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448 True/False questions

  1. Which of the following wine regions is not located along the coast of Western Australia?
    Geographe, Margaret River, Blackwood Valley, Manjimup, Pemberton, Great Southern.
    Blackwood Valley. All of these regions, except Blackwood Valley which is located inland, experience sea breezes from the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, or both. Salinity from the oceans is an issue (p73c2-74c1).

          

  2. What are the two routes by which odors reach the olfactory epithelium?Directly through the nostrils and indirectly through the mouth and rear nasal passages as wine is tasted, (p204c1).

          

  3. In South Africa, the climate is cooler than the latitude might suggest. Why?Marsala (p140)

          

  4. Why are most German vineyards located near rivers or lakes?To provide a warmer micro-climate and prevent frost (p113).

          

  5. RossoRosé

          

  6. List three examples of VDN, vin doux naturel.Mainly: Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Noir // A little Pinot Gris in Reuilly , Red and Rose

          

  7. LiqorosoSweet wine, usually fortified with alcohol

          

  8. Which portions of Portugal enjoy a Mediterranean climate? Maritime climate?Cannonau is another name for Grenache in Sardinia (p140c2).

          

  9. What causes malolactic fermentation, MLF?Alcohol, Heat, Carbon Dioxide CO2

          

  10. With regards to red Rioja, what are the aging requirements of a crianza, reserva, and gran reserva?Crianza- at least 1 year on oak / 6 months in bottle; not released until its 3rd year.
    Reserva- also minimum of 1 year on oak but not released until its 4th year.
    Gran reserva- minimum of 2 years on oak; 3 in bottle, not released until its 6th year. (p164c2)

          

  11. What is a solera?Farm or estate

          

  12. A fourth of Chile's Chardonnay comes from one wine region. Which one?Almost a quarter of Chile's Chardonnay is grown is Casablanca, and there is some growing excitement over the Pinot Noir plantings in the areas as well (p85.)

          

  13. What are the grape varieties allowed for a grand cru in Alsace?Gewurztraminer, Muscat, Pinot Gris, or Riesling (p106c1).

          

  14. Cantine sociale or cantine cooperativaWine cooperative; wineries owned by a group of members

          

  15. What is heat stabilization?Proteins turn into a white haze when exposed to heat. Fining agents remove proteins to prevent this.

          

  16. What two GIs within South Australia are famed for their Riesling?A unique vineyard ranking system in Portugal. 12 total criteria, including: Altitude, yield, soil and locality. (p152)

          

  17. What is Portugal's largest DOC?Vinho Verde (p150-151)

          

  18. What are the two main six-carbon sugars that can be fermented into alcohol by yeast?Alcohol, Heat, Carbon Dioxide CO2

          

  19. Red or White: Cencibel.Red aka Tempranillo in La Mancha, Rioja.

          

  20. What does Gustabfüllung indicate on a German wine label? What does Erzeugerafüllung indicate?In German, this means "this year's" and refers both to new wine and the vintner-owned inns/taverns/wine bars that serve food and proprietary wines in Vienna (p81).

          

  21. BarricasDry, sparkling wine.

          

  22. In Sherry production, what is the typical order of the following events?
    Aging in barrel, blending, classification, fermentation, fortification, pressing
    Pressing
    Fermentation
    Classification
    Fortification
    Aging in barrel
    Blending (p56-57)

          

  23. What quantity of sulfites is naturally produced during fermentation?European emigration, 98% population is of European decent; 1/2 of Italian decent. (p67c1).

          

  24. What red grape variety is well known for its propensity to mutate?Pinot Noir (p31)

          

  25. Red or White? Blauer WildbacherMorillon = White , aka Chardonnay (78-79)

          

  26. Why is SO2 Sodium Dioxide added to grape must?Seller of wine. not producer, responsible for sale of 75% of export wine, primarily though selling futures. (p89)

          

  27. Name three wine growing areas with Chile's Central Valley.There are four, all are Valleys:
    Maipo Valley - status symbol estates.
    Rapel Valley - wide expanses of flat farmland.
    Curicó Valley - coastal range, quite warm.
    Maule Valley - cloud cover and cooler temp. (p85)

          

  28. Place the following in order from driest to sweetest:

    Brut, Demi-Sec, Doux, Extra-Brut, Extra Dry, Sec
    Blackwood Valley. All of these regions, except Blackwood Valley which is located inland, experience sea breezes from the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, or both. Salinity from the oceans is an issue (p73c2-74c1).

          

  29. Where is Marsala produced?The solera can refer to:
    (1) a set of casks often arranged in scales,
    (2) a dynamic aging and fractional blending system
    (3) the butts that contain the oldest wine in the system... name comes from Latin solum, floor/soil b/c these butts are closest to the ground. (p57 c2)

          

  30. Which Austrian wine region has its own classification system? Describe the three tiers.Wachau.
    1) Steinfeder- light body/dry up to 11% alcohol,
    2) Federspiel - medium body/dry under 12.5%,
    3) Smaragd - full-bodied/dry over 12.5%.

          

  31. What are the inputs and products of photosynthesis?Inputs: sunlight, CO2, water
    Products: Sugar, O2 (p10c2)

          

  32. What is the southernmost wine-growing region in the world?4-10% RS.

          

  33. What is the name of the famous fortified wine of Sicily?Marsala (p140)

          

  34. PassitoAn Italian sweet dessert wine made from grapes that have been dried, maybe on straw mats. straw wine

          

  35. How far is New Zealand from Australia?Red, from Aegean Islands, (p124c2).

          

  36. What is the primary grape variety used to make the "black wines" of Cahors?At least 70% Malbec, known locally as Cot, in SW France. (p111).

          

  37. Garganega is the primary grape in what wine?Soave. Widely grown in the Veneto region of North East Italy, particularly in the provinces of Verona and Vicenza. (p134c1)

          

  38. ColliHills

          

  39. What are anthocyanins?Spätburgunder in Germany and Austria. aka Pinot Noir and Pinot Nero (p116)

          

  40. The better vineyards in Greece face which direction? North, South, East, WestNapa County AVA, Napa Valley AVA, Oakville AVA

          

  41. Where will acidity most likely be detected?In-mouth evaluation. (p199c1) On the mid-palate?

          

  42. What are the two primary categories of Port?Pinot Nero (p129c2)

          

  43. What is the northernmost wine region in South Africa?Mendoza (p68).

          

  44. How does Spanish wine law differ from French wine law?Grape stems, pips and skins, and oak barrels. (p195c1)

          

  45. Red or White: Roditis?Red, from Aegean Islands, (p124c2).

          

  46. BottigliaBottle

          

  47. Define Weissherbst.White, most widely planted varietal in world, mainly bulk wine, known in Castilla-La Mancha (p167c2)

          

  48. Red or White? ZierfandlerZierfandler = White (78-79)

          

  49. Describe the climate and topography of Porto's three sub regions.(Alt answer?)
    Baixo Corgo - no steep slopes, fertile soils, 47 inches of rain
    Cima Corgo - quality heartland, steep slopes/rocky, 28 inches of rain
    Douro Superior - Gentle slopes, 15 inches of rain (p152)

          

  50. AmaroRosé

          

  51. Which German wine region is comprised of one long hillside that flanks the Rhine River as it takes a sharp westerly bend?1) Brand name
    2) Class or type of wine
    3) The name and address of the bottler or the importer
    4) Alcohol content
    5) A sulfite statement, if required
    6) A health warning
    7) The net contents, volume of the bottle.
    Also, country of origin and "imported by" must appear on foreign wines. (p172c1)

          

  52. Name three wine regions (districts?) within Niederösterreich.Rouge Valley (map cross ref); binder lists Southern Oregon AVA, includes Rouge Valley AVA and Umpqua Valley AVA. (p186c2)

          

  53. What is the range of residual sugar found in Marsala?Olifants River Region (p160c2)

          

  54. What is Tempranillo called in Portugal's Douro Valley?Constantia (p159c2)

          

  55. Grapes of CavaSpain's traditional-method sparkling wine, produced mainly in the Penedés region in Northeastern Spain. (p166c1)

          

  56. True or False: Eiswein is always influenced by boytrytis.False. These wines are intensly flavored, sometimes with the honeyed influence of botrytis, sometimes not (p115c2).

          

  57. Give three synonyms for Tempranillo.White, used in Cava production, (p166c2)

          

  58. What chemical compounds are formed by the oxidation of alcohols in wines such as sherry?Setúbal, Portugal. (p155)

          

  59. Various names for sparkling wines made in the Tank Method:Grape varieties in South Africa ...
    Steen = Chenin Blanc
    Pinotage = a 1925 cross of Pinot Noir x Cinsault
    Hanepoot = Muscat d' Alexandria (p159c1)

          

  60. What is Strategy 2025?Launched at the turn of the 21st century, Strategy 2025 expresses Australia's goal to become a $4.5 billion dollar wine industry by being the world's most influential and profitable supplier of branded wines. (p71c1)

          

  61. True or False: Australia's Granite Belt region possesses terra rossa soils.Australia is the flattest, driest continent in the world, with the oldest, most depleted soils on Earth. Some say the soil itself is a fossil. It is leached, acidic, and saline with a high Potassium, K, content. In the entire world, only South Africa has a slightly similar soil profile (p70c1).

