448 Multiple choice questions
- Young, robust reds
Complex wines with moderate age
Fully aged and mature wines
Wines with sediment (p212c2 -213)
- Rouge Valley (map cross ref); binder lists Southern Oregon AVA, includes Rouge Valley AVA and Umpqua Valley AVA. (p186c2)
Aging in barrel
- Tartaric crystals may form in the bottle, when exposed to cold temperatures.
- Lightly sparkling
- Latium, aka Lazio. it's a white wine made from Trebbiano and Malvasia. (p137)
New York (p188c1); responsible for 85% of New York's total wine
production. NY is second or third in production to CA, Washington
- Sekt (p115).
- 4.9-6 Atmospheres
- Clare Valley (p75c2) and Eden Valley (p76c1).
- Breede River Valley Region (p160-161)
- Juice Settling (p51).
This is a wine-making technique whereby must is allowed to rest before fermentation begins in order for the gross particulate matter to fall out of the solution.
- Mainly: Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Noir // A little Pinot Gris in Reuilly , Red and Rose
- Blauer Wildbacher = Red (78-79)
- Wines made by grape growers are designated:
Gustabfüllung = Estate bottled grape-grower produced.
Erzeugerafüllung = Producer bottled, includes cooperative. (p114c1)
- Napa County AVA, Napa Valley AVA, Oakville AVA
- [Extended Maceration] Astringency increases as more and more tannin and pigment is extracted. (p48)
- These are all Burgundy Appellations. (p97)
1) Bourgogne - Burgundy
2) Côte de Beaune - 1 of 6 major wine districts
3) Puligny-Montrachet - a Village
4) Puligny-Montrachet Premier Cru "La Joquelotte" - A Primier cru, below Grand Cru
5) Chevalier-Montrachet - a Grand Cru
and fructose (p191c2) 6 carbon sugars are fermentable; 5 carbon sugars
are not. Glucose ferments faster than Fructose, Fructose is 2x as sweet.
There is always more Fructose in must as a result. Significant for
- Saale-Ustrut and Sashsen are two small wine regions located in what was formerly East Germany (p120).
- 1. Puilly-Fuisse
2. St Veran
3. Macon AC, Superior AC, -Villages AC,
- Rheingau (p117).
- Malbec (p69c2).
There are enormous diurnal, within 24 hours, temperature swings and a
full rotation of all four seasons. There is also little humidity so
growers have less need of chemical sprays. (68c2).
- Grape stems, pips and skins, and oak barrels. (p195c1)
- 1.5% for alcohol by volume 14% or less; 1% for wines with alcohol greater than 14%. (p174c1)
- East: Rhein River and the West: Vosges Mountains
- Emilia-Romagna (p135c1)
- Sauvignon Blanc (26K acres), Pinot Noir (11K acres), and Chardonnay (10K acres) (p144c1).
- 1. Chinon - Cabernet Franc
2. Bourgueil - Cabernet Franc
3. St Nicholas-de-Bourgueil
4. Vouvray:Chenin Blanc for Dry to very sweet wines, moelleux
5. Montlouis - Chenin Blanc aka Pineau de la Loire
- Selection de Grains Nobles SGN-- Harvest 1st due to Nobel Rot.
Grapes clusters with Botrytis are selected on the first pass through to ensure the best is picked for SGN.
- 1) Brand name
2) Class or type of wine
3) The name and address of the bottler or the importer
4) Alcohol content
5) A sulfite statement, if required
6) A health warning
7) The net contents, volume of the bottle.
Also, country of origin and "imported by" must appear on foreign wines. (p172c1)
- Nebbiolo aka Spanna, 100% (p130c2)
- NORTH TO SOUTH:
1. Les Clos
6. Le Preuses
- Red (p165), Rioja
- An Italian sweet dessert wine made from grapes that have been dried, maybe on straw mats. straw wine
- Vin de Table, Vin de Pays, VDQS, AOC or AC (p87)
- 10-30 inches of rain per year (p71c1).
cuvées or cuvée spéciale wines are the showpieces of the Champagne
producers--the highest-quality wine produced and, of course, the most
expensive. Generally speaking, these are the Champagnes with the longest
aging potential (p104c2).
