672 Matching questions
- What is the designation for regional typicity in Austria?
- What is the meaning of Qualitatswein bestimter Anbaugebiete(QbA)?
- What is the varietal used in Bandol AC?
- Describe the cloning method "layering"
- What is the southernmost AC of Northern Rhone?
- What is the name for Portuguese Tempranillo?
- What are the two Prosecco Denominations?
- What are the 3 top Beaujolais Crus?
- What is the profile of a Zweigelt?
- What is the style of Vinho Verde in Portugal?
- What does passito entail?
- What is the soil composition of the Cote d'Or
- What is the north eastern Italian style of Pinot Grigio?
- What is the climate of Greece?
- What is acidification?
- What is liquer de Tirage?
- What comes first? Pressing or Crushing?
- What is the only significant geographical unit in South Africa?
- What is the king grape of Campania?
- How are grapes primarily grown in the hills of Priorat?
- What is the central town of Cote-Rotie AC?
- What are two regions (cooler) growing more refined old world style chardonnay?
- What are the white grapes of Entre Deux mers?
- What is typical of Reisling's profile?
- What are the 3 main regions producing quality Viognier?
- What are the eight AC styles of Northern Rhone?
- Why is the diurnal range in Ribera del Duero so good for Tempranillo production?
- What is the Garonne river famous for?
- What is Enrichment?
- what is the main city in Rioja?
- What is the South african style for Chenin Blanc Steen
- What style is the Burgenland known for?
- What is a region that can emulate the Vouvray style Chenin Blanc?
- where is the second fermentation in Champagne production?
- What are the 8 essential AC's in the southern Rhone?
- What are the levels of Burgundy Apellations?
- What is the longest Northern Rhone AC?
- What is Sulfur Dioxide used for?
- What is a common weather factor of the Napa benchlands?
- What are the 4 subregions of the Anjou-Sanmur in Loire?
- What is the most important international variety used in Chile?
- What is the Clay most common in Chablis?
- What are the manin grape varieties of Valpolicella?
- Why is Cabernet Sauvignon considered hearty?
- Red Wine Fermentation Temperature
- What effect will Salty food have on wine?
- Service Temp for Medium/Full-bodied Whites, Oaked Whites
- What is the german word for spice?
- Why are marsanne and roussane perfect blending partners?
- How many Ranks Are There in the Sauternes Classification?
- What ratio of juice liters to kilos of grape may be pressed in Champagne?
- What wine is Pantelleria Island known for?
- What are the italian word Large oak barrels and small oak barrels?
- What is the profile of a Fino Sherry?
- What are the 6 Pradikatswein Denominations?
- What is the core region in the north part of Oregon?
- If the flor fails in a fino sherry it becomes a
- Name 3 Systemic Diseases
- Name the 2 main regions within Catalunya
- What is Bloom?
- Name the three spanish regions on the Duero East to West
- What chemical can be used to lower acid content in wine?
- What is Portugal's most important red grape?
- Where is the Margaret River?
- What is the varietal of muscat used in Asti DOCG?
- Define ISINGLASS
- Name the Major Regions and Subregions in the Loire Valley (East to West)
- Is there much irrigation in Chile?
- What is the primary red grape of the Loire?
- What are THREE Regions just outside (SW France) that replicate Bordeaux Wines?
- What is Rioja traditionally know for?
- What are the characteristics of Rousanne Grape?
- What kind of grapes do best in Southern France?
- What are the main aspects of wine STRUCTURE?
- What is the principle wine of Cahors AC in SW France?
- How many Premier and Grand Crus are there in Burgundy?
- What are the 3 species of grapes used in root stock.
- Why is the Cabernet Franc grape ideal for Loire?
- Name the 2 CONCLUSION Categories for Tasting
- What is integrated pest management?
- What is the typical profile of a Welschrielsing?
- What region in NZ is producing fine quality Pinot Noir?
- What is the primary red grape of southern france and southern rhone?
- What is particular about the bodegas where Sherry is made
- What are the regulations on Vintage Champagnes?
- Does Saint-Emilion AC have White Wines?
- Describe the tank or Charmant method for making sparkling wine
- Describe the Burgundy Cru System
- What are the two best Bordeaux districts for Merlot?
- What is Italy's Climate?
- What's the primary white grape of Austria?
- What is the river that runs North to South through Burgundy?
- What does the word Steen Mean?
- What are the main Hungarian grape Varieties?
- What is the most common Mosel Riesling style?
- What is the profile of Xinomavro from Naoussa
- What AC in southern France uses Mourvedre exclusively?
- What are some typical Beaujolais flavor profiles?
- What is significant about the mistral and tramontne winds?
- How long are Cotes De Beaune whites aged for?
- What is the most extensively planted varietal in Bergerac (SW France)
- What are the three spanish regions on the Duero River?
- Name the 5 PREMIERS CRUS Red Producers in Bordeaux
- Is mechanical harvesting allowed in Champagne?
- What is a red grape showing particular promise in Chile's cooler locations?
- What 6 factors affect temperature in the vineyard?
- What are the characteristics of Melon Blanc?
- What are the flavor characteristics of Merlot in Both Cool and Hot Climates?
- What is the climate of Germany?
- What are the two main spanish varietals of Navarra?
- What is the name of the best soil type in Priorat?
- Describe the Solera system
- What style of wine is Verdejo used in?
- What are the 5 Burgundy regions north to south?
- What are the climates that distinguish Northern from Southern Rhone?
- Describe Classic Tokaji profile
- What challenges face the growers and Houses of Champagne?
- What grapes are used in Rosé production in Southern Rhone?
- What are the 5 Classic Pinot Noir regions?
- Describe the Pouilly-Fumé Style
- Name the 8 PALATE Categories for Tasting
- What is the name for the besttraditional South African sparkling wines?
- What are the most common red grapes in South Africa?
- What is the word for when ripening begins?
- Is Southern France producing more Reds or Whites?
- What is the geography of the Rhone Valley?
- What is the climate of Portugal?
- What is the climate of northern Rhone?
- WWhat makes Tokaji a perfect botrytis wine growing area?
- What is the requirement for 'Classic' PGI on Germany?
- Name the 7 most important Burgundy Districts from North to South.
- What is typical of Pays d'OC IGP styles
- What is particular about the Coteaux du Layon AC in Anjou-Sanmur?
- What is flor?
- What are congeners?
- What is the style of Loire Chenin Blanc?
- What is key about Olorosso Sherry?
- What are the defining characteristics of Zinfandel/Primitivo?
- What is the ideal Latitude range for wine making?
- What does Aszu mean in Hungarian?
- Give an overview of the Transfer method for making sparkling wine
- What is the most widely planted grape in spain?
- What are the 3 subregions of the Loire Central Valley?
- What does VQA stand for in Canada?
- What is the best known style from Emilia Romagna?
- What is the primary varietal of Oregon?
- What is particular about Salta's vineyards in Argentina?
- Define the Trockenbeerenauslese Pradikatt
- Where is the Ebro River?
- What is the one notable German Appellation producing Pinot Noir?
- Describe the famous soil of Sancerre
- What is the Climate of Meseta, Spain?
- Which Duero Valley apellation makes white wines?
- What is the essential gas in carbonic maceration?
- What is the very best American region for sparkling wines?
- Describe the characteristics of a typical Syrah
- What is the Superior Apellation Abreviation in Greece?
- What are 3 important Champagne subregions?
- Define the Beerenauslese Pradikatt
- Which Maconnais wine benefits most from age?
- What is the profile of a classic Tokaji swet wine?
- What pairs well with gewurztraminer?
- Describe the Bourgogne Haut Cotes de Beaune Rouge AC
- What two famous Spanish regions are on the Ebro River?
- What is the most maritime region in Loire?
- What is a unique aspect about the general composition of Alsace Soils?
- What is the northern most region of Burgundy and what does it produce?
- What is a specialty style from Nantais that's gaining popularity?
- What is the most widely planted red grape in CA?
- What are the typical characteristics of Syrah?
- What is the aging time for Gran Riserva level in Spain?
- How is prosecco produced?
- What is a Grosslage?
- What does the flor protect against?
- What defines a Loire style Sauvignon Blanc?
- What are the 6 Regions of Central Italy?
- What are the 2 primary rivers in Bordeaux?
- Describe the Le Montrachet AC from Burgundy
- What varietal is Condrieu famous for producing?
- What is Chaptalization?
- What is a Bereich?
- What are the 3 Major subregions in Rioja?
- What are the defining flavor characteristics of sangiovese?
- what is the minimum ageing for a non vintage champagne?
- What is the typical vine training method of (most of) Spain
- What are the core red varieties used for export in Chile?
- What is Spain's southernmost winemaking region?
- What is the style of a white zinfandel?
- What is the Alsasce style for Riesling?
- What are the three levels of Bordeaux Appellation?
- What is steen?
- What is peculiar about the first fermentation of sherry?
- What country uses Torrontes varietal?
- What is the wine made for Roman Emporers in Campania?
- What is the typical style of Valpolicella?
- What are the 7 important villages on the Cote de Beaune?
- What is the difference between passerillage and passito?
- What is the climate of Hungary?
- What is the process for making Muscadet Sur Lies?
- What is the sweetest level of Tokaji?
- What is the Bordeaux style of Merlot?
- What does RCGM stand for?
- What are the typical growing characteristics and issues of pinot noir?
- Where is Cava primarily made?
- What are typical characteristics of Pinot Noir?
- What is the name for Hungarian PDO?
- Describe an Alsace style Riesling
- Where is the Penedes DO?
- Describe the flavor profile of Tempranillo
- Compare Champagne Chardonnay with that of Chablis in Burgundy
- What are the 3 distinct climate zones of Penedès?
- What is a notable Davis zone 1 in California?
- Name 4 significant AC's in Southern France
- What are the three primary varietals used in Champagne?
- What are Colloids?
- What is the main DOC of Umbria?
- What are the 5 Key Wines of Tuscany?
- What is the Baga varietal's profile?
- What are the two additional Pradikats Austri uses in addition to Germany's 6?
- What Northern Rhone Cru must be made of 100% Syrah?
- How many regions have OPE Status in Greece?
- What is the typical soil of Right Bank Bordeaux?
- Where has Pinot Noir found a home in California?
- How are the Alsasce style and German style Rieslings different?
- What is the main grape variety in Soave?
- What is Pradikatswein?
- Service Temp for Full Bodied Red
- What is the typical profile of Rheingau Reisling?
- What are typical COLD climate Chardonnay Characteristics?
- What is the significance of 'Selection' PGI in Germany?
- What are the classic Chardonnay regions of the world? (4 countries)
- How is color added to spirits?
- What is the constantia district of South Africa known for?
- What is the classic grape of Rueda?
- How is the Beaujolais system composed?