          

  62. A wine with an aromatic profile of rose petals, lychee nut, sandalwood, grapefruit, ginger and nutmeg is likely to be...Gewurztraminer (p23)

          

  63. What is the probable source of hydrogen sulfide in a wine?Acetic acid (p192c2)

          

  64. What is the Italian name for Pinot Noir?Lake Neusiedl is Central Europe's only steppe lake.

          

  65. Which of the following is not a red grape variety?
    Nebbiolo, Sangiovese, Viognier, Zinfandel?
    False. Moderate tannins, not related to Zinfandel.

          

  66. What is the largest wine region in Argentina?1) A first cut, free run & light press juice.
    2) Blended base wine.

          

  67. When setting a place at a dinner table, where should the wineglass or wineglasses be placed?To the right of the water glass, above the knife on the right side of the place-setting, (p209c2).

          

  68. Name the three principal towns within the Sherry district.Black cherry, tobacco, vanilla, blackberry, chocolate, cigar box, black pepper, tea, herbs, coffee, toffee, mint ... (p28)

          

  69. Vino da tavolaMuscadet AC
    grape: Melon de Bourgogne, aka Melon Blanc

          

  70. Red or White: MacabeoWhite, used in Cava production, (p166c2), aka. Viura in Rioja, (p165)

          

  71. What is Edelzwicker?Blend of Noble Grapes: Any Combination of Riesling, Gewurztraminer, Muscat, Pinot Gris, Zwicker: Non- Noble Blend Grapes: Pinot Blanc, Auxerrois, Sylvaner and Chasselas aka Fendant

          

  72. How is Amarone della Valpolicella made?1,200 miles east of Australia (p143c1)

          

  73. Name four AVAs in Sonoma County.1. Sonoma Coast, 2. Los Carneros, 3. Sonoma Valley, 4. Sonoma Mountain, 5. Russian River Valley, 6. Green Valley of Russian River Valley, 7. Bennett Valley (newest), 8. Chalk Hill, 9. Alexander Valley, 10. Knights Valley, 11. Dry Creek Valley, 12. Rockpile, 13. Northern Sonoma, 13 AVAs, (p180-181)

          

  74. ProduttoreFull-bodied, sweet wine made from partly dried grapes

          

  75. WachauA wine district in Niederösterreich known for its Riesling and Grüner Veltliner. The area has it's own wine classification system.

          

  76. In what county is the Santa Ynez Valley AVA?Mendocino County (p182)

          

  77. FermentazioneFermentation

          

  78. Define the following terms: Süss, Trocken, Halbtrocken, Feinherb, Classic, SelectionAmador, Calaveras, El Dorado, Placer, Nevada, Yuba, Tuolumne, and Mariposa counties (p184c1)

          

  79. In which Argentine wine region were the first vines planted?Mendoza (p68).

          

  80. What is a synonym for true Riesling?Naturally sweetened wine, achieved by arrested fermentation through the addition of grape spirits to leave residual grape sugars in the product (p64c2).

          

  81. AbboccatoLightly sweet

          

  82. Sturmtypical geographic origin indication

          

  83. What is the alcoholic content of Fino Sherry after fortification?Grape stems, pips and skins, and oak barrels. (p195c1)

          

  84. What are the Mosel, the Saar, and the Ruwar?Rioja Alta, Rioja Alavesa, and Rioja Baja (p165c2)

          

  85. SuperioreIn DOC or DOCG wines, indicates a higher level of alcohol, usually 1%, or aging and sometimes a special geographic origin

          

  86. Various names for sparkling wines made in the classic Champagne Method:1. Methode Champenoise
    2. Metonde Tradionnelle
    3. Classic Method
    4. Metodo Classico
    5. Cap Classique
    6. Cava
    7. Traditional Method
    8. Cremant

          

  87. Under Australian law, if a single varietal appears on the label, what is the minimum content from that grape variety in the wine?True, 70%+ Portuguese red or rosé, deep colored tannic red wines that often have bell pepper and black currant flavors, (p154c1)

          

  88. Where is the Finger Lakes AVA?Steam-filled pipes heating a hot room, armazens de calor, for Madeira production (p62c2-p63c1).

          

  89. In Sparkling wine, the bubbles are comprised of what gas?Oro, Ambra, Rubio (p63c2).

          

  90. What wine region is known for its fortified Muscats?Setúbal, Portugal. (p155)

          

  91. What is the difference between Montepulciano d' Abruzzo and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano?Vino Nobile di Montepulciano DOCG should not be confused with Montepulciano d' Abruzzo: Vino Nobile is a blend based on Sangiovese grown on the slopes of the Tuscan town of Montepulon, whereas Montepulciano d' Abruzzo is made in the Abruzzo region from the Montepulciano grape. (p136c1).

          

  92. What factors contributed to a strong wine culture in Argentina?In German, this means "this year's" and refers both to new wine and the vintner-owned inns/taverns/wine bars that serve food and proprietary wines in Vienna (p81).

          

  93. NiederösterreichAn Austrian wine made by fermenting the must of late harvest, non-botrysized grapes with a must that has been affected by botrytis.

          

  94. True or False: Australia has no indigenous grapevines.1. Nantes
    2. Anjou & Saumur
    3. Touraine
    4. Central France, Upper Loire

          

  95. Red or White: MazueloWhite aka Macabeo outside of Rioja in Spain, (p165) ... the most important white wine grape of Rioja.

          

  96. BrutDry, sparkling wine.

          

  97. What is Germany's largest wine-growing region according to acreage planted? According to production numbers? According to physical size?Weinviertel (p80 c2) district, in Niederösterreich region.

          

  98. Red or White: GracianoRed, Rioja

          

  99. What might the brick red color of a wine indicate?Lake Neusiedl is Central Europe's only steppe lake.

          

  100. How does maceration affect a finished wine's flavor and texture?False, Carcavelos is a fortified wine region in Estremadura (p155).

          

  101. TenutaDry, as in Amarone della Valpolicella

          

  102. What are the four levels of the French wine quality pyramid?Rioja Alta, Rioja Alavesa, and Rioja Baja (p165c2)

          

  103. What is the English translation of Debourage?Juice Settling (p51).

    This is a wine-making technique whereby must is allowed to rest before fermentation begins in order for the gross particulate matter to fall out of the solution.

          

  104. How much wine is contained in a Magnum, Jeroboam and Balthazar?Magnum = 2 bottles, 1.5L
    Jeroboam = 4 bottles, 3L
    Balthazar =16 bottles,12L
    (p53 - table of bottle sizes)

          

  105. How many grape varieties can be incorporated into the production of Port? How many are recommended by the Casa do Douro? Name them.80; 8 recommended by Casa do Douro:
    5 Reds: Touriga Nationale, Touriga Franca, Tinta Barroca, Tinta Roriz aka Tempranillo, and Tinta Cão
    3 Whites: Gouveio, Verdelho, Malvasia Fina, Vinosiho. (p153c2)

          

  106. Right Bank Regions North to SouthMostly 100% Chenin Blanc // Savennières , famous dry Chenin Blanc

          

  107. InvecchiatoFull-bodied, sweet wine made from partly dried grapes

          

  108. What is the allowable variation from the stated alcohol content on a U.S. wine label?The Central Valley is, by far, the largest fine wine region in Chile. (p83)

          

  109. What are the principal products of fermentation?Black cherry, tobacco, vanilla, blackberry, chocolate, cigar box, black pepper, tea, herbs, coffee, toffee, mint ... (p28)

          

  110. IGTtypical geographic origin indication

          

  111. What is flor?Winery or wine cellar

          

  112. What is Schilcher?A dark, sweet desert wine (p123c1). One of three grapes responsible for 97% of sweet wines in Greece (p124c2).

          

  113. Medoc Wine Regions North to SouthNORTH TO SOUTH:
    1. St Estephe
    2. Pauillac
    3. St Julien
    4. Listrac
    5. Moulis
    6. Margaux

          

  114. How much pressure is inside a typical bottle of sparkling wine?4.9-6 Atmospheres

          

  115. What is the difference between IGT wine and a vino da tavola?IGT was created to ... these wines can be varietal labeled, be labeled under a geographic indication, and be vintage dated (p129).