- 75%; 90% in Oregon (p173c2)
- forgoes all synthetics; allows the application of natural in-organic
materials like sulfur and copper that can lead to soil toxicity. The
planet is an ecosystem.
Biodynamic - Austrian Rudolf Steiner, Quasi-religious. The universe is your ecosystem. Phases of moon are used to govern vineyard practices.
Sustainable - Forgoes black/white rules to find the best overall solution. (p15-16)
fierce, hot, dry wine that blows out of the northwest. If the wind
blows during flowering, it will cause poor berry set, which, in turn,
reduces crop yield (p68c2).
- 15% (p176c2)
- 85% from the grape variety (p72c1).
- aka, "Whole-Berry Fermentation" in an anaerobic, oxygen-free, environment where grape sugars create alcohol without yeast.
This is an enzymatic fermentation, that runs hot at 85 to 95-degree and long, up to 3 weeks. (p49)
Veltliner is 1/30 grapes sanctioned for wine-making in Austria, more
than a third of the acreage under vine is planted to this varietal.
town responsible for maturing and shipping port; tradition, location,
and climate, humidity, make this an ideal location. (p153)
- 1. Montagne de Reims
2. Vallée de la Marne
3. Cotes de Blanc (p103)
- Similar to its reds, Bordeaux's white wines are also blends. Sémillon and Sauvignon Blanc dominate the mix. (p89)
- 10ppm, at or above; (p196c1)
- Red aka Tempranillo in La Mancha, Rioja.
- Bacteria. It converts malic acid into lactic acid. (p46)
- White, used in Cava production, (p166c2)
- 1. Nantes
2. Anjou & Saumur
4. Central France, Upper Loire
- The French Paradox (p208)
- 100% (p161)
- Chenin Blanc
- 62° to 68° F (p210c1)
- White, used in Cava production, (p166c2), aka. Viura in Rioja, (p165)
- Inputs: sunlight, CO2, water
Products: Sugar, O2 (p10c2)
- Pinot Nero (p129c2)
- Constantia (p159c2)
- A tart herbal rosé made from the Blauer Wildbacher grape in Weststeiermark, Austria.
- Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscadelle.
- Riesling and Muller-Thurgau (p115c).
- Pays Nantais, aka, Muscadet, closest to the Atlantic, the end point, mouth, of the river, western Loire Valley. (p100)
- In Austria, aka Chardonnay
- Port and Madeira, (p150c1)
- Reserve; wine which has been aged a longer, specified time, usually applies to DOC and DOCG.
- DOC, IPR, VR, VdM (p156)
- Marsala (p140)
- Spätburgunder in Germany and Austria. aka Pinot Noir and Pinot Nero (p116)
- Known as Sekt
- European emigration, 98% population is of European decent; 1/2 of Italian decent. (p67c1).
- The purest expression of Chardonnay. VERY little use of oak.
- Cork taint from mold reacts with bleaching agents, produces a wet cardboard smell in wine. Bacterial? (p199c2 / 200c1)
desert to the north, the tall Andean peaks to the east, the Pacific
Ocean to the west, and the frozen ice expanses to of Antarctica to the
south have kept this country and its people and island to itself.
- Directly through the nostrils and indirectly through the mouth and rear nasal passages as wine is tasted, (p204c1).
Santo is a maderized dessert wine from Tuscany (p136); Vermouth is a
Piedmont wine that is fortified and flavored with roots, spices, wood,
and so forth. (p130c2).
- 1. Still Wine
2. Liqueur de Tirage
4. Riddling or Remuage
6. Dosage or Liqueur d'Expedition
- 1. Sancerre - Loire classic Sauvignon Blanc and some Pinot Noir; likely fermented dry (p102c2).