- What are the 4 main Grape varieties of Burgundy?
- What are the main sparkling wine regions of Australia?
- What are the most important sparkling wine regions in New Zealand?
- What are Four non-systemic diseases that effect grapes?
- What are the defining flavors of Malbec?
- Define the Auslese Pradikatt
- What is Sale en Primeur?
- Describe the typical characteristics of sparkling Asti DOCG
- What are the 4 main Red varietals of Rioja DOCa?
- What are the differences in flavor of american and european oak?
- What is the appropriate wine storage temp?
- What is the essential quality of both Taille Chablis and Cordon de Royat pruning used in Champagne?
- What are the most important california varietals?
- What is the main grape of Marche?
- What style of Pinot Gris is popular for export in Hungary?
- What is the difference between American and European Oak Production?
- What does the Acronym SATABICO stand for?
- Contrast Coteaux du Layon with Savennieres
- What style wines come from Madiran AC, South of Bordeaux?
- What is the name of the person who Riddles wine?
- What are the top two sherry aging categories?
- What are the 3 primary native Hungarian red grapes?
- What does the Argentinian Parral training system help avoid?
- What aspects does skin impart on wine?
- What is the shallow soft press most commonly used in Champagne?
- What are the characteristics of Hermitage?
- What does the term Blanc de Noir refer to?
- Why was big vines management developed?
- What is the Alsatian style of Pinot Gris?
- What is the typical grape of Beaujolais?
- Describe the flavor profile of sangiovese
- What is the style of Uraguay often compared to?
- Describe the style of Reds from Toro, Spain
- Where in New Zealand does Cabernet Sauvignon Ripen well?
- What are the two tempranillo centric regions on the duero?
- What is the temperature at which vines consume more sugar than photosynthesis can produce?
- What has been the large scale shift in Italian winemaking?
- What is special about Sherry producers?
- What is an Ambaugebiet?
- What 2 regions define Northern Rhone?
- What are the three predominant soil types in Italy?
- What are the three leading white Varietals of Chile?
- What is the Montalicino Terroir?
- What's the typical profile of a Roero Arneis?
- What is Libourne?
- What is the significance of 1855
- What grape is Asti DOCG made from?
- What are the most suitable climates (davis system) for premium wine growing?
- What levels of German Pradikatswein are possible to ferment to dryness?
- Who developed Biodynamic Agriculture?
- Define the Spälese Pradikat
- What are the typical characteristics of Gewurztraminer?
- What is particular about the Toaji Aszu winemaking process?
- What are the typical flavors of Austrian Grüner Veltliner?
- How are Gamay grapes generally trained in Beaujolais?
- What is the Castelao grape used in?
- What is the name for Malbec in SW France?
- What is the juice from pressing called?
- How many cru apellations are in Northern Rhone?
- What 5 factors effect wine style?
- What are the PDO Wine Stratas in Spain?
- What is the style often referred to Sauv blanc production in CA?
- What are the most common white varietals used in Southern France?
- What is particular about varietal uses in Franken?
- What are the characteristics of Saint-Joseph AC Syrah?
- What is the benefit of a continuous or coloum still?
- What is the geographic layout of the Penedes region
- What are the 7 Core winemaking regions in Germany?
- What are the three core regions of the Duero river Valley?
- What is Sekt?
- What is Retsina?
- What are Solutes?
- What area of Spain is Tempranillo Country?
- What is the primary white varietal in Portugal?
- What is the grape used in Soave?
- What are the differences between Cane and Spur Training?
- What river runs through the Neiderosterreich?
- What is the Grecian Appellation system based on?
- What are two important Puglian DOC's?
- What's particular about the Coteaux du Layon?
- More Free Run Juice...
- What are the two oxidized styles of Sherry?
- What are the 2 AC's for still wine in Alsace?
- What is the soil of Nantais?
- What are the 2 important Provence AC's?
- What are the 6 sweetness levels in Champagne?
- What is the max recommended consumption in the US?
- What is the most widely planted white grape in the world?
- What are the 7 labeling terms describing Champagne Sweetness?
- What are the typical Characteristics of Prosecco?
- What are the 8 steps in traditional methode champagnoise?
- What style are Penedès traditionally known for?
- What region in South West France Produces Bordeaux Style Wines?
- What are the three main PDO Austrian wine regions?
- What is Pfalz essentially a continuation of?
- What are typical characteristics of Viognier?
- Describe New World Style Merlot
- Describe Autolysis
- What is the main difficulty in growing Viognier?
- What are the 4 main commune appellations in Cote Chalonnaise, Burgundy?
- What are the 2 VDP labeling terms used in Germany?
- What are some of the issues particular to Chenin Blanc development in the vineyard?
- What are the defining Characteristics of Grenache/Garnacha?
- Name the 4 main Red Grape Varieties in Bordeaux
- What are the primary Canadian Icewine Varieties?
- What is typical of a Sauvignon Blanc in cool climate with poor soil?
- What are Chile's DO's similar to?
- What is Yeast Autolysis?
- Describe the climate of the Loire
- What is the risk of culling grapes after veraison?
- Describe the Malbec profile from Argentina
- What is the classic Hungarian Red style wine?
- What are the 6 main Grape Varietals in Austria?
- What style of wine is Provence most famous for?
- What is the climate of Bordeaux?
- Describe the levels of regulation of the AVA (American Viticultural Area)
- What is the profile of Assyrtiko
- What is a secondary use for sprinkler systems?
- Why is Cab Sauv able to be so expressive in California?
- What is the primary grape of Uraguay?
- What is an Einzellage?
- What are the Key Grand Cru Villages from Cote de Nuits? (north to south)
- What makes wine growing possible in Ontario?
- What is a particular of Baden's production?
- Describe a typical Cotes Du Rhone Villages AC
- What are the 9 most important North West Italian Wine PDO's?
- Where can Deutscher Wein grapes come from?
- What is a distinct feature of Australian Rieslings?
- What sides of the river Ebro are Navarra and Rioja on
- What is the difference between crossings and hybrids?
- What are common varietals used in Super Tuscans
- Describe the Climate of Tourraine in the Loire
- What is bentonite used for?
- What are the typical characteristics of Grenache (Garnacha Tinta)
- What is the term used for Spanish PGI Wines?
- What is considered the heart of Argentinian winemaking?
- What is the most common black grape in Southern France?
- What wine is Baga most important in?
- What is Liquer d'Expedition?
- What is the core issue with Syrah in the southern Rhone?
- What are the agricultural challenges faced by spain?
- Where does the Duero river flow?
- what is the northernmost Northern rhone AC?
- What are What are typical Moderate climate Chardonnay Characteristics?
- What are nematodes and what do they do?
- What are the 8 core AC's of Southern Rhone?
- Describe the body of a typical alsasce gewürztraminer
- Where are Pouilly-Fume and Sancerre located in terms of the Loire Valley?
- Service Temp for Sparkling Wines
- White Wine Fermentation Temperature
- How does the Humboldt Current affect grape growing in South America?
- What are the four methods used in Rosé winemaking?
- What effect will highly flavored food have on wine?
- How can a producer remove tartrate crystals?
- What is an acronym that will help remember all the chilean regions north to south?
- What are the typical characteristics of Tempranillo?
- What are screw caps best at preserving?
- What is the Climate like in Somontono?
- What is the primary sherry grape?
- What is the minimum aging for Riserva Wines in Spain?
- What are the red varieties seeing promise in the warmer BC regions
- What are the style of the 4 New S. Rhone Crus? (Gigondas, Vacqeyras, Beaume de Venise, Vinsorbes)
- What are the 5 core PDO's of Veneto?
- Is Hungary able to ripen red varietals like Cabernet Sauvignon?
- What are the two rosé producing subregions of Southern Rhone?
- What distinguishes the Southern Rhone Style from The Northern?
- What aspects does Pulp impart on wine?
- What is the Spanish word for Cantina?
- Service Temp for Light Bodied Red
- How does chili heat affect wine?
- What is particular about the shape of the Rhine in Rheingau?
- What is typical of California Zins?
- What region is Chateaux Haut-Brion from?
- What is continentality?
- Describe the Climate of the Loire Valley
- What does paddling during the tank process help express>?
- What effect will Sweet food have on wine?
- What is in a Prestige de Cuvee Champagne?
- What are the main characteristics of the Aligoté varietal?
- What grapes are grown in California?
- What are the to core regions of the Washington Wine World?
- What is the main viticultural challenge of South africa?
- What are the 3 main DAC's in Neiderosterreich?
- What are the 2 supporting red grapes in the southern rhone?
- What is Riddling?
- What's the typical profile of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo?
- How many months aging is required for crianza level?
- What are the 5 essential designations of SW France?
- Describe a California Merlot
- What does the term Garrafeira mean
- What is the other (french) name for Monastrell?
- What is the thick skinned clone of Tempranillo popular in Spain?
- What is the largest region in the northern rhone?
- What are the 4 price categories?
- What are the typical characteristics of Condrieu AC Viognier?
- How is Lambrusco made?
- Describe the Grenache grape
- What is the region just south of Cote Rotie?
- What is the most common Hungarian Varietal?
- What is the climate of Southern France?
- Describe the Graves (Pessac Leognan) Classification System
- What are the classic Cabernet Sauvignon Regions?
- What are 5 synthetic adjustments wine makers use on wine?
- What is the style of Vouvray AC?
- What do the words 'Cartizze' and 'Rive' mean in relation to Prosecco?
- What is the bloom?
- What is the second most grown grape in Argentina?
- What is millerandage?
- Contrast the typical flavor profile of Champagne and Cava
- What are the three core regions in Mendoza Province?
- What are the 3 Important Grecian wine making regions for WSET?
- What is the typical soil of Left Bank Bordeaux?
- What are a few other Spanish/Portugese names for Tempranillo?
- Describe the Meunier Varietal
- Name the Two main Spanish White Grape Varietals
- Describe the Fleurie AC from Burgundy
- What is a farmer controlling with different training solutions?
- What are the typical characteristics of a Cabernet Sauvignon?
- What is the primary white grape of Bordeaux?
- What is considered a unit of alcohol in the US?
- Name the six styles of Champagne
- What is unique about Austria's wine production?
- What are the Characteristics of the Marsanne grape?
- What are the 4 main white varietals of the Rioja DOCa?
- What is the modern style of Chardonnay?
- What is the flavor profile for Albarino?
- What part of Spain is ideal for Monastrell production?
- What is the second most important grape in Rueda?
- What is the second white of South Africa?
- Describe the tank method for sparkling wines
- What are the 6 levels of Hungarian wine quality?
- What are the Main regions of Italy's North East
- What are the 4 Spanish aging Categories?
- Describe the Secondary Fermentation of Champagne
- Describe a typical Chateauneuf-du-Pape AC
- What are the three core factors in Site Selection?
