631. xg Botte are large often slovenian oak
    Barrique are small 250 liter casks
  632. xh They are huge buildings kept cool by high lofty windows and ceilings with a continually damp earthen floor to maintain humidity levels (which regulate oxidization in the barrels)
  633. xi New Zealand style
    - High acid and crisp from the central coast
  634. xj Adding of sugars to grape must.
  635. xk Bergerac
  636. xl Champagne made exclusively from Pinot Noir and Meunier grapes
    more structured and with red fruit character
  637. xm Fruit flavors
  638. xn Nebbiolo-like
    High tannin and acid
  639. xo Kabinett
  640. xp Gravelly, Excellent Drainage, Heat Retaining Stone
  641. xq Gobelet
  642. xr Grenache - thrives on the hot weather
  643. xs Proximity to seas and lakes
    Sunlight hazards - Trees and vine's own leaves
  644. xt 30º-32ºC
  645. xu "Ice-Wine" left until they meet -8ºC temp
    Crushed, frozen water skimmed off
    Intense Fruit and Acidity
  646. xv Upper Ebro
    Duero Valley
    North Western Spain
    Castilla-La Mancha
    The Levante
  647. xw Only majority Red wine producer in Germany - Is the warmest region - produce Pinot Noir (Spatburgunder)
  648. xx Med Acidity, Fresh Green Apple & Melon
    Do not benefit from bottle aging
  649. xy More drying, bitter, acidic. Will firm tannins.
    Less sweet & less fruity.

    Pair with more fruity wines, limit tannins
  650. xz Maritime - Clay over limestone (Valpolicella, barolo, Barbaresco)
    Volcanic - (Soave, Colli Euganei, Lacryma Christi, Etna)
    Alluvial - Bardolino and Piave
  651. ya Thin high acid wines. Generally two-dimensional flavor.
    Used in sparkling burgundies, blended to add acidity.
  652. yb Review of producers every 10 years,
    enter system as a grand cru
    after 10 years consistent G. Cru performance can become a Grand Cru Classé
    Top tier is Premier G. Cru Classe
  653. yc Reds: 60 months total, minimum 18 in Oak
    Whites & Rosé: 48 months with a minimum of 6 in oak.
  654. yd Full bodied Garnacha/Monastrell Reds
  655. ye Passerillage is done on the vine
    Passito is dried indoors
  656. yf 1 Drink
  657. yg The Remueur
  658. yh They have strict limits est. in 1986 that severely limits grape yield for PGI and PDI wines
  659. yi Ribera Del Duero
  660. yj 60 Months red, 48 months white
    18 oak red, 6 oak white
  661. yk men - 14 units / week (2/day)
    women - 7 units/week (1/day)
  662. yl (cool climate) blueberry, prune, coffee, leather, pepper
    (warm climate) raspberry, blackberry, pepper, chocolate

    Both full bodied
  663. ym Muscadet AC
    Produced with Melon Blanc
  664. yn Tempranillo
    Very little Garnacha Tinto is blended
  665. yo VORS - Very old rare sherry
    VOS - Very old sherry

    both at least average of 30 years
  666. yp Limited aromatic character, peach and grapefruit
    Can be oaked and called Fumè Blanc in the US
  667. yq Mourvedre
  668. yr South Africa
  669. ys Coteaux is prone to botrytis while Savennieres is well exposed and air circulates to prevent noble rot but promotes vendange tardive wines.
    Both use chenin blanc
  670. yt Rotten
  671. yu Flowers and ripens early
  672. yv Round tannins, deep color, high alc, blackberry and plum