2. Vouvray - Loire Valley, Touraine, white Chenin Blanc wines ranging in style from dry to sweet (p102c1)
3. Sauternes - famous Left Bank Bordeaux, Graves, sweet white wines from Semillon and Sauvignon Blanc. (p90c2)
designation may be added to the names of AC designations. It requires a
higher minimum alcohol level, usually one percentage point higher than
the basic designation. (p88)
- To inhibit wild yeast, and prevent spoilage and oxidation.
Harvest grapes, which may or may not be affected by noble rot (p106c1).
aka, "VT". Alsace wines were the first to be described as vendange
tardive but the term is now used in other regions of France.
- Riddling (p53)
- White, from Santorini, (p124c2.)
threshold is the smallest amount of stimulus necessary to trigger an
unidentifiable sensation; and recognition threshold is the smallest
amount of stimulus necessary to trigger an identifiable sensation.
- 4-10% RS.
- Brick red => mature (p202c2)
- Austrian, Rudolf Steiner in 1929
- Red, Rioja
- 200 (124c2).
- Fino and Oloroso, with or without Flor (p58, 59)
- 85% (p175c2)
- 10ppm, nearly all wines; many yeast strains produce this much during fermentation alone., (p174c2)
- Cahors AC requires 70% Malbec aka locally as cot
- 85% and declining, (p157c2)
- Chianti (p135)
- Cabernet Sauvignon (72.6K acres), p178c2
- Crianza- at least 1 year on oak / 6 months in bottle; not released until its 3rd year.
Reserva- also minimum of 1 year on oak but not released until its 4th year.
Gran reserva- minimum of 2 years on oak; 3 in bottle, not released until its 6th year. (p164c2)
- Steam-filled pipes heating a hot room, armazens de calor, for Madeira production (p62c2-p63c1).
- wine library, public or commerical
- Began as a grape growers cartel, now a company charged with investing in South Africa's national wine industry (p158-159)
- Portugieser = Red (78-79)
- Bud Break,
Shoot and Leaf Growth,
- 1. St Amour
10. Cote de Brouilly
- Farm, estate
- 85% from the GI (p72c1).
Padthaway, Mount Benson, Robe, Wrattonbully (p76c1). They all have the
famous red-brown mix of clay, sand, and silt known as 'terra rossa.'
Most expensive viticultural land in Australia.
- 1. Lirac: Known for great roses, but now shifting to red to white
2. Tavel: Considered one of the best Rose Appleations. Roses must be made directly from red wine by prefermination or Saignage (bleeding off). Tavel must be rose.
- False. These wines are intensly flavored, sometimes with the honeyed influence of botrytis, sometimes not (p115c2).
- Nitrogen , N, Phosphorus P, and Potassium K , (p9).
Valley. All of these regions, except Blackwood Valley which is located
inland, experience sea breezes from the Indian Ocean, the Southern
Ocean, or both. Salinity from the oceans is an issue (p73c2-74c1).
- Soave. Widely grown in the Veneto region of North East Italy, particularly in the provinces of Verona and Vicenza. (p134c1)
are eight Chianti subregions: Chianti Classico (located between
Florence and Siena), Colli Aretini, Colli Fiorentini, Colli Sensesi,
Colline Pisane, Montalbano, Montespertoli, and Ruffina. (p135c2)
of merit in Tuscany for wines that are produced by members of the
private Capitolare, formerly Predicato, group; this use and group was to
be disbanded in 1997.
- Sangiovese (p35)
- Macroclimate = Region
Mesoclimate = The Vineyard
Microclimate = The Vine (p11)
- Polyphenols (p207c2).
- Black cherry, tobacco, vanilla, blackberry, chocolate, cigar box, black pepper, tea, herbs, coffee, toffee, mint ... (p28)
- 19% alcohol, 8-12% RS (p60 c1)
- There are four, all are Valleys:
Maipo Valley - status symbol estates.
Rapel Valley - wide expanses of flat farmland.
Curicó Valley - coastal range, quite warm.
Maule Valley - cloud cover and cooler temp. (p85)
- White, from Attica, (p124c2).