- What is the dominant grape in Ribera del Duero?
- What is sparkling Asti DOCG classically paired with?
- Describe the style of Loire Sauvignon Blanc
- What are the dominant red grape Varieties of Spain?
- What is the abbreviation for Grecian PDO?
- What are the defining flavor characteristics of Gamay?
- What does Szamorodni mean in Hungarian?
- What are typical characteristics of Cote-Rotie AC?
- What are the defining characteristics of Syrah in cool and warm climates?
- What is transpiration?
- Describe the reds of Chinon AC
- What does the word Honeepoot mean?
- What is the common Chardonnay style in CA?
- How many Ranks Are There in the Medoc Classifications?
- What is the soil type of Chablis?
- What differentiates Rueda from Ribero del Duero and Toro?
- Where is Cap Classique made?
- What is the premium appellation of Muscadet?
- What are the 7 Main Grape Varieties of Alsace?
- What is Verband Deustcher Pradikatswein (VDP) ?
- What is the South African Wine Origin Scheme and how does it work?
- What is peculiar about the history of vine training in Rias Baixas?
- Why is Ribera Del Duero so ideal for Tempranillo growing?
- What is the character or Nemea style Agiorgitiko?
- What are the 3 primary regions for Sauvignon Blanc?
- Define the Eiswein Pradikatt
- What is the warmest German region?
- What is special about the soil in Priorat?
- Where does the vast majority of South african wine come from?
- What is the typical profile of Austrian Grüner Veltliner?
- What are typical HOT climate Chardonnay Characteristics?
- What is the name for light colored sherries?
- What is the benefit of head grafting?
- What is the key grape in Vouvray?
- What are the 4 subregions of the Tourraine Region in Loire?
- Describe a common profile for Geruztraminer in Alsace.
- What is the largest agricultural challenge in Champagne?
- What are some typical Viognier characteristics in Northern Rhone?
- Describe the Methode Champagnoise
- What is the style of Chablis compared to that of Pouilly-Fuissé?
- What is the significance of the Catalunya DO?
- What is the style of Dao DOC?
- What is the heat regulating ocean breeze in South Africa?
- What is the profile of Pinotage?
- What is the famous white grape used in Santorini?
- How often does AC Semillion review its Crus?
- What does the term Prestige Cuvée mean?
- What is typical of cold weather Riesling?
- What are the two PDO designations in Austria?
- What is the profile of a classic Soave DOC?
- What is the flavor profile of Anglianico?
- What is disgorgement?
- Describe the Asti method for sparkling wine
- What are the two Hungarian PDO levels?
- What does the term riserva entail in Portugal?
- Describe the Torrontes varietal
- What is essential in the rack and return method?
- Describe the Badol AC style from Provence.
- Name the 3 main white grape varieties in Bordeaux
- What is a sparkling wine made from chenin blanc in Loire?
- What two-named region is in between Nantais and Tourraine?
- Describe the terroir of Champagne
- What are the three primary varietals used in Cava production?
- Where is the Benguela Current and what does it help with?
- Where is the Limestone Coast?
- What is the main wine of Nantais?
- What grape is Asti made with
- What is the crossing in Müller Thurgau?
- What are the 4 Main Varietals of Northern Rhone?
- What is the structure of the St. Emillion cru system
- What effect will Umami food have on wine?
- What are two regions in Catalunya
- How are the assyrtiko grapes grown in Santorini?
- What is a major challenge to new world sparkling wine production?
- What is the typical Nahe Riesling style?
- What are the flavor characteristics of Botrytis affected Semillon?
- What does AC stand for in France?
- What is the largest wine growing region in Germany?
- What is varietal used in Pouilly-Fuissé
- Describe a typical Cotes Du Rhone AC
- What is the dominant central plateau of spain?
- What is the common profile of a Langhe nebbiolo?
- Name the 2 primary regions of North-West Spain
- What effect will Acidic food have on wine?
- How are geographical units broken down in South Africa?
- What are the primary varietals of MonBazillac?
- What is the dominant varietal of the southern Rhone?
- Name the 7 AOC sub-regions of Haut-Medoc
- What are fourfactors effecting sunlight?
- What are the Italian PDO's?
- What are the core flavors of Pouilly-Fuissé?
- Name the 4 NOSE Categories for Tasting
- What is the minimum ageing necessary for a vintage champagne?
- Name the 6 Principal Districts in Bordeaux
- What is Sélection de Grains Nobles? (SGN)
- What are the 10 Beaujolais Crus?
- What is the style of the southern Rhone?
- What are the 2 primary grape varieties used in Red Wines from Libourne?
- What is the ideal temperature range for grape growing?
- What is the name for darker colored sherrys?
- What is the geography of Greece?
- Do fino sherries develop in bottle?
- What is the typical profile of an Amarone della Valpolicella?
- What are basic Gamay Flavors without Carbonic Maceration?
- What are the ideal conditions for Noble Rot?
- What is the name for Hungarian PGI Wines?
- How is Cru Borgeouis Classification Awarded in Medoc?
- What is significant about the number 82 in terms of Champagne?
- What is the chemical responsible for Cork Taint?
- What is the grape of the Nemea OPAP?
- What area is the Albarino grape most grown in?
- Which type of oak is most common in Spanish quality wines?
- What is the profile of Austrian Blaufrankish?
- What are the two styles of whites produced in Rueda?
- What are the primary 3 grape varietals from Washington State?
- What are the 6 key AC's in Languedoc-Roussillon?
- What are 5 classic Riesling regions?
- Describe a the typical characteristics of a quality Lambrusco
- What are 4 alternative methods for sparkling wines
- Describe the characteristics of a typical Cava
- What is the dominant grape varietal of Rias Baixas?
- What is the minimum operating temperature for vines?
- What is the sugar in Liquer d'expedition referred to?
- What are the requirements for Landwein (German PGI)
- What texture is semillon famously known for?
- What are the 5 Main Grape Varietals of Germany?
- What are the 6 geographical zones in Spain?
- Describe the differences between Coop and Negociant system
- What are the typical styles of the Tavel and Lirac AC's?
- What is the dominant grape variety used in Rias Baixas in North Western Spain?
- What are the characteristics of the Carignan varietal?
- What is the primary red grape varietal from Argentina?
- What are the 5 primary native grape varietals of Hungary?
- Why is Champagne dependent on blending?
- What are the two main acids in Wine?
- What is the style of South African Red Blends
- Where does Pinot Gris produce the best wines?
- What are the four growing climate classifications and associated temps?
- Describe the Sancerre style
- What is the most important yeast in wine making?
- What are the 3 subregions of the Nantais in Loire?
- What process can Racking help with?
- How long is the Gran Riserva aging Qualification for Reds and Whites?
- What is the DOC of Note in Basilicata?
- What is a regulating weather force in Chile?
- What is the primary grape varietal used in Carinena and Calatayud Spain?
- Name the 4 APPEARANCE Categories for Tasting
- What is the typical Furmint profile?
- Describe Pinot Noir's role in Champagne
- What indicates an oaked Sauv Blanc in CA?
- What is the regulating current in South Africa?
- Name the 1 red Premiers Cru Chateau outside Medoc
- What is the most widely planted grape in Bordeaux?
- What are the primary grapes used in the Southern Rhone?
- What is the success story from Sicily?
- What is the flavor profile of Grenache?
- What is the style of Duoro DOC?
- What is the secondary sherry varietal?
- What is particular about the primary fermentation of the best Champagnes?
- What is "the barolo of the south"?
- What distinguishes the geography of the Southern Rhone from the north?
- What is typical of a Sauvignon Blanc from Warm climates?
- What are the two most famous Mosel Towns?
- What are lees?
- What type of soil and climate is typical of Rueda?
- Where are the Hungarian wine regions?
- Where are the best Tempranillo wines made?
- What kind of wine is Cotes de Gascogne, SE of Bordeaux, Famous for?
- What is the climate classification system at Davis designed upon?
- What conditions does Muscat need to grow well?
- What are the important restrictions on AVA?
- Define Kabinett Pradikat
- What is the species of grape used in Wine?
- How are the style of wine in touraine divided geographically?
- What is the crossing of Pinotage?
- What is the typical soil profile of Beaujolais?
- What are the benefits of Chardonnay's non-aromatic profile?
- What are the 3 most important styles from Friuli Venezia Giulia?
- What is the most famous communal appellation in Mâconnais?
- Which aspect do the best Alsasce vineyards face?
- How are prosecco's fermented?
- Where are the best Granaches/Garnachas made?
- What does the word "Taille" refer to?
- What is an example of a warm mediterranean Region?
- What Australian area is most associated with Shiraz?
- How are most grecian vines trained?
- Service Temp for Light-Medium Bodied White
- What are the core flavors of the Sangiovese grape?
- What is the key varietal used in Bierzo spain?
- What is the range of Puttonyos levels?
- What are the 3 designations of Wachau, Austria style white wines?
- What are the typical qualities of all Muscats?
- What is the grape used in Sauternes Botrisyzed wines?
- What are the main regions of Italy's North West
- What american AVA makes sparkling wines well?
- What is the only black grape variety allowed in Northern Rhone?
- Describe Crèmant wine
- What is the core grape varietal of Naoussa?
- What does the tempranillo grape lack?
- What is typical of Late harvest Riesling
- What is the difference between old style Priorat wine and modern?
- a It varies! From cool continental in the central vineyards to maritime in the Nantais and Anjou
- b Used in champagne
Buds late/good against frost
Used in fruity Champagne made to enjoy young
- c France - Burgundy, Champagne
USA- Carneros & Sonoma
South Africa - Walker Bay
New Zealand - Martinborough, Central Otago, Marlborough
- d France - Burgundy and Champagne
USA - Russian River, Carneros
Australia - Adelaide Hills, Geelong, Mornington Peninsula
New Zealand - Gisbourne and Marlborough
- e To decrease vigor in areas with high temperatures an soil nutrients. By having more buds on a single permanent vine there is less distribution to each bud and thus less vigor
- f Limestone under Kimmeridigan Clay (Marine fossil clay)
- g Bonarda
- h Moulin-a-vent AC - Powerful and full bodied
Morgon AC - Powerful and full bodied
Brouilly AC - Most common and large production
- i Light pale lemon, low alcohol, made from local varietals, slight sparkle,
- j Salice Salentino
Both are port-esque based on negroamaro and Malvasia nero
- k Raspberry
- l Mendoza, Maipu and Uco Valley
- m Vintners Quality Alliance
Equivalent to the european AC
- n South African Chenin Blanc
- o Chemicals dissolved in wines - i.e. Tartaric, lactic, and Malic acid...
- p On steep terraced hills, with small densely powerful fruit.