          

  116. Describe the "rule of 75 percent."Raise sugar levels of the must for fermentation (p46)

          

  117. What is cold stabilization?Tartaric acid precipitates out of solution as tartrate crystals when wine is chilled. To prevent what looks like 'glass shards' in the bottle, wines are chilled to 25-degrees to 27-degrees for 2-4 weeks in the cask.

          

  118. Fume' Blanc is made from what grape variety?Sauvignon Blanc, typically with some oak influence , term coined by Robert Mondavi

          

  119. What are some of the differences between sustainable, organic, and biodynamic viticultural practices?Detection threshold is the smallest amount of stimulus necessary to trigger an unidentifiable sensation; and recognition threshold is the smallest amount of stimulus necessary to trigger an identifiable sensation. (p202c1)

          

  120. Name the three common methods of Madeira production today.Oro, Ambra, Rubio (p63c2).

          

  121. True or False: Colares is a fortified wine region in Estremadura.True, 70%+ Portuguese red or rosé, deep colored tannic red wines that often have bell pepper and black currant flavors, (p154c1)

          

  122. Steps for Method Champenoise, Creating the SparkleRotgipfler = White (78-79)

          

  123. Under what circumstances should a wine be decanted?Seller of wine. not producer, responsible for sale of 75% of export wine, primarily though selling futures. (p89)

          

  124. Wines of AnjouGroup of producers of a specific wine

          

  125. What is Steen?Chenin Blanc

          

  126. What is the section of the Bordeaux region that lies on the left bank of the Gironde north of the city of Bordeaux called?Médoc and Haut-Médoc, (p90 c2)

          

  127. Brunello is a clone of what grape variety?Sauvignon Blanc, typically with some oak influence , term coined by Robert Mondavi

          

  128. Approximately how many indigenous grape varieties are to be found in Greece?Cannonau is another name for Grenache in Sardinia (p140c2).

          

  129. What is the smallest amount of residual sugar that most people can recognize in a wine?Mendoza (p68).

          

  130. When making white wine, what is the most typical order of the following events?

    Aging, Bottling, Clarification, Crushing, Fermentation, Pressing, Racking.
    Chardonnay

          

  131. What is the best procedure for judging the color of a wine?Tilt the glass over a white surface with natural lighting, view the edge of the wine for color and hue on the rim. Intense color is high extract and flavor; compare with other wines. (p198)

          

  132. What state or territory is the original home of grapevine planting Down Under?Greek wine was originally resinated to retard spoilage (p131c2).

          

  133. How does phylloxera damage a vine?When feeding on vine roots, phylloxera injects saliva that causes the development of galls. Feeding wounds also allow bacteria and fungi to invade the vine and rot the root.

          

  134. UhudlerA tart herbal rosé made from the Blauer Wildbacher grape in Weststeiermark, Austria.

          

  135. Grapes of Vins du Centre1. Meursault
    2. Beaune
    3. Puligny-Montrachet
    4. Chassagne-Montrachet
    5. Aloxe-Corton
    6. Sauvigny-les-Beaune
    7. Pommard
    8. Volnay
    9. St Aubin
    10. Santenay
    11. Maranges

          

  136. Where are most of the Argentine vineyards located?The major quality winegrowing zone is in the northwest section of the country on the lower slopes of the Andes (p67c2).

          

  137. True or False: It is illegal to add Süssreserve to Prädikat wines in Austria.True. 3 million acres under vine with Airen the largest amount. (p163c1)

          

  138. If origin is listed on the bottle of South African wine, what percentage of that bottling must come from the place listed?100% (p161)

          

  139. What would be the approximate alcoholic content of a dry wine made from grapes harvested at 22-degrees Brix?12.2% , 55% Brix,( p43)

          

  140. True or False: Fully three-quarters of the vines planted in the Mittelrhein are Riesling.The major quality winegrowing zone is in the northwest section of the country on the lower slopes of the Andes (p67c2).

          

  141. FrizzanteLightly sparkling

          

  142. What is the most widely planted white grape in Argentina?Chianti (p135)

          

  143. Name the three types of alcohol found in wine.Salty (p205c1)

          

  144. The Loire Valley - Left to Right, West to East1. Nantes
    2. Anjou & Saumur
    3. Touraine
    4. Central France, Upper Loire

          

  145. What single region in South Australia is responsible for a quarter of the total national grape production?Atlantic and Indian, p157c2

          

  146. What is the correct progression of the following during the grapevine's annual cycle?
    Berry Set, Bud Break, Flowering, Harvest, Shoot and Leaf Growth, Verasion
    Bud Break,
    Shoot and Leaf Growth,
    Flowering,
    Berry Set,
    Verasion,
    Harvest (p10).

          

  147. True or False: Most Ports reflect a blend of several grape varieties, vineyard lots, and vintages.True (p60c2). Most Ports do.

          

  148. Where are most of the vineyards of South Africa located?To provide a warmer micro-climate and prevent frost (p113).

          

  149. What are the four noble grapes used for top-quality Madeira production?Grüner Veltliner is 1/30 grapes sanctioned for wine-making in Austria, more than a third of the acreage under vine is planted to this varietal. (p78)

          

  150. How does the production of Malaga and Montilla-Moriles mirror the production methods of other fortified wine products?Riddling (p53)

          

  151. What restrictions are placed on a U.S. wine by the TTB in order to use the term reserve on the label?None (p177c1)

          

  152. What is the purpose of drawing air through the mouth while tasting a wine?To increase the wine's surface area of warmed wine in one's mouth so that the concentration of volatile molecules, enabling more odor-saturated air to reach the olfactory epithelium through the back of the mouth and nasal cavities, (204c2).

          

  153. Describe the nature of Australian soils.DOC, IPR, VR, VdM (p156)

          

  154. Name the three primary grape varieties of Burgundy.Sauternes, Barsac, and Cérons (p90)

          

  155. Southwestern France Areas to Know: BergeracRouge Valley (map cross ref); binder lists Southern Oregon AVA, includes Rouge Valley AVA and Umpqua Valley AVA. (p186c2)

          

  156. What is the source of tannins found in wine?Sekt (p115).

          

  157. What proportion of Greece's total wine production is produced on its many islands?25% (p123 c1)

          

  158. Which of the following are not phenolic compounds?
    Anthocyanins
    Esters
    Flavones
    Tannins
    Esters (p196)

          

  159. What is TCA?Cork taint from mold reacts with bleaching agents, produces a wet cardboard smell in wine. Bacterial? (p199c2 / 200c1)

          

  160. What are the three most common grapes incorporated into VDN, vin doux naturel?1) Grenache
    2) Muscat a Petits Grains
    3) Muscat of Alexandria (p65c1)

          

  161. For a wine that lists AVA as its place of origin, what is the minimum content that must be from that AVA?Pedro Giménez. It is typically used in the production of grape concentrate and is not the Pedro Ximénez of Jerez (p69c1).

          

  162. What two German wine regions were formerly located in East Germany?Grüner Veltliner is 1/30 grapes sanctioned for wine-making in Austria, more than a third of the acreage under vine is planted to this varietal. (p78)

          

  163. Where does Kabinett fall in the Austrian wine quality pyramid?Coonawarra, Padthaway, Mount Benson, Robe, Wrattonbully (p76c1). They all have the famous red-brown mix of clay, sand, and silt known as 'terra rossa.' Most expensive viticultural land in Australia.

          

  164. What is the primary production step that is avoided in the transfer method?Riddling (p53)

          

  165. What is the minimum percentage of a wine that must originate in a geographic indication GI to cite that GI as the place of origin on an Australian label?VDQS, Vin délimité de qualité supérieure, aka, delimited wine of superior quality, Discontinued in 2011. ( p87)

          

  166. What is the highest quality level in the Italian wine quality pyramid?DOCG (p127c2)

          

  167. Name Spain's two DOCa.Grape sugar, a carbohydrate

          

  168. Is the Argentine climate Mediterranean, continental, or maritime?Continental. There are enormous diurnal, within 24 hours, temperature swings and a full rotation of all four seasons. There is also little humidity so growers have less need of chemical sprays. (68c2).

          

  169. What is the most widely planted red grape in Washington?... doesn't say. Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah are given as examples of reds that do well here, Chardonnay, white, was mentioned has barely hanging on to the prize of being the most widely planted varietal. (p185)

          

  170. Villages of Cote de Beaune1. Meursault
    2. Beaune
    3. Puligny-Montrachet
    4. Chassagne-Montrachet
    5. Aloxe-Corton
    6. Sauvigny-les-Beaune
    7. Pommard
    8. Volnay
    9. St Aubin
    10. Santenay
    11. Maranges

          

  171. What is the difference between a species, a clone, and a variety of grape?Olifants River Region (p160c2)

          

  172. Sizes of Champange needed for Test - Smallest to Largest1. Split .18L
    2. Demi .375L
    3. Bottle .75L
    4. Magnum 1.5L
    5. Jeroboam 3L

          

  173. Major Regions of Northern Rhone: North to South1. Cote Rotie
    2. Condrieu --only W Viognier
    3. Chateau Grillet --only W Viognier
    4. St Joseph
    5. Hermitage
    6. Crozes-Hermitage
    7. Cornas --only R Syrah
    8. St Peray -- only W Marsanne, Roussane
    Northern Rhône reds are often identified by their signature aromas of green olive and smoky bacon.