- The Sherry Triangle is formed by the towns of Jerez de la Frontera, Sanlúcar de Barrameda, and Puerto de Santa María. (p167c1)
- Privately owned winery; négociant
- Magnum = 2 bottles, 1.5L
Jeroboam = 4 bottles, 3L
Balthazar =16 bottles,12L
(p53 - table of bottle sizes)
- Gewurztraminer (p23)
winemakers were found to be adulterating their wines with diethylene
glycol to them more body. This resulted in some of the toughest laws in
the world being instituted in Austria, now considered to be one of the
most modern, dynamic, and active wine producing countries in the world
- Acreage planted and production = Rheinhessen (p117)
Physical size = Baden (p120)
- Harvest or vintage
- Red Wine only , Tannat + Bordeaux Varieties, Tannat big in Uruguay as well
- Resveratrol (p207c2).
- Galets stones // Chaptalization is illegal // Vin de Garde 13 permitted grapes. 8 red & 5 white
- Yeast layer (p55)
- None. Amontillado is fermented dry. (p57)
Sonoma Coast, 2. Los Carneros, 3. Sonoma Valley, 4. Sonoma Mountain, 5.
Russian River Valley, 6. Green Valley of Russian River Valley, 7.
Bennett Valley (newest), 8. Chalk Hill, 9. Alexander Valley, 10. Knights
Valley, 11. Dry Creek Valley, 12. Rockpile, 13. Northern Sonoma, 13
- Species - Within the genus vinifera, only vitis vinifera is used on a wide-scale for wine production.
Clone - vines descended from a single plant, by cutting.
Variety - a sub-species of grape. (p9).
- NORTH TO SOUTH:
5. Cotes de Bourg
6. Cotes de Blaye
- Tinta Roriz
Bio-Bio Valley marks the southern end of the Central Valley. The
Coastal Range is lower here, so the weather is more heavily affected by
the Pacific Ocean. There is more rain, less sun, and cooler
- Pre-Cambian schist and decomposing schist, with outcroppings of granite, some sand, clay and quartz. (p152c2)
- Rioja Alta, Rioja Alavesa, and Rioja Baja (p165c2)
- Rivers. Saar and Ruwar are tributaries to the Mosel (p117).
- In-mouth evaluation. (p199c1) On the mid-palate?
- Mendoza (p68).
berry set; grape berries of different size within a cluster. Developed
for the Argentine wine industry by the University of California at
Davis, the Mendoza clone of Chardonnay is prone to 'hens and chicks' to
offer the advantage of a greater skin-to-juice ratio (p69c1).
Malic and Citric acid (p192c1). These are fixed acids that do not pass
into wine spirits by remain in the residue. They are odorless.
Crémant refers to French AOC sparkling wine made outside the Champagne
region e.g., Crémant d'Alsace, Crémant de Die, Crémant de Loire,
- 1) Grenache
2) Muscat a Petits Grains
3) Muscat of Alexandria (p65c1)
- denomination of controlled origin
- Bottled. all'origine: at the source
- Piedmont (p130c1-2)
- The major quality winegrowing zone is in the northwest section of the country on the lower slopes of the Andes (p67c2).
- White aka Macabeo outside of Rioja in Spain, (p165) ... the most important white wine grape of Rioja.
- Los Carneros lies half in Napa County and half in Sonoma County. Carneros is the coolest part of Napa County. (p180c1)
- Young wine of Portugal, crafted for immediate consumption. (p150c2)
a quarter of Chile's Chardonnay is grown is Casablanca, and there is
some growing excitement over the Pinot Noir plantings in the areas as
- Weather patterns are significantly influenced by the Pacific Ocean and its cold Humboldt Current.
- Henty and the Macedon Ranges vie for the title of the coolest growing region on the Australian mainland (p75c1).
- Niederösterreich is one of four wine growing regions in Austria. It is divided further into eight districts:
Carnuntum, Donauland, Kamptal, Kremstal, Thermenregion, Traisental, Wachau and the Weinviertel.