- q German Sparkling wine made from either internationally grown grapes or German grown grapes (Deutscher Sekt and D.S.bA)
Best made from Riesling
- r A group of Vineyards, only producers of PDO wines may label the vineyards on label
- s They barely use Reisling, instead they focus on Muller Thurgau and Silvaner
- t Rias Baixas - Regularly carying vintage quality from weather
Bierzo - Red region, using the Mencia grape
- u They blow to southern Frances from the north and help to cool the east and west.
- v ...
- w Sèmillon and Sauvignon Blanc
-excellent sauternes clone
- x Navarra and Rioja
- y Chablis is steely, high acid and lean, extremely refined
Pouilly Fuissé and Cote D'Or Chardonnay is rich, textured, often barrel aged and left on lees.
- z Sweetness
- aa Delicate peach, pear, and violet
silky texture and mineral
- ab Exotic fruit like Banana, mango, fig
Full bodied, high in alcohol, low in acidity
- ac Strawberry, cherry, Banana
- ad Anti Septic/Anti Oxidant
an make wines seem harsh and lacking in fruit at high levels
- ae (cool climate) plum, vanilla, cherry
(warm climate) cherry, plum, chocolate, mint
- af Ampuis, in the north of Northern Rhone
- ag Cote du Rhone AC
Cote Du Rhone Villages AC
Chateauneuf du pape
- ah Moderate tannin, strong minerality, crisp acid, sour cherry, peppery
Age in oak for softer acid and sweeter fruit character
- ai Only made from free run cuvee juice
- aj Districtus Austriae Controllatus (DAC)
-Based on agreements of local producers on what is typical within a certain region
- ak Pale rose's that are fruity, low in alcohol, with medium sweetness
- al Airen - Primary grape of La Mancia Spain
- am Muscadet Sevréet Maine AC
- an Never bush trained, because of the cool humid maritime climate. They used pergolas but have begun to use more sophisticated systems
- ao Dosage
- ap Mountainous region with continental weather
ruby wines with red fruit, soft tannins, high acid, and good aging potential
- aq Catalunya
- ar <$10 - Inexpensive
$10-$20 - Mid Priced
$20-$40 - High Priced
>$40 - Premium
- as The autolysis given during the riddling process
- at Well Chilled 6-8ºC
- au Penedès
- av Tannat
- aw Chateau Margeaux (Maurgaux)
Chateau Lafite-Rothschild (Pauillac)
Chateau Latour (Pauillac)
Chateau Mouton-Rothschild (Pauillac)
Chateau Haut-Brion (Pessac-Leognan, Graves)
- ax Can be very bordeaux in style. Some syrah blends are huge full bodied reds with high alcohol, and some beaujolais style Pinotage blends exist
- ay Lightly Chilled 13ºC
- az American oak, with typical vanilla and sweet spice characteristics
Many are turning towards French oak to give a more tannic and spicy character
- ba The reds are made in the west in Chinon and Bourgeuil
The whites are made in the east at Vouvray
- bb Pale lemon yellow, almonds, herbs, and dough
can be tangy or salty
- bc Bush trained
- bd Makes for higher quality wine.
- be Concentrated perfumey, high acid and alcohol
naturally dehydrated on the vine with hot sun
wind is so intense it will stop photosynthesis to keep high acid
- bf Albarino - Delicate fruit character, crisp high acid, best drank young
- bg Yellow Tuffeau - soft very chalky well drained soil. Helps with acidity and minerality.
- bh 5
- bi Tank Method
- bj Vouvray
- bk -Tourraine - Generic AC, Many styles
-Vouvray - Chenin Blanc
-Bourgueil - Cab Franc
-Chinnon - Cab Franc
- bl Piesport and Berkastel
- bm Rueda
Verdejo, Sauvignon Blanc
- bn High alcohol
Can produce intense full bodied reds or lighter Rosados
- bo -Sanmur - Chenin Blanc & Cab Franc
-Anjou - Chenin Blanc, Cab Franc, And some Rosé
-Coteaux du Layon - Chenin Blanc
-Savennieres - Chenin Blanc
- bp American staves are sawn (efficient) while European staves are split off
- bq Nantais
- br Carneros and Russian River Valley?
- bs New Zealand, also has maritime influences
- bt The temperature regulation of the great lakes
- bu It gives the structural back bone of body and length
- bv Signature White from Argentina
-Intense fruity floral aroma, medium body and acidity
- bw -Muscadet - Melon Blanc
-Muscadet de Svre et Main - Melon Blanc
-Muscadet de Svre et Marine Sur Lie - Melon Blanc
- bx Full bodied, oily, high alcohol, med-low acid
Spicy, with melon, ripe banana, mango
- by It varies. Largest influence is the atlantic but it has continental. Duero regulates the temp in that region
- bz Thick Skin
Low acid, best grown in cooler areas that can maximize what small acid it has
Carbonic maceration for strawberry scented Joven wine
Blended with other typical spanish grapes
- ca Super premium Champagne made form the very best parcels of land.
Can be NV or Vintage
- cb Grüner Veltliner - 1/3 of High Quality production.
Welchsriesling - 2nd most
Riesling -Use din dry full bodied whites
Zweigelt - (Blaufrankish x St Laurent) - Widest Planting
Blaufrankish - Highest regarded
St Laurent - Similar to Pinot Noir
- cc Distinct lime characteristics
- cd Spicy foods (Thai and Chinese), smoked fish, strong cheese
- ce VdlT - Vinos de la Terra
- cf Fanleaf Virus - dirupts canopy growth
Leafroll Virus-Disrupts canopy growth
Pierce's Disease - Spread by sharpshooters
- cg Rueda grows white wines primarily.
- ch Pouilly-Fuissé AC - Amphitheater hills that produce the richest white wines in Burgundy (up to 14% abv).
Characteristics of ripe Peach, Melon with savory or nutty flavors of new oak.
- ci Vintage wines from any DoC or IGP with distinctive organoleptic qualities, require 30 months aging for reds, 12 for whites
- cj Pinot Noir
Pinot Grisis also grown
- ck Narrow and steep following the river
Plantings on the Southern facing aspects
Continental with warm summers
- cl Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains
Most complex and full spectrum muscat
- cm Higher rates of Botrytis that are absolutely world class.
Super high acidity, 12-14%, botrytis adds body and texture
- cn Penedes - Closest to Barcelona
Priorat - South of Penedès
- co Above average quality and alcohol, Dry White, Single varietal/region... ie. Riesling Classic from Rheingau or Spätburgunder classic from Baden
- cp Garnacha
- cq They will ripen unevenly and by the time they're all ripe there will be some raisins on the bunch.
Black fruit, high alcohol, and some residual sugars
- cr 10º-15ºC, or 55ºF
- cs Quality Level
Level of Readiness for Drinking/Potential for Aging
- ct A district within an Ambaugebiet. Often a famous village within a great PDO region.
- cu Chenin Blanc
- cv Liguria
- cw Grenache - Red
Syrah & Mourvedre - Red
Cinsault - Red
Whites are a minority product
Clairette, Grenache Blanc, Bourboulec, Viognier, Marsanne, Roussanne
- cx Deep colored red, soft tannin, bramble fruit
- cy Cabernet Sauvignon
- cz Merlot
- da Agiorgitko
- db Italian style - light and neutral
- dc Cool continental with warm but not too hot summers
- dd Fresh Grape and Apple
High acidity often balanced with residual sugar
- de Wine and Cane Sugar added after disgorgement of champagne
- df All the liquid is pumped out, then mixed back in with the cap.
- dg Light tannin, red cherry and raspberry, barnyard, vegetal, can develop meaty,
- dh Starts with dry base wine
Aszu grapes are added and macerated for up to 36 hours
mixture is pressed
matured for a minimum of 3 years, two in oak
- di The process of Yeast breaking down and becoming bready flavored and will help to keep the wine tasting freesh
- dj A region distinguished by a PDO or Denomination in Germany. There are 13 in Germany.
- dk Champagne is toasty and Bready
Cava is Rubbery and Smoky
- dl Rheinhessen,
south of the Rheingau. The best slopes are on the west side of the
Rhine, East aspects. Fullest bodied Rieslings in Germany.
Flatter areas in the center are producing fine wines from flat farms.
- dm Muscat from South Africa
- dn High acid
herbaceous, green pepper, grass, nettles
joined with Passion Fruit or Elderflower
- do Elegant, Deep color, full bodied, spicy
the best have floral aromas and textural elegance
- dp The Cape Doctor, brings ocean air further inland
- dq Medium temperature fermentation limit the herbaceous and fruitiness. Much more restrained than NZ style.
- dr Eight
- ds Egri Bikaver or Bull's Blood - powerful reds
- dt Kimmeridigian Clay
- du Deep color, black fruit, spicy aroma
High tannin with blackberry, pepper, and mint
Hot climate can soften the tannin and fruit to be more jammy, leathery, and earthy
- dv Off-dry to sweet (dry becoming more popular)
Deeply pigmented, firm acidity
Acidity perfect with food like Parmesan or Prosciutto
- dw Full bodied
Dry, medium/medium+ alcohol
High acidity and flinty minerality
Unlike the light german style
- dx 95% of wine comes from Vintage date
85% of wine comes from the specific AVA
75% of wine must be varietal stated on label
100% of grapes must come from estate if labelled
- dy Marsanne has richness and weight
Roussane has acidity and perfumed fruit
- dz Exotic- Apricot, spice, floral
Low acidity, high alcohol
picked late at high sugar ripeness
- ea Excellent conditions and incredibly high tech production and grape selection
- eb Deep
amber, High acid, intense aromas, orange marmalade, apricots and honey.
Best can have rye bread, smoke, coffee and caramel.
Oxidated and held in oak for 3-6 years
- ec Chardonnay
- ed the searing heat close to the ground
- ee The north, central and Maritime areas
- ef Picked and spends the winter on lees in tanks. Bottled the following spring and will maintain some petite bubbles as well as a yeasty bready taste. Will be very fresh as there is very little oxidization and handling. Delicate!
- eg Chaptalization
- eh Has up to 14 levels or Cridera, equal parts from each butt distributed down the line over time and finally reaches the solera level where the sherry is taken from
- ei Self-elected board of best German Producers
Quality control group that has own terms used on labels
- ej Best suited for Rosé the best will have a medium+ acidity and have high levels of round tannins, sweet spice and red fruit
- ek When the development of the berry is disturbed it may develop without seeds and remain small
Will be intensely sweet and seedless
- el Continental, it is landlocked and surrounded by mountains.
Hot summer, cool winter.
- em Cabernet Franc
-Used in Chinon AC, Bourgueil AC, Touraine, Saumer, and others
- en Syrah
- eo Baden - The warmest and southernmost region
- ep Environmental Conditions
Business considerations - Proximity to power/distribution/workforce
- eq Alsace AC -70% of Prod. Mostly White.