          

  174. ClassicoCenter or "classic" growing area of a specific zone

          

  175. What is the difference between Deutscher Tafelwein and TafelweinThe term Deutscher preceding Tafelwein or Landwein indicates that all the grapes came from within Germany. If the wine label does not say "Deutscher," the wine is probably not German-grown, but rather an imported wine blended with German wine and bottled in Germany (p114c2).

          

  176. What is unique among the Australian geographic indications GI about South Eastern Australia?South Eastern Australia is the only current appellation that covers an area larger than a single state. It combines New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, The Australian Capital Territory, and parts of Queensland and South Australia (p71c2).

          

  177. What are the two general categories into which Sherry can be classified after fermentation?15% Quality wines, OPE for sweet and OPAP for dry, Regional wines, TO, 50% Table wines, EO, and Restina, TZ or OKP (p123).

          

  178. Red or White: Airén.White, most widely planted varietal in world, mainly bulk wine, known in Castilla-La Mancha (p167c2)

          

  179. Spanish wine is divided into two main categories. What are they?Soave. Widely grown in the Veneto region of North East Italy, particularly in the provinces of Verona and Vicenza. (p134c1)

          

  180. Which is harvested 1st? Vendage Tardive VT & Selection de Grains Nobles SGN.The Central Valley is, by far, the largest fine wine region in Chile. (p83)

          

  181. What grape variety produces the sweet wines of Quarts-du-Chaume?Southwest, around Cape Town (p157c2)

          

  182. Describe a "maderized" odor.Blauer Zweigelt = Red (78-79)

          

  183. Red or White? Grüner VeltlinerWhite, used in Cava production, (p166c2)

          

  184. Which of New Zealand's wine regions is also its warmest?The Central Valley is, by far, the largest fine wine region in Chile. (p83)

          

  185. What is the most widely planted grape variety in Austria?Grüner Veltliner is 1/30 grapes sanctioned for wine-making in Austria, more than a third of the acreage under vine is planted to this varietal. (p78)

          

  186. Red or White: Agiorgitiko?Red, from Nemea, aka, St George. (p124c2.)

          

  187. True or False: Barbera is a tannic grape variety related to Zinfandel.False. Moderate tannins, not related to Zinfandel.

          

  188. What is the German name for sparkling wine?Sekt (p115).

          

  189. What seven items are required on the label of all U.S. wines?1) Brand name
    2) Class or type of wine
    3) The name and address of the bottler or the importer
    4) Alcohol content
    5) A sulfite statement, if required
    6) A health warning
    7) The net contents, volume of the bottle.
    Also, country of origin and "imported by" must appear on foreign wines. (p172c1)

          

  190. Where would a wine labeled "Premier Grand Cru Classé" come from?Bordeaux's St Émillion family of appellations. the wines of St Émillion were classified for the first time in 1954, and since been updated three times. There are officially two levels: Grand Cru Classé "great classified growths" and the higher ranked Premier Grand Cru classé "first great classified growths". Château Cheval Blanc and Château Ausone are considered to be the very best Premier Grand Cru Classé and are elevated to "category A". All others are "category B" (p93).

          

  191. What region produces Frascati?Latium, aka Lazio. it's a white wine made from Trebbiano and Malvasia. (p137)

          

  192. How does "vin santo" differ from vermouth?Vin Santo is a maderized dessert wine from Tuscany (p136); Vermouth is a Piedmont wine that is fortified and flavored with roots, spices, wood, and so forth. (p130c2).

          

  193. What is the purpose of swirling a wine in the glass while tasting?To increase the wine's surface area so that the concentration of volatile molecules in the air above the wine will be higher, thus increasing the taster's ability to detect aromas and flavors (204c2).

          

  194. What is the difference between a QbA and a QmP?QbA wines may be chaptalized (p115c1/119).

          

  195. What is the name of the sparkling wine method in which the second fermentation is accomplished in a tank rather than a bottle?Charmat aka, Cuvee Close or Tank Method (p53)

          

  196. Grand Crus of Chablis North to South.
    100% Chardonnay grapes, aka Beaunois
    NORTH TO SOUTH:
    1. Les Clos
    2. Valmur
    3. Vaudesir
    4. Bourgros
    5. Blanchots
    6. Le Preuses
    7. Grenouilles

          

  197. Place the following appellations in the most likely order of increasing quality and price: Côte de Beaune, Puligny-Montrachet Premier Cru "La Joquelotte," Puligny-Montrachet, Chevalier-Montrachet, Bourgogne.There are four, all are Valleys:
    Maipo Valley - status symbol estates.
    Rapel Valley - wide expanses of flat farmland.
    Curicó Valley - coastal range, quite warm.
    Maule Valley - cloud cover and cooler temp. (p85)

          

  198. What is the Cadastro? Name four of its criteria.A unique vineyard ranking system in Portugal. 12 total criteria, including: Altitude, yield, soil and locality. (p152)

          

  199. What is the significance of Lake Neusiedl?Oro, Ambra, Rubio (p63c2).

          

  200. What two grape varieties cross-pollinated to give us Cabernet Sauvignon?Cross of Cabernet Franc x Sauvignon Blanc.

          

  201. Riverina is best known for what two wine products?Riverina is known for, Bag-in-Box, cask wine and dessert wines, botrytis-affected Semillon, (p73c1).

          

  202. Wines of Upper Loire - Vins du CentreQuinta means "Single Estate" (p60c2).

          

  203. DOCdenomination of controlled origin

          

  204. What are the 3 primary acids found in grapes?Tartaric, Malic and Citric acid (p192c1). These are fixed acids that do not pass into wine spirits by remain in the residue. They are odorless.

          

  205. Red or White: Savatiano?White, from Santorini, (p124c2.)

          

  206. What is Chablis known for?Schilcher - A tart herbal rosé made from the Blauer Wildbacher grape in Weststeiermark, Austria.

          

  207. Name the top three wine-producing states?White, from Patras, is a pink-skinned Greek wine grape traditionally grown in the Peloponnese region of Greece.(p124c2).

          

  208. What type of climate do most of the vineyards of New Zealand have?Sparkling. Crémant refers to French AOC sparkling wine made outside the Champagne region e.g., Crémant d'Alsace, Crémant de Die, Crémant de Loire, (p104c2).

          

  209. What is a LBV? How does it differ from a vintage Port?Grape stems, pips and skins, and oak barrels. (p195c1)

          

  210. Red or White? St. LaurentWhite, used in Cava production, (p166c2), aka. Viura in Rioja, (p165)

          

  211. What is the name of the Sangiovese clone used to make the rich reds of Montalcino?Brunello is a local name for a Sangiovese clone that picks up a brown (brun) sheen on its skin when ripe. (p136c1)

          

  212. How much residual sugar is typically present in an Amontillado immediately after fortification?Lactic, succinic, and acetic acids. (p192c2)

          

  213. How many levels of red crus were defined in the 1855 Bordeaux Classification?Five (p 91-92): First Growths, aka Premiers Crus,
    Second Growths, aka, Deuxièmes Crus,
    Third Growths, aka, Troisièmes Crus,
    Fourth Growths, aka, Quatrièmes Crus
    Fifth Growths, aka, Cinquièmes Crus.

          

  214. Name two sweet wine appellations in Bordeaux.Rioja Alta, Rioja Alavesa, and Rioja Baja (p165c2)

          

  215. What is the purpose of chaptalization?Mechanized Riddling

          

  216. Why was Greek wine originally resinated?Mendoza (p68).

          

  217. Vino dulce serves what purpose?Known as the "House Style" of a Champagne House or Producer

          

  218. For sparkling wine production, what are the desired levels high, medium, or low of acidity and sugar at harvest?Pressing
    Fermentation
    Classification
    Fortification
    Aging in barrel
    Blending (p56-57)

          

  219. Which white grape variety is likely to be given the following cellar treatments: barrel fermentation, malolactic fermentation, and sur lie aging with batonnage?Chardonnay

          

  220. What grape varieties are allowed in a wine from Côte Rôtie?Côte Rôtie, "Roasted Slope", produces a red wine made from Syrah that is vinified together with up to 20% white Viognier, although in practice 10% or less is more typical. (p107c2)

          

  221. Famous Southern France Rose'sWhite, from Patras, is a pink-skinned Greek wine grape traditionally grown in the Peloponnese region of Greece.(p124c2).