1) Steinfeder- light body/dry up to 11% alcohol,
2) Federspiel - medium body/dry under 12.5%,
3) Smaragd - full-bodied/dry over 12.5%.
- light red, cherry colored; rosé
- A Rosé made typically from Spätburgunder aka Pinot Noir, (p116).
- Extra-Brut, Brut, Extra Dry, Sec, Demi-Sec, Doux (p52-53)
- 15% Quality wines, OPE for sweet and OPAP for dry, Regional wines, TO, 50% Table wines, EO, and Restina, TZ or OKP (p123).
- La Rioja (p68).
- Old, rarely used term.
- A clarification technique used to removed fine dissolved sediment in the fermented solution.
Fining agents bind to particles in the wine and settle out of solution via gravity. These bond particles are then removed through racking. (p47)
- True (p82)
still Italian wines based principally on the Aglianico grape variety
produced in the Province of Avellino in the Campania region. (p128c2)
- A cooked or baked odor. Oxidized red wine. (p201c1)
- Red, famous in Priorat. (p165)
Valley, 100% Chenin Blanc (p101). The sweet white wines of Anjou-Saumur
come from Coteaux du Layon and its sub-regions Bonezeaux and
Quarts-de-Chaume. All three regions are 100% Chenin Blanc and are very
long-lived sweet wines.This area, along the Layon River tributary of the
Loire, is similar to Sauternes in that it has the right climatic
conditions for botrytis, aka, pourriture noble, noble rot (p101c2).
- True. 3 million acres under vine with Airen the largest amount. (p163c1)
are 10 communes, villages, in the Cru Beaujolais zone. They are
marketed with only the name of the village on the label: St Amour,
Juliénas, Chénas, Moulin-à-Vent, Fleurie, Chiroubles, Morgon, Régnié,
Côte de Brouilly, Brouilly (p98c2).
- Vintage year
- Charmat aka, Cuvee Close or Tank Method (p53)
- Rotgipfler = White (78-79)
- True (p60c2). Most Ports do.
- Franciacorta, 85% Chardonnay, 10% Pinot nero and 5% Pinot bianco. (p131, c2)
- Only White Riesling and Johannisburg Riesling (p 20)
- Sardinia (p128c2)
Nobile di Montepulciano DOCG should not be confused with Montepulciano
d' Abruzzo: Vino Nobile is a blend based on Sangiovese grown on the
slopes of the Tuscan town of Montepulon, whereas Montepulciano d'
Abruzzo is made in the Abruzzo region from the Montepulciano grape.
- Crushing, Pressing, Fermentation, Racking,Clarification, Aging, Bottling.
- True. Three-quarters of the vines planted here are Riesling (p117).
- Lightly sweet
- Noble rot aka botrytis. (p115).
- Seller of wine. not producer, responsible for sale of 75% of export wine, primarily though selling futures. (p89)
deficient must fermentation. Rotten egg smell comes from yeast breaking
down amino acids to retrieve nitrogen needed to grow and multiply,
- 1,200 miles east of Australia (p143c1)
was created to ... these wines can be varietal labeled, be labeled
under a geographic indication, and be vintage dated (p129).
- Cuve Close
- 1. Gigondas
- Pedro Giménez. It is typically used in the production of grape concentrate and is not the Pedro Ximénez of Jerez (p69c1).
counterclockwise, serve the female guests; moving clockwise serve the
male guests, finish with the host, male or female, (p211c1). Wine is
always poured from the customer's right.
- typical geographic origin indication
- Qualitatswein, 2nd tier in Austria. In Germany, 1st tier QmP. (p82)"
Base Wine Fermentation, Assemblage, Liquor de Triage, Second
Fermentation, Remuage/Riddling, Disgorging, Liqueur d' Expedition (p
- In Spain, Aging requirements, both in barrel and in bottle, are set down by law. (p163c2)
Bay of Islands: New Zealand's first vineyards were planted around 1819
by the Reverand Samuel Marsden in the Bay of Islands at the top of the
North Island (p143c2).
less than 1% of Ports. It is a single vintage tawny Port, tawnies are
aged in small barrels. It remains in cask for a minimum of 7 years.