Alsace Grand Cru AC - 51 Vineyards, Single Noble Grape Varieties, Many problems with system
- er Citrus, Melon, Peach flavors
- es 12º-22ºC
Helps maintain Fruit Characteristics
- et Generic: AC Bordeaux, AC Bordeaux Superieure...
District: AC Medoc, AC Entre Deux Mers, AC Libornais...
Commune: AC Saint-Estephe, AC Saint-Julien, AC Pauillac...
- eu Passito di Pantelleria DOC - a dried moscat grape style
- ev Higher min. alcohol/percentage of Grenache, Mourvedre, and Syrah, lower yeilds.
18 Villages may add their names
- ew Syrah - Color and Tannin - South can be too hot
Mourvedre - Deep color intense tannin, Northern limit of ripening in Rhone. Gamey, savoury aromas.
- ex Thin skinned, sweet grapes. Tolerant of drought. Requires heat.
Produce high alcohol with soft tannins with high oxidization potential
Can show browning in the rim quite early in development
red fruit: strawberry, raspberry, and white pepper
- ey Multiple levels of continuous intensity through the still, can be drawn off individually at different intensity levels and reblended
- ez Russia River Valley, Carneros, and Santa Lucia Highlands
- fa Chianti
Abruzzo and Molise
- fb High tannin
Black Fruit, Black Pepper, Floral
Develop Gamey aromas
- fc same as traditional but all in tanks after second fermentation
Can keep down autolytic character so ideal for aromatic grapes
- fd Pungent aromatic and spicy
-LYCHEE, ROSES, SWEET BAKING SPICE
- fe Trick question: Wines can have huge range from light/med bodied fruity fresh to high tannin full bodied red.
All producers must manage tannin levels in the hot rhone valley!
- ff Full bodied, dry, medium/+ alcohol, High acid
- fg Semillon
Sauvignon Blanc is Second
Muscadelle is Third
- fh Palmela DOC in the south of Portugal
low yeild, fruity, complex, rich textured reds that become nutty with age.
- fi Heat if these regions makes for higher alcohol which is bad. Need to pick at 10-10.5% alcohol to stay balanced
Need to have lost herbaceousness, and be high in acid
- fj Anglianico
High acid, high tannin
- fk France - Haut Mèdoc, Graves,
Australia - Coonawara, Margaret River,
USA - Napa
New Zealand - Hawkes Bay
Chile - Colchagua
- fl Fish oil used in fining wine
- fm High acid, tannic, deep color
Fresh black currants in cooler climes, to black cherry and black currant jam in warm and hot climates
can be accompanied with green capsicum, mint, and cedarwood, even menthol
- fn High pigment, acidity, and fruit aroma.
Local clone called Tinto Fino as it is naturally darker than most tempranillo
- fo Tinta de Toro
- fp Martinborough
- fq Simple, Sappy Quaffing Wine
Botrytis affected, very good desert wine
- fr Cote-Rotie AC - Red Syrah
Condrieu AC - White Viognier
Chateau Grillet AC- Similar to Condrieu
Saint Joseph AC - Syrah, Marsanne & Roussanne
Hermitage AC - Syrah, Marsanne & Roussanne
Crozes-Hermitage - Syrah, Marsanne & Roussanne
Cornas - Syrah
- fs raspberry, cherry, spice
- ft Intense peach and apricot with high acidity
can be made into a very rich and full style
- fu black cherries, raspberries, spice
Oxidizes Very Readily! Can be browninsh.
- fv Trentino-Alto Adige
- fw Ribera del Duero
- fx Full bodied and rich oily texture
- fy Direct Pressing - Same style as white wine, no on skin maceration
Drawing off - Limited Maceration, taken out early
Bleeding - Only a portion is taken out early, leftover macerating wine gets extra macerated
Blending - Small portion of red added to white for color. Not allowed in EU
- fz Vineyard and winemaking techniques are more obviously important
- ga Room Temperature 15-18ºC
- gb In the bottle.
- gc Cool water that affects FOG and thus perfect BOTRYTIS conditions in Southern Bordeaux
- gd High acidity and perfumed fruit
Develop honeyed aromas
-used for blending in northern rhone
- ge Arinto - Semi aromatic, fresh fruity wines. Stays acidic in hot conditions
- gf Qualitatswein and Pradikatswein
35 permitted grape varieties
- gg 30º-50º Latitude
- gh Touriga Nacional - low yeild intense color, flavor and tannin
- gi Calcium Bicarbonate
- gj Mourvedre Based
Dark, full bodied, powerful tannin, require bottle age
Bramble, gamey, meat, licorice
- gk The Southern Rhone tends to blend more varying varietals while the north sticks with Syrah, Viognier, and Marsanne/Roussanne
- gl Cane leaves only a piece of cane and the first few buds after pruning.
Spur leaves a permanent cordon with spurs and a bud on each every year.
- gm The south where it's really hot and will allow full ripening.
- gn Jerez
- go France - Northern Rhone (Condrieu and Chateau Grillet)
- gp deep amber, high acid, intense aroma, oxidative characters from long oak aging,
orange marmelade, apricots, honey
can have rye bread, smoke, coffee, caramel
- gq Less bitter and acidic.
Increases Fruit, Sweetness, and Richness.
Pair with High acid wines.
- gr Chenin Blanc from South Africa
- gs Cooled by the Cape Doctor, high on the table Mountain it produces Sauvignon Blanc
- gt The process of drawing water up through the roots. Determined by temperature.
Higher temp, higher metabolism, higher transpiration
- gu American AVA's, limited regulation
- gv Viura, Malvasia, Garnacha Blanca
- gw Spain - Rioja and Ribera del Duero
- gx Vitis Vinifera
- gy Degree Days
- gz Erste Lage - Best vineyard sites of VDP members, Limited to classic german grapes, Denoted on label with grape bunch and a '1'
Grosses Gewachs - Erste Lage Wines that are Dry, somewhat redundant but important for quality
- ha Sémillon
Muscadelle (used in Semillion and Balsac)
- hb Overtly floral red, black berry and black cherry, matches well with new oak
- hc Richness and weight
Develop honeyed aromas
-More dominant in Rhone as Rousanne is temperamental to weather
- hd Vastly varies: from dry to sweet, still to sparkling. It is dynamic.
- he That the wine has more than .5% higher alcohol than minimum and is in glass bottles.
- hf Firms tannins, increases bitterness, astringency, acidity, and alcohol burn.
Pair with low alcohol sweet or fruity whites.
- hg Sauvignon Blanc - benefits from cool night climates
- hh Tannin
- hi Often Oxidised Rosé wine
made from garnacha
- hj Wine can be overwhelmed.
Pair with wine of similar flavor intensity.
- hk 22ºC - This is the cause for unripened grapes
- hl Cabernet Sauvignon
- hm Mediterranean
- hn It is essentially the northern half of Alsace.
Similarly dry area.
- ho Called Licorella
red slate with mica particles that shimmer int he sun
- hp Liquer de tirage added and bottle corked, cellared at 10-12ºC.
Pressure rises to 6 Atmospheres
- hq Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah
- hr Light, Fruity, and best consumed young with duck, ham, or salami
- hs Prosecco DOC
Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG - More elite
- ht Chateau Haut-Brion
- hu Rare expensive sweet style with Botrytis (noble rot). Don't require noble rot, just need to meet minimum must weight.
- hv The neck of the wine is frozen in brine, freezing a top layer of wine and stabilizing the sediment to allow for removal of the sediment and temporary cork. Cap is ejected and Liquer d'expedition is added (
- hw They are the highest in the world
- hx Valpolicella
Amarone della Valpolicella
Recioto della Valpolicella
- hy Catalunya
wide variety of wines
- hz Albarinõ
Cooler climate, delicate fruit, crisp acidity, refreshing young wine
- ia concentrated with sweet fruit, roasted nut and honey coated, tropical flavors
- ib Alsasce has full bodied, dry, with medium + alcohol while the germans are either more austere or quite sweet.
Will almost certainly have higher alcohol with some residual sugar while germans will focus more on full sweetness
- ic Largest Cru in S. Rhone, Diverse Terroir, typically Grenache and Mourvedre.
Full bodied, rich texture, spiced red fruit, high alcohol.
- id AC Bergerac - Both Red and White
AC Monbazzillac - Sweet Whites (botrytis)
AC Montravel - Dry Whites
- ie from cardonnay and pinot noir in South africa
- if Tartaric
Malic - Becomes Lactic through Malolactic fermentation
- ig Tokaji Eszencia - sweetest best grapes - 450 g/L minimum
low alcohol, less than 5%
- ih They both leave significant amounts of hard wood which assists in frost protection.
- ii Condrieu
- ij Grown in basket shapes, woven together to protect from wind.
- ik Garnacha, but Tempranillo is heavily promoted and on the rise.
- il 3 years
- im LLicorella - red slate with small particles of Mica (that sparkle), low in nutrients but retain water well
- in Germany - Mosel, Rheingau, Pfalz, Nahe
Austria - Wauchau
France - Alsace
Australia - Clare adn Eden Valley
- io Kekfrankos - (Blaufrankish) light peppery high acid purple wine
Kadarka - prone to grey rot
Zweigelt - Austrian Cross of Kekfrancos and St laurent
- ip Early harvest for more acidity and lower fruit, light, neutral, medium acidity,
- iq Saint-Joseph - Follows the Rhone north to south
Make Syrah, Roussane and Marsanne
- ir N to S-
- is Flavors in spirits
- it Mid/High Priced Beaujolais Cru
Part carbonic maceration
Light/Medium bodied with low tannin, med acidity, some cherry fruit
- iu Carneros and Anderson Valley
- iv Pessac-Leognan in Graves
- iw Cote Rotie AC - strictly Syrah
- ix Peach and Melon, Nuttiness from new oak
Can taste quite 'New World'
- iy Pedro Ximinez (PX)
- iz Must is kept near frozen until needed
put in tank and warmed
fermentation allowed with CO2 release until 6% ABV
Then sealed and allowed to ferment to 7-7.5%, chilled, bottled, sealed
- ja CO2
- jb Full body, ripe peachiness, full fruit flavor. Humidity allows for much TbA production, as the river gets over 1 km wide in some areas.
- jc Rioja South
- jd Cornas AC
Syrah production only
- je Cornas AC - Southern most Cru in Northern Rhone
Most under valued!
- jf Tannins
- jg Away from dusty oxidized wines, to stainless steel production, quality oak, and better modern methods in general.
- jh Inclement
weather leads to uneven years of production. Wine sealed anaerobically
from years past allows fixes for lacking vintages.
It allows for consistent house style wines
- ji The year the Medoc Red and Sauternes White Crus was created.