          

  222. True or False: Most of the wine produced in Bairrada is red.True, 70%+ Portuguese red or rosé, deep colored tannic red wines that often have bell pepper and black currant flavors, (p154c1)

          

  223. Where are Minervois, Costières de Nîmes, and Banyuls located?Dark colors in red wines are clues that indicate intense fruit aromas and high tannin levels. Overall quality in red wines is correlated with total color and pigment content.
    -- Inky purple => young
    -- Brick red => mature
    -- Ruby/orange => high-acid
    -- Black/blue => low-acid (p202c2)

          

  224. What might happen in the bottle if a wine is not cold stabilized?Tartaric crystals may form in the bottle, when exposed to cold temperatures.

          

  225. What is the Cape Doctor?A strong wind in the summer, from the South East. Oak Trees were planted to block this wind, (p158c1).

          

  226. Describe the cause and effect of the Austrian wine scandal of 1985.Some winemakers were found to be adulterating their wines with diethylene glycol to them more body. This resulted in some of the toughest laws in the world being instituted in Austria, now considered to be one of the most modern, dynamic, and active wine producing countries in the world (p78).

          

  227. AmabileDry, sparkling wine.

          

  228. What do legs or tears on the inside of the glass after swirling a wine indicate?The alcohol content (p198c1)

          

  229. Major Regions of Southern RhoneChenin Blanc

          

  230. IbottigliataAged

          

  231. What percentage of South Africa's wine production is produced by cooperatives?Northland typically experiences the country's warmest ripening conditions (p145c2).

          

  232. What are the typical alcohol and residual sugar levels in Port immediately following fortification?19% alcohol, 8-12% RS (p60 c1)

          

  233. Name three subregions of Chianti.Rioja Alta, Rioja Alavesa, and Rioja Baja (p165c2)

          

  234. What influences Chile's weather patterns?Weather patterns are significantly influenced by the Pacific Ocean and its cold Humboldt Current.

          

  235. What AVA has the warmest climate within the Central Coast AVA?Paso Robles, inland and Northern half of San Luis Obispo County protected from the Ocean by Mountains and too far upriver to be reached by fog. (p183c1)

          

  236. Southwestern France Areas to Know: MontbazillacSweet Wines from Semillon and Sauvignon Blanc

          

  237. Red or White? PortugieserPortugieser = Red (78-79)

          

  238. Name five crus of Beaujolais.There are 10 communes, villages, in the Cru Beaujolais zone. They are marketed with only the name of the village on the label: St Amour, Juliénas, Chénas, Moulin-à-Vent, Fleurie, Chiroubles, Morgon, Régnié, Côte de Brouilly, Brouilly (p98c2).

          

  239. What is the most famous wine of Tuscany?Chianti (p135)

          

  240. Villages of Cote d'Nuits1. Gevrey-Chambertin
    2. Morey St Denis
    3. Vougeot
    4. Flagey-Echezeaux
    5. Vosne-Romanee
    6. Nuits-St Georges
    7. Premeuaux-Prissey

          

  241. What is the most widely planted grape on the island of Madeira?Tinta Negra Mole, a native vinifera not considered to be the grape of choice for high-quality, long-lived Madeira (p62c2).

          

  242. True or False: Spain possesses the largest amount of grape acreage in the world.False. These wines are intensly flavored, sometimes with the honeyed influence of botrytis, sometimes not (p115c2).

          

  243. Red or White? RotgipflerRotgipfler = White (78-79)

          

  244. What is the temperature range during which photosynthesis can occur?Nebbiolo aka Spanna, 100% (p130c2)

          

  245. What is another name for the J-shaped mortality curve that describes the affects of alcohol consumption?A unique vineyard ranking system in Portugal. 12 total criteria, including: Altitude, yield, soil and locality. (p152)

          

  246. Name the Loire Valley wine district downriver from Anjou.Pays Nantais, aka, Muscadet, closest to the Atlantic, the end point, mouth, of the river, western Loire Valley. (p100)

          

  247. What unit of measurement do Germans employ to measure sugar levels at harvest?1. Split .18L
    2. Demi .375L
    3. Bottle .75L
    4. Magnum 1.5L
    5. Jeroboam 3L

          

  248. What style of wine is a crémant?Sparkling. Crémant refers to French AOC sparkling wine made outside the Champagne region e.g., Crémant d'Alsace, Crémant de Die, Crémant de Loire, (p104c2).

          

  249. What Italian wine region produces Taurasi?red, still Italian wines based principally on the Aglianico grape variety produced in the Province of Avellino in the Campania region. (p128c2)

          

  250. Red or White: ParalladaWhite used in Cava production, (p166c2)

          

  251. What are the typical pH values for wine?2.9 - 3.8, for grape juice and wine.
    Higher acid = lower pH. Higher acid wines are longer lived. (p193c1)

          

  252. What grape variety/wine was named after the Greek port Monemvasia?Cabernet Sauvignon (72.6K acres), p178c2

          

  253. In what way does pH affect the color of a red wine?Anthocyanins will change form according to pH. Brighter red hue at low pH, high acid; blue/purple hue at a high pH. low acid; less stable, (p194c2). These are only found in red wine, not white, they have Flavones.

          

  254. Wine has been found to increase high density lipoproteins HDL in the blood, which protect against the development of atherosclerosis and promote the production of cellular Nitric oxide, a compound which regulates blood vessel tone and blood pressure?Ahr. The Ahr is one of Germany's most northerly and smallest wine regions. Despite the fact that it sits at 50° 30' north latitude, it is best known for its red wines. Spätburgunder aka Pinot Noir and Portugieser both produce light, fruity wines here. (p116c2).

          

  255. What is an estufa?Sturm - Grape must served in Südsteiermark, Austria during harvest.

          

  256. Which of Italy's regions is known for wines made from Spanna, Barbera, Arneis, and Brachetto?Pre-Cambian schist and decomposing schist, with outcroppings of granite, some sand, clay and quartz. (p152c2)

          

  257. Southwestern France Areas to Know: MadiranRed Wine only , Tannat + Bordeaux Varieties, Tannat big in Uruguay as well

          

  258. What are the differences between a macroclimate, a mesoclimate, and a microclimate?Macroclimate = Region
    Mesoclimate = The Vineyard
    Microclimate = The Vine (p11)

          

  259. What is an appropriate serving temperature for a white wine for tasting?10-30 inches of rain per year (p71c1).

          

  260. Which of the following is not from the South of Italy?
    -Aglianico del Vulture Cirò
    -Prosecco di Conegliano-Valdobbiadene
    -Salice Salentino
    Prosecco di Conegliano-Valdobbiadene is from the Veneto in the North East, not South of Italy. (p134).

          

  261. DOCGdenomination of controlled and guaranteed origin

          

  262. On a varietal labeled U.S. wine, what is the minimum content of that grape variety in the wine? One state has a higher standard: what is the state and what is the standard?75%; 90% in Oregon (p173c2)

          

  263. ReciotoOld, rarely used term.

          

  264. What is the significance of the Heurige culture in Austria?In German, this means "this year's" and refers both to new wine and the vintner-owned inns/taverns/wine bars that serve food and proprietary wines in Vienna (p81).

          

  265. What is Cannonau and where would you fine it?Naturally sweetened wine, achieved by arrested fermentation through the addition of grape spirits to leave residual grape sugars in the product (p64c2).

          

  266. What is carbonic maceration?aka, "Whole-Berry Fermentation" in an anaerobic, oxygen-free, environment where grape sugars create alcohol without yeast.
    This is an enzymatic fermentation, that runs hot at 85 to 95-degree and long, up to 3 weeks. (p49)

          

  267. What is Sturm?Yeast layer (p55)

          

  268. What is semi-generic wine?Terms that can be applied to any class or type of grape wine, e.g, Red, White, Chablis, Burgundy, Port, Champagne, Chianti, and Madeira (p172c2)

          

  269. ChiarettoPale red, rosé.

          

  270. Wines of NantesMuscadet AC
    grape: Melon de Bourgogne, aka Melon Blanc

          

  271. What is the total water demand of a grape vine?Grape stems, pips and skins, and oak barrels. (p195c1)

          

  272. What cool-climate AVA stretches across southern Napa and Sonoma counties?Dark colors in red wines are clues that indicate intense fruit aromas and high tannin levels. Overall quality in red wines is correlated with total color and pigment content.
    -- Inky purple => young
    -- Brick red => mature
    -- Ruby/orange => high-acid
    -- Black/blue => low-acid (p202c2)

          

  273. What is a colheita Port?The solera can refer to:
    (1) a set of casks often arranged in scales,
    (2) a dynamic aging and fractional blending system
    (3) the butts that contain the oldest wine in the system... name comes from Latin solum, floor/soil b/c these butts are closest to the ground. (p57 c2)

          

  274. What is the maximum concentration of sulfites a wine can have without requiring a sulfite statement on the label in the United States?10ppm, nearly all wines; many yeast strains produce this much during fermentation alone., (p174c2)

          

  275. True or False: All Port spends time aging in cask.Ethyl (10-15% wine),
    Methanol (toxic) ,
    Glycerol (sweet as glucose, 7-10% alcohol), and
    Fusel oils (high alcohols, very toxic result from low nitrogen must. Hangover) (p193c1)

    Alcohol = body,, legs, tears; less surface tension than water.