Based off the excessive 1855 market price for these wines
- jj Literally everything
- jk Cool - <16.5º
Warm - 18.5-21º
Hot - > 21º
- jl Reibera del Duero
- jm The Danube
- jn Semillon
- jo Alsace
- jp Cartizze is a hill of 120 producers considered to make the Grand Crus of Proseccos
Rive is a group of 43 top producers in Coneglionano-Valdobbiadene DOCG that produce on really steep hills
- jq Cabernet Sauvignon
Petite Verdot (doesn't always ripen and small quantity)
- jr Bairrada DOC
thick skin, high acid and tannin
- js Downy Mildew - Damages Leaves, slows ripening
Powdery Mildew - Effects buds/leaves, splits grapes open
Grey Rot - Attacks berries, taints flavor,
Botrytis - Makes grapes delicious - Can lead to grey rot
- jt Languedoc AC
Cotes du Roussillon AC
Cotes du Roussillon Villages AC
Pay d'Oc IGP
- ju Lambrusco - Refreshing, bone dry, frothy red
Perfect with Prosciuto
- jv Non Vintage
Blanc de Blancs
Blanc de Noirs
- jw It's fortified early to kill flor and has a fuller body
- jx Palo Cortado
- jy The last 20 liters of pressed juice for Champagne
- jz Languedoc AC
Minervois AC (inside Languedoc)
Fitou AC (inside Corbieres)
Cotes de Roussillon AC
- ka Schisty soil is ideal for growing touriga nacional which is the core grape used in port
- kb Fullest body in Northern Rhone
Age for a long time, some to 50+ years
- kc Westward into Portugal's port producing regions
- kd Napa Valley/Chateauneuf du Pape
- ke Bordeaux
Loire Valley - Sancerre, Pouilly-Fumè
Marlborough, New Zealand
- kf Second fermentation takes place in a sealed tank rather than a bottle
Can use paddles to stir sediment and encourage autolytic fermentation like champagne
- kg The remaining grapes can swell in size and become diluted.
- kh Spain - Navarra, Rioja, Priorat
Australia - Mclaren Vale
France - Southern Rhone and Midi, Chateneuf du Pape blend
- ki Low nutrient craggy soils, limestone
- kj NO
- kk Sauvignon Blanc
- for dry white wines
- kl Kirsch
- km DOCG
- kn Malbec
- ko Oiliness
can be quite bodied
- kp Xinomavro
NeXus of wine in the North
- kq Crossings both parents are vitis vinifera
Hybrids - Vitis vinifera x Vitis "?" - two species combined, not used for wine much anymore
- kr Light body with low alcohol and high acidity balanced by medium sweetness.
Floral, green fruit
- ks Argentina, in Cafayete and Mendoza
- kt Cotes de Provence AC - Rosés,
Bandol AC - Mourvedre Red $$$
- ku Columbard
- kv Highly structured reds from Tannat Grapes
- kw Corvina, Rondinella, Molinara
- kx Top quality sweet wines
- ky Carneros
- kz There are many varying geologies!
Slopes of Granite, Limestone, Clay, Sandstone, Volcanic, and Loam
The plains are largely alluvial
- la Appelation Controlee
- lb Logroño
- lc St. Emillion and Pomerol
- ld Into regions - dominant geological features
Then Districts - Share environtment features
Then Wards - similar soil and geog within regions
Then Estate Wines
- le Tight bunches-prone to rot
Thin skins with low soft tannins
- lf Syrah, Viognier, Marsanne, and Roussanne
- lg They often resemble new-world styles with international varietals.
- lh It develops sugars too fast and that crushes the delicate peach, pear and violet aromas
Can be unbalanced and have too much alcohol
- li Garanega
- lj As it comes - picking the whole bunch when only a few grapes have botrytis
- lk Vigor
- ll Oltalom Alatt Allo Eredetmegjololes
- lm Solid morning fog that clears in the afternoon
- ln Verdejo - elegant white that's high acid with aromatic flavor
- lo High in acidity with sour red cherry, astringent tannin, earthy/dusty aromas like tea leaves or tobacco
- lp Assyrtiko - two S's for a sassy santorini
concentrated perfume high in acid and alcohol
- lq Semillon
- lr Complex fruit spectrum from earth to blueberry to sour cherry.
- ls green grapes, salad, white pepper
develops honey and toast
- lt 15 months
- lu Saint-Joseph AC - Syrah, Marsanne & Roussane
- lv Tavel and Lirac
- lw Auxerrois
- lx Latitude
Soil - How much heat can the soil hold and reflect
- ly Adding concentrated grape must.
- lz Cool the wine, then filter
- ma Produced from grapes exclusively grown within one of the 13 Anbaugabiete.
May undergo must enrichment.
- mb Regional AC's - Aligoté, Rouge (P. Noir), Blanc (Chard)
Commune AC's - Chablis, Beaune, Gevrey Chambertin
Single Vineyard AC's - Premier and Grand Crus - Vineyards individually owned unlike Bordeaux Chateaux
- mc It covers the entire region and promotes blending of varietals from all over.
- md Spur trained and head trained
- me Big ripe fruit and Oak
- mf Columbia Valley
And Walla Walla
- mg Cool regions like Tasmania, Yarra Valley, Adelaide hills
- mh High alcohol, Tannin, and acidity. Excellent structure is hidden under light purple hued juice.
Complex aromatics, red fruit, rose, licorice, hay
- mi Yes, most places
- mj Most delicate pradikatswein style
Reislings Light in body, High acidity, with green apple, citrus, and some residual sugars.
Varying sugar levels.
- mk Loire style, both dry and sweet.
- ml Marlborough, Hawkes Bay, and Gisbourne
Marlborough is the southernmost of the main sparkling regions
- mm Gevrey Chambertin AC
- mn Xarel-Lo
- mo The humbolt current spews cool air that cools the valleys and also makes the fog on the coasts
- mp It's a quality and geographical scheme that is guaranteed by a tasting panel.
- mq 3 p... 60g/l
4... 90 g/L
5 ... 120 g/L
6 ... 150 g/L
- mr Verdejo - Susceptible to oxidization, used in Sherry. Can be made a light bodied crisp melon/peach with anaerobic winemaking.
Albarino - Thick skin, resistant to fungas, aromatic with intense peach and apricot and high acidity. Can be full bodied.
- ms Verdicchio - White with hints of Fennel, Candied Fruit, and Mineral Nuance.
- mt Anglianoco del Vulture - High altitude plantings, like Taurasi in style
- mu 6-9 months in oak barrels
- mv Coquard Press, now used alongside modern pneumatic presses
- mw By a panel, not to the chateaux but to each individual vintage. Done yearly.
- mx Steely, light-medium body, high acidity, apple, pear, green plum
- my Ull de Llebre
Tinto de Pais
- mz Schisty granite and sand
- na The Pouilly-Fuisse style or new world with lots of oak and fruit. Full body and low acid
exotic fruit, complexity, peach, banana, butter, hazelnut, oak vanilla
- nb Use chemicals only when needed, introduce predators, staying ahead with monitoring
- nc Pinot Noir
- nd Vitis Riparia
- ne Waxy grape surface that contains yeast
- nf Formerly, Priorat produced opaque, dense full bodied wines that were picked late and had a raisiny quality.
Nowadays they are still full bodied and deep in color, but with lower alcohol and concentrated aromas of black fruit with toasty french oak.
- ng Flinty like Sancerre
- nh Buds late to protect from frost
has thick skin to protect from insects and rot
gives low yield, with high tannin and acid
- ni 8
- nj Chianti/Chianti Classico
Brunello di Montalcino
Vino Nobile de Montepulciano
Vernaccia di San Ginignano - White
Toscana Igt - Super tuscans
- nk Transfer
- nl The first 82 liters of juice is Cuvée, used in the finest champagne
- nm Varying among subregions
Central Vineyards - Cool continental
Anjou and Nantais - Western with more maritime influence
- nn The yeast that's used in Sherry production, forms a cap on the top of the sherry and is allowed breathing room in the barrel or butt.
- no Sweet nose of Chocolate, dark rum, and leather.
Full body and intensely flavored.
from the passito method
- np The Benguela Current
- nq The WesternCape
- nr Mourvedre (exclusively)
- ns The Rhone Valley opens up much more South of Valence the terrain is much flatter, Soil with large "Galet" stones that help hold heat.
- nt Anywhere in Germany
- nu Oxidization
- nv Bandol AC
- nw Acidity
therefore it must be grown in cooler climates or regulating bodies like the sea
- nx Chablis - Chardonnay based whites
- ny Riesling and Madeleine Royale
- nz Brut Nature - 0-3g/l
Extra Brut - 0-6g/l
Brut - 0-12g/l
Extra Sec - 12-20g/l
Sec - 17-32g/l
Demi-Sec - 32-50g/l
Doux - 50+g/l
- oa Frost
- ob There is no ranking! All listed wines may call themselves Crus Classé. All lie within the Pessac Leognan AC.
Chateau Haut-Brion is the only exception in that it is part of the 1855 Premiers Crus Classification.
- oc 3
Chattea d'Yquem occupies the Premiers Rating Slot
- od Fino - light body
- oe The river goes east to west giving all of the vineyards in the north a perfect southern aspect
- of Anjou-Sanmur
- og Pick early for medium body/alcohol, higher acid
red fruits like raspberry, strawberry, and even vegetal leafy aroma
- oh 10ºC
- oi More drying, bitter, and acidic.
Less Fruity & less sweet.
Use sweeter or more fruity wines
- oj St-Amour AC
Cote de Brouilly AC
- ok Dry with Medium Acidity
Unlike Champagne it is Smoky and Rubbery rather than Bread and Toast
- ol Sloping southern aspect hills in the far north east
long dry autumns
early morning humidity from the Bodrog and Tisza rivers
- om Sweetness
Other Observations - Finish
- on Viognier
- oo High alcohol, low acidity
Exotic apricot, spices, floral aroma, rich mouthfeel (can become oily)
- op Rectified Constituted Grame Must - added to new world brands for sweetness - pure grape sugar extraction
- oq Producers may only use up to 80% vintage wine as to not deplete reserve stocks.
- or Minosegi Bor - Doc
Vedett Eredetu Bor - Docg (Special level)
- os Pouilly-Fuissé
- ot Ausbruch - Between Beerenauslese and Trockenbeeranauslese
Strohwein/Schilfwein - Grapes laid on straw to dry through the winter
- ou Less drying and bitter, less acidic.
Makes wine smoother and richer.
- ov They are the easternmost contingent, deep in the central vineyards.
- ow Sugars
- ox Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
- oy Often referred to as Muscadet
Neutral, green apple, grassy aroma
- oz E - elqui
L - Limari
Ch - Choapa
A - Aconcagua
Casa - Casablanca
S- San Antonio
Mai - Maipo
Ca - Cachapoal
Co - Colchuagua
Cu - Curico
Ma - Maule
Ita - Itata
Bio - Bio Bio
- pa Grenache
-Heat/drought resistant, wind resistant. Develops concentrated spicy red fruit flavor. in hot years it can become baked and jammy
- pb Palomino - thrives on the chalky albarizo soils
- pc -Pouilly-Fume - Sauvignon Blanc
-Sancerre - Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc
-Menetou-Salon - Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc
- pd Wines made in France outside of Champagne using the traditional method
Allowed 100L/150kg pressed juice
Made with the best still white wine of the regions
- pe Wachau, Kamptal, and Kremstal
All produce excellent Grüner Veltliner and Riesling
Steep terraced vineyards with great ripening potential
- pf Proximity
to a consistently evaporative body of water that will create a fog
layer in the vineyard. Botrytis must also be present. The fog should
lift and the vineyard should dry out with the mid day sun as well,
allowing to grapes to shrivel and the botrytis to cease.
Continued wet weather can lead to more serious fungal infections like grey rot, that will destroy a grape crop.
- pg Grenache + blend of Cinsault, Syrah, Mourvedre etc
- ph Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc
- pi Zones I-III
- pj Oak: allows for color and new flavor, oxidization and mellowing, and concentration though evaporation
- pk They ferment at a warm temperature which kills much of the fruit in the white wines. good for a neutral base wine.
- pl OPAP
- pm It is on the west coast of Africa and it helps regulate coastal temperatures and keeps it cooler
- pn Falernum
- po Same as traditional up until the riddling process when all bottles are emptied into a tank, filtered, then rebottled into new bottles.
- pp Hot Mediterranean but the ocean winds can have a cooling (if not destructive) effect
- pq 24 months red 18 white
min of 6 in oak, none for white
- pr Dordogne
They come together in the 'Gironde Estuary'
- ps NO!
- pt Either Trocken of Hab-Trocken (dry or off dry), higher must weight than Deutscher Wein (table wine)
- pu Baden - Strip from east of Alsace fromSwiss border up through Manheim
- pv Cool Continental
- pw Limestone and Marl Clay
- px DO - Denominacion de Origin
DOCa - Denominacion de Origin Califcada
VP - Vinos de Paya
VCIG - Vinos de Calidad con Indicacion Geografica
- py Tempranillo, Garnacha, Mazuelo, Graciano
- pz Climate
- qa Chardonnay
- qb TCA - Trichloroanisole
Mouldy Cardboard aroma!
- qc Médoc
Entre Deux Mers
- qd Left over lees and sediments
- qe European - Toast, Vanilla, fine tannin
American - more aromatic, bright flavors, sweet vanilla and coconut
- qf 36 months red, 18 white
18 oak red, 6 white
- qg The western cape produces 90%
- qh Regional - Broad, include all of Burgundy
Restricted Regions- ex. Bourgogne-HautesCotedeBeaune
Commune AC's- i.e. Beaune, all within a town
Single Vineyard AC's - Premier or Grand Crus only
- qi Pinot Noir
- qj Indicates quality wine with special attributes from a single Bereich within an Anbaugebiete.
May not receive enrichment but can be sweetened post fermentation with Süssreserve.
Also must label which of the 6 Pradikat levels it belongs to.
- qk Pinot Noir and some Cabernet Blends
- ql Garganega, high acid, floral perfume, camomile and iris
- qm Strawberry and raspberry with hints of white pepper
can develop leather, tar and coffee over time.
Full bodied high alcohol with low soft tannins
- qn Cabernet Sauvignon
some of the best in the world are in napa
- qo Slow inversion, gentle shake, and twist to allow yeast to slide to Crown Cap over time.
- qp Central Vineyards
-Pouilly-Fume - Sauvignon Blanc
-Sancerre - Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc
-Menetou-Salon - Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc
-Tourraine - Generic AC, Many styles
-Vouvray - Chenin Blanc
-Bourgueil - Cab Franc
-Chinnon - Cab Franc
-Sanmur - Chenin Blanc & Cab Franc
-Anjou - Chenin Blanc, Cab Franc, And some Rosé
-Coteaux du Layon - Chenin Blanc
-Savennieres - Chenin Blanc
-Muscadet - Melon Blanc
-Muscadet de Svre et Main - Melon Blanc
-Muscadet de Svre et Marine Sur Lie - Melon Blanc
- qq Chalky soil with excellent water water retnetion and very low nutrients
- qr High acid white wine
when young apples, develops into nuttiness and honey
- qs Muscadet Sur Lies
- qt Distinctly Grapey, Candied Orange overlaid with floral notes
Sweet, low alcohol, avoids autolysis
- qu Barossa Valley
- qv Sherry style
It is very oxidative and is perfect for sherry style. It can also be made crisp through anaerobic winemaking
- qw Sauvignon Blanc fermented in large Oak or stainless
Gun Smoke, flinty, from chalky soil
- qx Inexpensive/mid priced red
light bodied, simple cherry fruit, higher acidity
lower in oak so lower price
- qy Avoidance of excessive grassiness or fruitiness
Fermentation in old oak
restrained style unlike new world
- qz Coops pool grapes, can be given back to the producer or blended
Negociants buy grapes/wine from producers and blends/sells it themselves
- ra A grecian wine made with tree resin, racked off, and can be made anywhere in Greece
- rb Maritime
wet, mild climate
- rc The waxy film around the grape that contains natural yeast
- rd Must
- re Only a certain number of Bodegas can make it.
- rf Furmint - high acid, apples to nutty honey, botrytis
Harslevelu - late ripening, botrytis
Sarga Muscatolay - aromatic, orange blossom
Olasz Rizling - (Welsch Reisling) light dry whites
Irsai Oliver- intense aromatic, spicy like muscat or gewurtz
- rg It is a fining agent.
- rh Rosé
- ri Naoussa (macedonia) - Reds Xinomavro
Nemea (Peloponnese) - Agiorgitiko
Santorini - Assyrtiko
- rj Tinta Roriz
- rk Pinot Noir and Cinsault
- rl Mendoza
- rm Hawkes Bay
- rn Every 10 years
- ro Cool Continental with cool air coming off the Pyrenees, good rainfall as well.
- rp Moscato!
- rq Made from selected super ripe bunches
Huge style range for Riesling
Can be from a bit more concentrated than Spätlese up to full botrytis effect.
Highest category allowed to be dry wine.
- rr Continental
Long warm summers and short cold winters
- rs 102L/160kg
First 82 Liters is Cuvee
Last 20 Liters is Taille
- rt over 600 Premier Crus
33 Grand Crus
- ru East towards the River Ill
- rv YES - Long warm summers allow
- rw Strong acidity, pronounced floral notes, camomille and Iris.
- rx Spicy nose
Lychee, Baking Spices
Medium to low acidity
- ry A blend of Wine, sugar, yeast nutrients, and a clarifying agent added to promote the secondary fermentation
- rz Dried grapes (because Italy largely lacks Botrytis)
Picked early to retain acidity and pressed weeks-months later
- sa Alsace only
selection of botrytis affected grapes
minimum of 16.4-18.2% alcohol potential
noble grapes only
not produced every year
- sb Crisp, Light whites made from Armagnac.
- sc Extra Brut
- sd Chateauneuf-du-Pape style.
Full bodied spicy wines
- se Clay Soils, poor drainage, limited heat retention
- sf Muscat - Grapey and candied orange
- sg Cap Classique
must stay on lees for 9 months
- sh Virus and disease (Leaf roll virus primarily)
- si Aloxe-Corton AC
- sj Warm Mediterranean
Long diurnal range, very hot in sumer
- sk 3 styles of Cab Franc:
Lightest- sandy soils of Rive Vienne
Medium- Gravelly Clay Plateau -firmer body
Finest - Limestone Slopes
- sl #1 - Tempranillo - 70%
#2 - Garnacha
- sm Joven - Immediate release
Crianza - red: 6 mnth barrel, 24 total. White total 18 mnth
Reserva - reds 12 mnth barrel, 36 mnth total. White, 18 total, 6 in barrel
Gran Riserva - Exceptional vintages only, minimum 60 months, 18 in barrel for red, 48 for white and rosé
- sn Naturally high tannin, acidity and color
lacks fruit and finesse
- so Champagne Chardonnay is usually lighter bodied with a high acidity and floral/citrus character, Burgundy Chardonnay has more body, and can produce lean steely high acid wine in Chablis or creamy complex bodied wines of Cote d'Or, or Highly fruity round wines from Macon
- sp Ripe red spicy black fruit, can be floral from higher altitudes
- sq Particles that cloud the wine, are suspended in the liquid and do not deposit. Most important are tannins and color compounds
- sr Willamette Valley - Cool winters, wet, warm dry summer with cooling from pacific
- ss Addition of synthetic acid to wine.
- st Barolo
- su Burying on cane down under ground to promote root growth, then separating it from the original plant.
- sv 16-21ºC
- sw The north west
- sx "Late Harvest"
More concentrated flavor than Kabinett
More ripe Riesling flavors, no green apple, more citrus and stone fruit (peach & Apricot)
- sy Chilled 7-10ºC
- sz Clarity - Intenisty - Color - Other Observations
- ta tank method
- tb Lightly Chilled 10-13ºC
- tc Cabernet, Merlot, Syrah, Camenère blends
- td The Right Bank of Bordeaux
- te Citrus, Peach, Pineapple
- tf Gamay
- tg Peach and apricot
Rich and Balanced
- th Ripe strawberry/plums
often blended with other more distinctive grapes
- ti Northern Spain running west to east
- tj Frost protection
- tk Condition - Intensity - Aroma Characteristics - Development
- tl An Einzellage is an individual vineyard. Only PDO producers may mention the Einzellage on Label.
- tm Mencia - aromatic fruity intensity balanced with natural high acidity.
- tn Matching production with demand and keeping everyone paid!
Growers will make their own blending wine or champagnes at cooperatives to sell
Champagne houses cannot expand their holdings and must rely on growers
- to The grapes will ripen at different rates
farmers will pick in numerous 'Tries'
- tp All Chenin Blanc
Can be many styles though, dry, sweet, sparkling etc
- tq Fruit desserts
- tr Granite Schist
Gamay loves Granite
- ts Can switch from one variety to another on existing stock (though must wait 3 years to produce good fruit) and allows producers to adjust quickly to market changes.
- tt plum, anise, earth
- tu Coastal Plain - Hottest, mediterranean, dry. Full bodied Reds
Valleys - Temperate, white wines, Cava
Hills - up to 800m, cool, good for int. varietals like riesling.