          

  276. FattoriaVintage year

          

  277. What is the largest-volume wine region in South Africa?Breede River Valley Region (p160-161)

          

  278. Which of the following grape varieties has the highest natural tannin levels?

    Cabernet Franc, Gamay, Merlot, Syrah
    Syrah, High Tannin, (p34)
    Cabernet Franc & Merlot, Moderate Tannin,
    Gamay , Low Tannin

          

  279. What is Edelfäule?Uhudler - A specialty wine of Südburgenland made from a nearly extinct Vitis lambrusca variety.

          

  280. Chateauneuf-de-PapeGalets stones // Chaptalization is illegal // Vin de Garde 13 permitted grapes. 8 red & 5 white

          

  281. A vineyard in Oakville, CA is in what AVAs?Rare, less than 1% of Ports. It is a single vintage tawny Port, tawnies are aged in small barrels. It remains in cask for a minimum of 7 years. There is no limit to the number of years that it can spend in wood. Some colheitas are 10, 15, even 50 years old. (p61c2)

          

  282. Name five typical aromas of Cabernet Sauvignon.Black cherry, tobacco, vanilla, blackberry, chocolate, cigar box, black pepper, tea, herbs, coffee, toffee, mint ... (p28)

          

  283. How long has South Africa been growing grapes and making wine?Soave. Widely grown in the Veneto region of North East Italy, particularly in the provinces of Verona and Vicenza. (p134c1)

          

  284. Red or White: Asyrtiko?Red, from Nemea, aka, St George. (p124c2.)

          

  285. What is a common synonym for Pinot Grigio?Pinot Gris

          

  286. What is fining?A clarification technique used to removed fine dissolved sediment in the fermented solution.

    Fining agents bind to particles in the wine and settle out of solution via gravity. These bond particles are then removed through racking. (p47)

          

  287. Alsace Geography: what surrounds AlsaceEast: Rhein River and the West: Vosges Mountains

          

  288. Name two ultra-cool wine regions on the Australian mainland.Henty and the Macedon Ranges vie for the title of the coolest growing region on the Australian mainland (p75c1).

          

  289. Name three GIs within the Limestone Coast.Coonawarra, Padthaway, Mount Benson, Robe, Wrattonbully (p76c1). They all have the famous red-brown mix of clay, sand, and silt known as 'terra rossa.' Most expensive viticultural land in Australia.

          

  290. Schilchergrape

          

  291. Cerasuololight red, cherry colored; rosé

          

  292. Red or White: VerdejoFull-bodied, sweet wine made from partly dried grapes

          

  293. What is Uhudler?Uhudler - A specialty wine of Südburgenland made from a nearly extinct Vitis lambrusca variety.

          

  294. What restrictions are imposed on grape growing and wine-making to qualify for naming an AVA as a wine's place of origin?No growing or wine-making restrictions (p175c1). If an AVA appears on the label as the place of origin, 85% of the wine in the bottle must have been grown in that area (p175c2).

          

  295. Name two wine regions on the North Island and one wine region on the South Island known for Sparkling wine production.Pre-Cambian schist and decomposing schist, with outcroppings of granite, some sand, clay and quartz. (p152c2)

          

  296. What is the typical range of temperatures for red wine fermentation?60 to 95-degrees (p48)

          

  297. For what two fortified wines is Portugal famous?Port and Madeira, (p150c1)

          

  298. What is a gyropalette?Mechanized Riddling

          

  299. Describe the Portuguese wine quality pyramid.The Central Valley is, by far, the largest fine wine region in Chile. (p83)

          

  300. Name the two counties in the Sierra Foothills AVA.Mendocino County (p182)

          

  301. What is the primary grape variety of Bourgueil and Chinon?Loire Valley, Touraine: AOCs Bourgueil and Chinon produce some of the Loire's finest red wines. All are at least 90 percent Cabernet Franc, with the remainder, if any, being Cabernet Sauvignon (p102).

          

  302. SpumanteIn DOC or DOCG wines, indicates a higher level of alcohol, usually 1%, or aging and sometimes a special geographic origin

          

  303. Define the Chilean borders and describe their significance.Pinot Noir, Gamay, Chardonnay and the 4th is Aligote (p98)

          

  304. Name the four noble grapes of Madeira. Name the grape most widely planted there.Resveratrol and Quercetin (p207c2).

          

  305. What is meant by "hens and chicks" when referencing a grape cluster?Uneven berry set; grape berries of different size within a cluster. Developed for the Argentine wine industry by the University of California at Davis, the Mendoza clone of Chardonnay is prone to 'hens and chicks' to offer the advantage of a greater skin-to-juice ratio (p69c1).

          

  306. In what way does pH affect the color of a white wine?Anthocyanins will change form according to pH. Brighter red hue at low pH, high acid; blue/purple hue at a high pH. low acid; less stable, (p194c2). These are only found in red wine, not white, they have Flavones.

          

  307. What are the two most widely planted grapes in Germany?Oro, Ambra, Rubio (p63c2).

          

  308. Which German wines are bottled traditionally in bocksbeutels?Salty (p205c1)

          

  309. What is cava?Spain's traditional-method sparkling wine, produced mainly in the Penedés region in Northeastern Spain. (p166c1)

          

  310. Which of the following grape varieties has the highest natural acidity?
    Gewurztraminer, Pinot Grigio, Sauvignon Blanc, Viognier?
    Salty (p205c1)

          

  311. Which northernly German wine region is best known for its red wines?Ahr. The Ahr is one of Germany's most northerly and smallest wine regions. Despite the fact that it sits at 50° 30' north latitude, it is best known for its red wines. Spätburgunder aka Pinot Noir and Portugieser both produce light, fruity wines here. (p116c2).

          

  312. In what county is the Anderson Valley AVA?Quinta means "Single Estate" (p60c2).

          

  313. Non-Vintage ChampagneKnown as the "House Style" of a Champagne House or Producer

          

  314. What is Ausbruch?Steam-filled pipes heating a hot room, armazens de calor, for Madeira production (p62c2-p63c1).

          

  315. Mount Olympus is located in which wine region?Thessaly (p123c1).

          

  316. Name two compounds found in wine that are powerful antioxidants.Port and Madeira, (p150c1)

          

  317. CapitolareTitle of merit in Tuscany for wines that are produced by members of the private Capitolare, formerly Predicato, group; this use and group was to be disbanded in 1997.

          

  318. What other appellation produces wine from the same grapes as Valpolicella?Bardolina produces wines from Corvina, Veronese/Corvinone and Rondinella (p134, 133).

          

  319. What is the difference between Côte du Rhône and Côte du Rhône Villages?IGT was created to ... these wines can be varietal labeled, be labeled under a geographic indication, and be vintage dated (p129).

          

  320. Villages of Cote Chalonnaise -- (Red Beans Make Great Mondays)Thessaly (p123c1).

          

  321. Vigna or VignetoFull-bodied, sweet wine made from partly dried grapes

          

  322. What is the largest fine wine region in Chile?Emilia-Romagna (p135c1)

          

  323. What is the primary volatile acid found in wine?Acetic acid (p192c2)

          

  324. What are the 5 grapes allowed in Alsace Grand Cru1. Riesling
    2. Muscat
    3. Pinot Gris
    4. Gewurztraminer
    5. Sylvaner

          

  325. True or False: Grenache aka Garnacha is a high-acid red.False

          

  326. What AVA produces the largest amount of grapes in Washington?Raise sugar levels of the must for fermentation (p46)

          

  327. Name the southernmost AVA in Oregon.1) North Coast
    2) Sierra Foothills
    3) San Francisco Bay
    4) Central Coast
    5) South Coast (p178)

          

  328. The vineyards of South Africa are buffeted by the winds of which two oceans?Atlantic and Indian, p157c2

          

  329. What is the grape variety used to make Pouilly-Fumé?Emilia-Romagna (p135c1)

          

  330. What is Vin doux natural aka VDN?Rare, less than 1% of Ports. It is a single vintage tawny Port, tawnies are aged in small barrels. It remains in cask for a minimum of 7 years. There is no limit to the number of years that it can spend in wood. Some colheitas are 10, 15, even 50 years old. (p61c2)

          

  331. Azienda agricolaWhite

          

  332. What does a Bordeaux wine broker do?Seller of wine. not producer, responsible for sale of 75% of export wine, primarily though selling futures. (p89)

          

  333. Define Hochgewächs.High growth wines, a declassified QmP Kabinett or a "super QbA", chaptalization is permitted for these wines (p119).

          

  334. Name an appellation that produces a vin doux naturel aka VDN.Alcohol, Heat, Carbon Dioxide CO2

          

  335. What are three major soil nutrients required by grapevines?Nitrogen , N, Phosphorus P, and Potassium K , (p9).

          

  336. Name a DOCG in Lombardy that makes sparkling wine.Franciacorta, 85% Chardonnay, 10% Pinot nero and 5% Pinot bianco. (p131, c2)

          

  337. AmaroneDry, as in Amarone della Valpolicella

          

  338. What is the common New World synonym for Syrah?Rivers. Saar and Ruwar are tributaries to the Mosel (p117).

          

  339. Defines different climates: Macro, Meso and Micro1. Macro-Climate: Wine Growing Region
    2. Meso-Climate: Vineyard
    3. Micro-Climate: Area Surrounding the Canopy of the Vine

          

  340. What is the level of French quality wine that falls just below AOC?Chianti (p135)

          

  341. Who is the father of biodynamic viticultural practicesOlifants River Region (p160c2)

          

  342. Riservadenomination of controlled origin

          

  343. BiancoWhite

          

  344. What is Austria's largest wine district?Proteins turn into a white haze when exposed to heat. Fining agents remove proteins to prevent this.

          

  345. What wine growing district lies at the southern end of Chile's Central Valley?The Bio-Bio Valley marks the southern end of the Central Valley. The Coastal Range is lower here, so the weather is more heavily affected by the Pacific Ocean. There is more rain, less sun, and cooler temperatures. (p85)

          

  346. Red or White: ViuraWhite aka Macabeo outside of Rioja in Spain, (p165) ... the most important white wine grape of Rioja.

          

  347. MorillonIn Austria, aka Chardonnay

          

  348. What district of Burgundy lies between the Côte d'Or and the Mâconnais?Côte Chalonnaise (p94)

          

  349. Metodo Classico or TradizionaleSparkling wine fermented in the bottle, Champagne method

          

  350. Uvatypical geographic origin indication

          

  351. SeccoDry

          

  352. Name the three grapes used in Sherry production. What soil types does each prefer? What purpose does each grape serve in the production process?Palomino- the primary grape, white albariza soil of chalk, clay and sand.
    Pedro Ximénez- the sweetening agent, aka PX, barro a clay soil with iron oxide
    Moscatel- the coloring agent aka Muscat of Alexandria, arena a sandy soil with 10% chalk. (p167c1)

          

  353. Red or White? MorillonMorillon = White , aka Chardonnay (78-79)

          

  354. Which wine region calls itself New Zealand's "Chardonnay Capital." Why?Northland typically experiences the country's warmest ripening conditions (p145c2).

          

  355. Place the following in order from largest to smallest:
    Anbaugebiet, Bereich, Einzellage, Grosslage.
    1) Anbaugebiet
    2) Bereich
    3) Grosslage
    4) Einzellage (p120)

          

  356. What is the zonda?A fierce, hot, dry wine that blows out of the northwest. If the wind blows during flowering, it will cause poor berry set, which, in turn, reduces crop yield (p68c2).

          

  357. What does the size of the bubbles in a sparkling wine indicate?The smaller the bead, bubble, the higher the pedigree, (p198c1).

          

  358. DOtypical geographic origin indication

          

  359. What is País?A old red grape in Chili, made into rustic table wine or distilled into brandy.(p83.)

          

  360. Burgundy Regions North to SouthSt Laurent = Red (78-79)

          

  361. The Cortese grape is used to make which DOCG wine?Ethyl (10-15% wine),
    Methanol (toxic) ,
    Glycerol (sweet as glucose, 7-10% alcohol), and
    Fusel oils (high alcohols, very toxic result from low nitrogen must. Hangover) (p193c1)

    Alcohol = body,, legs, tears; less surface tension than water.

          

  362. What is the grape variety used to make Barbaresco?Loire Valley, Touraine: AOCs Bourgueil and Chinon produce some of the Loire's finest red wines. All are at least 90 percent Cabernet Franc, with the remainder, if any, being Cabernet Sauvignon (p102).

          

  363. A wine with an aromatic profile of wheat berries, straw flower, toasted brioche, clotted cream, pear, and hazelnut is likely to be...?Amador, Calaveras, El Dorado, Placer, Nevada, Yuba, Tuolumne, and Mariposa counties (p184c1)

          

  364. Which of the primary acids in wine is not present in any appreciable amount in grapes?Riddling (p53)

          

  365. True or False: Rainfall increases and temperatures decrease as you progress south down Chile's Central Valley.True. Progressing south and east from the northern portion of the Central Valley, rainfall increases and temperatures decrease (p83).

          

  366. What is the primary U.S. government agency with responsibility over the wine trade?Prestige cuvées or cuvée spéciale wines are the showpieces of the Champagne producers--the highest-quality wine produced and, of course, the most expensive. Generally speaking, these are the Champagnes with the longest aging potential (p104c2).

          

  367. What is the Italian wine region produces Lambrusco?Olifants River Region (p160c2)

          

  368. Name the two primary white grape varieties of the Bordeaux region.Similar to its reds, Bordeaux's white wines are also blends. Sémillon and Sauvignon Blanc dominate the mix. (p89)

          

  369. Major districts of Champagne1. Montagne de Reims
    2. Vallée de la Marne
    3. Cotes de Blanc (p103)

          

  370. What is the name for a Champagne house's top-of-the-line wine?Nitrogen deficient must fermentation. Rotten egg smell comes from yeast breaking down amino acids to retrieve nitrogen needed to grow and multiply, (p200c2).

          

  371. What is the soil composition of the Douro Valley?Juice Settling (p51).

    This is a wine-making technique whereby must is allowed to rest before fermentation begins in order for the gross particulate matter to fall out of the solution.

          

  372. German SparklingKnown as Sekt

          

  373. What is the difference between detection threshold and recognition threshold?Species - Within the genus vinifera, only vitis vinifera is used on a wide-scale for wine production.
    Clone - vines descended from a single plant, by cutting.
    Variety - a sub-species of grape. (p9).

          

  374. Where were New Zealand's first vines planted?Weather patterns are significantly influenced by the Pacific Ocean and its cold Humboldt Current.

          

  375. Classifications of Champagne - Driest to Sweetest1. Meursault
    2. Beaune
    3. Puligny-Montrachet
    4. Chassagne-Montrachet
    5. Aloxe-Corton
    6. Sauvigny-les-Beaune
    7. Pommard
    8. Volnay
    9. St Aubin
    10. Santenay
    11. Maranges

          

  376. Important Appleations in France making Cremant1. Alsace
    2. d'Die
    3. Bourgogne . Burgundy
    4. Loire
    5. Limoux
    6. Bordeaux

          

  377. Why are the grapes used for sparkling wine production normally Pressed rather than Crushed?...doesn't say, but the Columbia Valley AVA is one of the largest in the country, covering 1/3 of the state. (p186)

          

  378. RosatoRosé

          

  379. Southwestern France Areas to Know: Cahors.Black Wines **VERY IMPORTANTSweet Wines from Semillon and Sauvignon Blanc

          

  380. In the United States, for a wine labeled with an AVA as its place of origin, what is the maximum amount of an older vintage that can be blended with the current year's wine and still list a vintage date on the label?15% (p176c2)

          

  381. Vermentino di Gallura comes from which of Italy's 20 regions?Sardinia (p128c2)

          

  382. Casa vinicolaPrivately owned winery; négociant

          

  383. Which grape variety is believed to be the ancestor from which all other wine grapes descended?Muscat

          

  384. What is the original home of the vine in South Africa?Brick red => mature (p202c2)

          

  385. True or False: Ninety percent of Greece's dry wine production is produced from just six grapes.To avoid over-ripening, better vineyards often face north, contrary to most classic wine areas in the Northern Hemisphere, where vines need to hug the sun-drenched south-facing slopes (p122, c2).

          

  386. List all six categories of QmP wines in order of increasing sugar levels at harvest.1) QmP Kabinett. Cabinet)
    2) QmP Spätlese, Late-harvest
    3) QmP Auslese, Select bunches
    4) QmP Beerenauslese, Select berries
    5) QmP Trockenbeerenauslese, Dried select berries
    6) QmP Eisewein, Ice wine (p119)

          

  387. What are the three sub-regions of Rioja?1. Chinon - Cabernet Franc
    2. Bourgueil - Cabernet Franc
    3. St Nicholas-de-Bourgueil
    4. Vouvray:Chenin Blanc for Dry to very sweet wines, moelleux
    5. Montlouis - Chenin Blanc aka Pineau de la Loire

          

  388. When making sparkling wine in the traditional method, what is the order of the following events?

    Assemblage, Base Wine Fermentation, Disgorging, Liquor de Triage, Liqueur d' Expedition, Pressing, Remuage/Riddling, Second Fermentation
    Pressing, Base Wine Fermentation, Assemblage, Liquor de Triage, Second Fermentation, Remuage/Riddling, Disgorging, Liqueur d' Expedition (p 50-52).