- tv Riesling - Late Ripen, Hardy, High Acid, Floral to Ripe Peach
Müller-Thurgau (Rivaner) - Lower acid and flavor intensity than Riesling, Simple floral and fruit
Silvaner - White, moderate acidity, neutral fruit, can be earthy
Spatburgunder (Pinot Noir)
Dornfelder - Black grape - Deep color
- tw Furmint - concentrated acid, apples become nuts & honey with age
Harslevelü - late ripe, botrytis, aromatic
Sarga Muscotaly - (muscat) - aromatic, floral orange blossom
- tx Too hot sometimes!
- ty It
is botrytis affected! There is a lot of water around allowing for misty
mornings. It is in contrast to the vendange tardive style of
Savennieres on the north side of the Loire.
Will be high in alcohol, distinctly Acidic, and good body from the botrytis.
- tz Drought and heat
- ua Mantagne de Riems
Vallee de la Marne
Cotes de Blancs
- ub Clarification, by removing the sedimented particles from the liquid
- uc Chablis
Cote de Nuits
Dote De Beaune
- ud Merlot
- ue Futures sales of early rated vintages from top producers in Bordeaux
- uf Pungent, Gamey nose with high tannin, alcohol, and acidity.
- ug Orvieto - Famous for whites made with Grechetto, Malvasia and Trebbiano
Mantefalco Sagratino is a red that is demanding more attention now.
- uh Cotes Du Rhone
Cotes Du Rhone Villages
- ui Crushing! - Breaks the skin and allows free-run juice to flow out - will be left on to macerate or pressed immediately for whites
- uj France
- uk Kabinett, Spätlese, Auslese can all potentially be made dry
- ul Warm and Dry
- um Microscopic worms
- un Vienne in the North
Valence in the South
- uo Red berry fruit, can be made beaujolais style or full bodied with spicy notes
- up White. Green Grapes, Salad, and White Pepper that becomes honeyed and toasted as the wine ages
Can express exaggerated minerality.
Often allowed to breath in new oak
- uq Using the tank method
- ur The Meseta
- us Premium Priced Grand Cru White
Full Bodied, med/high acid, peach and apricot fruit
- ut Smaragd - Fullest and most complex
Federspiel - In the middle
Steinfeder - Lightest and freshest style
- uu Gewürz - Like Gewurztraminer
- uv Rudolf Steiner and Maria Thun
- uw Grave del Friuli DOC- Light Bordeaux Style Blends
Collio DOC** - Important Whites High acidity and Alcohol
Colli Oriantali del Friuli DOC - Reds and Whites
- ux The south Western Part of Aus, Under Perth
- uy Carneros AVA
2nd - Anderson Valley in Medocino - Cool ocean wind with thick fog
- uz As broad as a state
a county sized area
a geographical area like the central coast
- va Half continental and half maritime
relatively early spring but with mild summer temps
- vb Tempranillo - #1
Garnacha Tinta - Spanish Grenache
Monastrell - Spanish Mourvedre
Graciano - Mainly in Rioja, Strong Structure
Carinera - Lower acid, High in Tannin and Color
Mencia - better in cooler climate, herbaceous, high acid
- vc Riesling
- vd The average temperature difference between winter and summer
- ve Rive Sâone
- vf It cools the air that might otherwise be too warm in Chile
- vg Deep from thick skinned clone of Tempranillo (tinta del toro).
Noticeably high in alcohol
- vh Harvested late for optimum color, and fruit. Intense purple juice, blackberry and plums. Velvet textured Tannin with higher alcohol and possibly oak influence
- vi Veraison
- vj Fresh simple fruity wines best drank young
Complex full bodied and texture, skin macerated and barrel fermented
- vk The island wide IGT Sicilia
- vl Malbec (Auxerrois)
Minimum of 70% in any blend
Also plant tannat and merlot
- vm Minute quantities produced
Undergo noble rot until absolutely shriveled
very high residual sugar and acidity.
- vn Chablis - White Chardonay-Centric wines
-Cote de Nuits - Top Full Bodied Reds
-Cote de Beaune - Top Whites (excluding Musigny Blanc)
- vo Bodega
- vp Vidal and Riesling
- vq Tajbor
- vr First fermentation
maturation and Autolysis
- vs Varietals and Cuvée/Taille are fermented separately.
Most will undergo some MLF
- vt Olorosso and Amontadillo
- vu Varying from Hermitage intensity to light bodied carbonically macerated wines with raspberry and pepper perfumes.
- vv Rully AC - White and Red
Mercurey AC - Best Reds from Chalonnaise
Givry AC - Smallest
Mantagny AC - Only Whites
- vw Huge diurnal range allows for higher acid production
- vx Maritime-Alpine hybrid
Warm air comes up through the Orcia Valley to Montalcino Massif in the center of the Apennines to moderate daytime temps.
- vy Beaujolais AC - Lowest Quality, Can produce Nouveau or Premieur
Beaujolais Villages AC - Can produce Nouveau or Premieur
Beaujolais Crus - Ten Crus
- vz divided into 3 regions
coastal plain is hottest and it cools up into the hills
- wa Intensely grapey flavor
Can contain grape, peach, rose, and citrus in best locations
- wb Fume Blanc
- wc Between the light Mosel and Full Rheingau style. Pronounced acidity like Mosel but fuller fruit like Rheingau
- wd Medium Bodied, Fruity, and Simple
Many use carbonic maceration to limit tannins
- we Taurasi DOCG
High Acid, High Tannin, made with Anglianico
- wf Death of yeast releases proteins and other chemicals into wine providing bready toasty flavors.
- wg Premium Quality, Minimum Must weight of Auslese level or better, comes from an Einzellage area, Generally Dry, rare classification that often qualifies for other certs
- wh The southern plains - Half of vineyards
Lake Balaton - largest lake in europe with moderating climate effects
- wi Grüner Veltliner
green grapes, salad, white pepper
develops honey and toast
- wj Reds - 75% of production
- wk Rosés from Grenache and Cinsault
Full bodied and intense flavor.
- wl Deep red with high acidity and tannin.
- wm Aromatic, high acid, late ripening, very hardy making it ideal for late harvest
- wn Northern is more Continental
Southern is Mediteranean
- wo Furmint - High acid white varietal
- wp Bergerac
Cotes de Gascogne IGP
- wq Chardonnay, Merlot, Cab Sauv
- wr N to South-
Mosel - Reisling
Rhieingau - Riesling
Nahe - Riesling
Rheinhassen - Riesling
Pfalz - Riesling
Baden - Pinot Noir
Franken - Silvaner, Riesling
- ws sour cherry, raspberry, spice, anise
- wt Warm weather varietals like:
Marsanne and Roussane
- wu Rioja Alavesa - High alt 800m, Chalky, light wines with finesse
Rioja Baja - Heavy clay, strong continental climate, HOT
Rioja Alta - 500-800m, limestone clay with red iron,
- wv Chardonnay
- ww Non-botrytis Dry Wines - Can be premium
Tokaji Szamorodni - Dry or sweet, noble rot character, aged
Tokaji Aszu - base of healthy grapes concentrated must, matured for 3 years, can be extremely sweet
Aszu Eszencia - Very rare, min 180g/L Sugar
Tokaji Eszencia - Very rare, free run from Aszu.. minimum 450 g/L sugar. Hi acid, concentrated
Modern Sweet Wine - less barrel contact than others
- wx Ribera del Duero - in the east
Rueda - in the middle
Toro - in the west
- wy Under Adelaide in Southern Aus. Home to coonawara
- wz OPE
- xa Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscat d'Alexandria
- xb Haut Medoc
Moulis en Medoc
- xc Grenache
- xd Olorosso - Develop little to no flor. Fortified to 17% to kill Flor
- xe NO
- Only Merlot/Cab franc
- xf Chalky soil
- xg Botte are large often slovenian oak
Barrique are small 250 liter casks
- xh They are huge buildings kept cool by high lofty windows and ceilings with a continually damp earthen floor to maintain humidity levels (which regulate oxidization in the barrels)
- xi New Zealand style
- High acid and crisp from the central coast
- xj Adding of sugars to grape must.
- xk Bergerac
- xl Champagne made exclusively from Pinot Noir and Meunier grapes
more structured and with red fruit character
- xm Fruit flavors
- xn Nebbiolo-like
High tannin and acid
- xo Kabinett
- xp Gravelly, Excellent Drainage, Heat Retaining Stone
- xq Gobelet
- xr Grenache - thrives on the hot weather
- xs Proximity to seas and lakes
Sunlight hazards - Trees and vine's own leaves
- xt 30º-32ºC
- xu "Ice-Wine" left until they meet -8ºC temp
Crushed, frozen water skimmed off
Intense Fruit and Acidity
- xv Upper Ebro
North Western Spain
- xw Only majority Red wine producer in Germany - Is the warmest region - produce Pinot Noir (Spatburgunder)
- xx Med Acidity, Fresh Green Apple & Melon
Do not benefit from bottle aging
- xy More drying, bitter, acidic. Will firm tannins.
Less sweet & less fruity.
Pair with more fruity wines, limit tannins
- xz Maritime - Clay over limestone (Valpolicella, barolo, Barbaresco)
Volcanic - (Soave, Colli Euganei, Lacryma Christi, Etna)
Alluvial - Bardolino and Piave
- ya Thin high acid wines. Generally two-dimensional flavor.
Used in sparkling burgundies, blended to add acidity.
- yb Review of producers every 10 years,
enter system as a grand cru
after 10 years consistent G. Cru performance can become a Grand Cru Classé
Top tier is Premier G. Cru Classe
- yc Reds: 60 months total, minimum 18 in Oak
Whites & Rosé: 48 months with a minimum of 6 in oak.
- yd Full bodied Garnacha/Monastrell Reds
- ye Passerillage is done on the vine
Passito is dried indoors
- yf 1 Drink
- yg The Remueur
- yh They have strict limits est. in 1986 that severely limits grape yield for PGI and PDI wines
- yi Ribera Del Duero
- yj 60 Months red, 48 months white
18 oak red, 6 oak white
- yk men - 14 units / week (2/day)
women - 7 units/week (1/day)
- yl (cool climate) blueberry, prune, coffee, leather, pepper
(warm climate) raspberry, blackberry, pepper, chocolate
Both full bodied
- ym Muscadet AC
Produced with Melon Blanc
- yn Tempranillo
Very little Garnacha Tinto is blended
- yo VORS - Very old rare sherry
VOS - Very old sherry
both at least average of 30 years
- yp Limited aromatic character, peach and grapefruit
Can be oaked and called Fumè Blanc in the US
- yq Mourvedre
- yr South Africa
- ys Coteaux
is prone to botrytis while Savennieres is well exposed and air
circulates to prevent noble rot but promotes vendange tardive wines.
Both use chenin blanc
- yt Rotten
- yu Flowers and ripens early
- yv Round tannins, deep color, high alc, blackberry and plum