          

  389. Consorziolight red, cherry colored; rosé

          

  390. Red or White: GarnachaRed, famous in Priorat. (p165)

          

  391. In which of Italy's regions is one most likely to encounter Teroldego, Müller-Thurgau, and Riesling?Trentino - Alto Adige

          

  392. What is the KWV? Detail its role in South Africa's wine industry.Tinta Roriz

          

  393. What are the two definitions of Cuvee?Oro, Ambra, Rubio (p63c2).

          

  394. What are the three types of Marsala?Oro, Ambra, Rubio (p63c2).

          

  395. AusbruchDry, sparkling wine.

          

  396. Wines and Sub-Regions of Touraine1. Chinon - Cabernet Franc
    2. Bourgueil - Cabernet Franc
    3. St Nicholas-de-Bourgueil
    4. Vouvray:Chenin Blanc for Dry to very sweet wines, moelleux
    5. Montlouis - Chenin Blanc aka Pineau de la Loire

          

  397. What and when was Prohibition?The 18th Amendment to the constitution to prohibit the sale and consumption of alcohol, passed in 1919 and enacted in 1920 til 1933. (p170c2)

          

  398. CantinaPale red, rosé.

          

  399. Where are most of New Zealand's vineyards located?Brick red => mature (p202c2)

          

  400. What is an appropriate serving temperature for a full-bodied red wine?To increase the wine's surface area so that the concentration of volatile molecules in the air above the wine will be higher, thus increasing the taster's ability to detect aromas and flavors (204c2).

          

  401. Where are Europe's oldest vineyards located?Eastern Crete (p121c1).

          

  402. Villages of Maconnaise1. Puilly-Fuisse
    2. St Veran
    3. Macon AC, Superior AC, -Villages AC,

          

  403. Date of Right Bank ClassificationRed, from Aegean Islands, (p124c2).

          

  404. What is the most widely planted red grape in California?Cabernet Sauvignon (72.6K acres), p178c2

          

  405. Red or White: Xynomavro?White, used in Cava production, (p166c2), aka. Viura in Rioja, (p165)

          

  406. What are Steen, Pinotage, and Hanepoot?Grape varieties in South Africa ...
    Steen = Chenin Blanc
    Pinotage = a 1925 cross of Pinot Noir x Cinsault
    Hanepoot = Muscat d' Alexandria (p159c1)

          

  407. Which of the four tastes is not found in wine?Raise sugar levels of the must for fermentation (p46)

          

  408. What soil pest spreads fan leaf virus?The solera can refer to:
    (1) a set of casks often arranged in scales,
    (2) a dynamic aging and fractional blending system
    (3) the butts that contain the oldest wine in the system... name comes from Latin solum, floor/soil b/c these butts are closest to the ground. (p57 c2)

          

  409. What is Mavrodaphne?A dark, sweet desert wine (p123c1). One of three grapes responsible for 97% of sweet wines in Greece (p124c2).

          

  410. Name four grand crus in the Côte de Nuits.Sparkling wine fermented in the bottle, Champagne method

          

  411. What are the tiers within the Greek wine quality pyramid?Coonawarra, Padthaway, Mount Benson, Robe, Wrattonbully (p76c1). They all have the famous red-brown mix of clay, sand, and silt known as 'terra rossa.' Most expensive viticultural land in Australia.

          

  412. If a single county is named as a wine's place of origin, what is the minimum content from that county?75% (p176c1)

          

  413. Date of Left Bank Classification1855: divided into Growth system

          

  414. What is Vila Nova de Gaia?Steam-filled pipes heating a hot room, armazens de calor, for Madeira production (p62c2-p63c1).

          

  415. Describe the characteristics of an ideal wine storage area.Some winemakers were found to be adulterating their wines with diethylene glycol to them more body. This resulted in some of the toughest laws in the world being instituted in Austria, now considered to be one of the most modern, dynamic, and active wine producing countries in the world (p78).

          

  416. What is the primary grape variety used to make Madiran wine? Second red grape?Grüner Veltliner is 1/30 grapes sanctioned for wine-making in Austria, more than a third of the acreage under vine is planted to this varietal. (p78)

          

  417. What three white grapes may be incorporated into the production of Sauternes?Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscadelle.

          

  418. Know the Cru Beaujolais1. Puilly-Fuisse
    2. St Veran
    3. Macon AC, Superior AC, -Villages AC,

          

  419. What is 'vendange tardive' VT wine?10-30 inches of rain per year (p71c1).

          

  420. In Chile, much of what is believed to be Merlot actually turned out to be something else. What?IGT was created to ... these wines can be varietal labeled, be labeled under a geographic indication, and be vintage dated (p129).

          

  421. What renowned Umbrian wine is made from Trebbiano and Malvasia?Orvieto, in central Italy. (p137)

          

  422. What is the meaning of quinta?Quinta means "Single Estate" (p60c2).

          

  423. Red or White: Mandilaria?White, from Patras, is a pink-skinned Greek wine grape traditionally grown in the Peloponnese region of Greece.(p124c2).

          

  424. What is C6H12O6?Grape sugar, a carbohydrate

          

  425. VecchioOld, rarely used term.

          

  426. What is the traditional order of service for a waiter pouring wine at a dinner table?Moving counterclockwise, serve the female guests; moving clockwise serve the male guests, finish with the host, male or female, (p211c1). Wine is always poured from the customer's right.

          

  427. Argentina has made a name for itself with which red Bordeaux grape variety?Thessaly (p123c1).

          

  428. VendemmiaHarvest or vintage

          

  429. What are New Zealand's three most widely planted grape varieties?Riesling and Muller-Thurgau (p115c).

          

  430. Why is vinho verde "green wine" called vinho verde?Young wine of Portugal, crafted for immediate consumption. (p150c2)

          

  431. EnotecaCenter or "classic" growing area of a specific zone

          

  432. Red or White: Xarel-loWhite, used in Cava production, (p166c2)

          

  433. Name the three districts within the Champagne appellation.Romanée-Conti, Musigny, and Clos de Tart.
    Burgundy, p96) Its 25 Grand Cru vineyards are all red, except Musigny, which produces both red and white wine. ...

          

  434. What attributes does a balanced vine possess?Schilcher - A tart herbal rosé made from the Blauer Wildbacher grape in Weststeiermark, Austria.

          

  435. What might the red color of a wine indicate?The top three:
    QmP Beerenauslese,select berries
    QmP, Trockenbeerenauslese, dried select berries
    QmP Eiswein, ice wine (p119)

          

  436. What is a parral?An overhead trellis system used to help the vines escape the reflected heat. These are used in vineyards planted for high yield in deep, fertile soils in Argentina. These vineyards are typically heavily irrigated (p68c2).

          

  437. White or Red? Blauer ZweigeltBlauer Zweigelt = Red (78-79)

          

  438. What is Spätburgunder?Steam-filled pipes heating a hot room, armazens de calor, for Madeira production (p62c2-p63c1).

          

  439. What is New Zealand's largest and most acclaimed wine-growing region?Marsala (p140)

          

  440. Red or White: AlbariñoRed (p165), Rioja

          

  441. Place the following in order of increasing sweetness: Sauternes, Sancerre, Vouvray.1. Sancerre - Loire classic Sauvignon Blanc and some Pinot Noir; likely fermented dry (p102c2).
    2. Vouvray - Loire Valley, Touraine, white Chenin Blanc wines ranging in style from dry to sweet (p102c1)
    3. Sauternes - famous Left Bank Bordeaux, Graves, sweet white wines from Semillon and Sauvignon Blanc. (p90c2)

          

  442. What phenolic compound gives wine an advantage over other alcoholic beverages such as beer and spirits in contributing to cancer prevention?Resveratrol (p207c2).

          

  443. AnnataSemisweet

          

  444. What Prädikat levels are always sweet?Mechanized Riddling

          

  445. What does the term "supérieur" usually indicate on a French wine label?This designation may be added to the names of AC designations. It requires a higher minimum alcohol level, usually one percentage point higher than the basic designation. (p88)

          

  446. CastelloAn Italian sweet dessert wine made from grapes that have been dried, maybe on straw mats. straw wine

          

  447. CremantFrench wines made outside of Champagne, in the traditional Method

          

  448. Name the five large regional AVAs in California.Pinot Noir, Gamay, Chardonnay and the 4th is Aligote (p98)