There is no limit to the number of years that it can spend in wood. Some
colheitas are 10, 15, even 50 years old. (p61c2)
Valley, Touraine: AOCs Bourgueil and Chinon produce some of the Loire's
finest red wines. All are at least 90 percent Cabernet Franc, with the
remainder, if any, being Cabernet Sauvignon (p102).
- Sweet Wines from Semillon and Sauvignon Blanc
- 1. Alsace
3. Bourgogne . Burgundy
- Amador, Calaveras, El Dorado, Placer, Nevada, Yuba, Tuolumne, and Mariposa counties (p184c1)
- 1. Riesling
3. Pinot Gris
- Grape varieties in South Africa ...
Steen = Chenin Blanc
Pinotage = a 1925 cross of Pinot Noir x Cinsault
Hanepoot = Muscat d' Alexandria (p159c1)
- Oro, Ambra, Rubio (p63c2).
- Gewurztraminer, Muscat, Pinot Gris, or Riesling (p106c1).
- Sparkling wine fermented in the bottle, Champagne method
- Five (p 91-92): First Growths, aka Premiers Crus,
Second Growths, aka, Deuxièmes Crus,
Third Growths, aka, Troisièmes Crus,
Fourth Growths, aka, Quatrièmes Crus
Fifth Growths, aka, Cinquièmes Crus.
- Orvieto, in central Italy. (p137)
- 60 to 95-degrees (p48)
- The top three:
QmP Beerenauslese,select berries
QmP, Trockenbeerenauslese, dried select berries
QmP Eiswein, ice wine (p119)
- A strong wind in the summer, from the South East. Oak Trees were planted to block this wind, (p158c1).
- Passito (p133c2)
- Franken wine is bottled in a distinctive squat, green flagon called the Bocksbeutel (p118c2).
- denomination of origin laws passed by the Italian government on July 12, 1963.
and flavonols are yellow pigments in white wine (and red. They will
change form according to pH. High pH, low acid; less stable, will tend
toward amber or brown, (p194c2 / 195c1).
- CO2, Carbon Dioxide
- Table wines and quality wines (p163c2)
- Marlborough, NorthEast corner of South Island. (p148c2)
- California, Washington and New York (p169c1)
- Farm or estate
- Sturm - Grape must served in Südsteiermark, Austria during harvest.
- 1855: divided into Growth system
- 25% (p123 c1)
- Pinot Noir, Gamay, Chardonnay and the 4th is Aligote (p98)
- True (124c2).
- Acetic acid (p192c2)
- True, 70%+ Portuguese red or rosé, deep colored tannic red wines that often have bell pepper and black currant flavors, (p154c1)
- False, Carcavelos is a fortified wine region in Estremadura (p155).
- Known as the "House Style" of a Champagne House or Producer
- None (p177c1)
- At least 70% Malbec, known locally as Cot, in SW France. (p111).
- Muscadet AC
grape: Melon de Bourgogne, aka Melon Blanc
- Red, from Nemea, aka, St George. (p124c2.)
- Sauvignon Blanc, in France's Upper Loire next to Sancerre. (p102c2).
- 50°-60°, (p197c2.)
de Frontignan, Muscat de Lunel, Muscat de Mireval, Muscat de St
Jean-de-Minervois, Muscat de Rivesaltes, Bayuls, Maury, Muscat de
Beaumes-de-Venise, Rasteau (p64c2).
- Proteins turn into a white haze when exposed to heat. Fining agents remove proteins to prevent this.
sweetened wine, achieved by arrested fermentation through the addition
of grape spirits to leave residual grape sugars in the product (p64c2).
- Zierfandler = White (78-79)
- 1) Sercial
3) Bual or Boal
4) Malvasia (p62c2)
- Red, from The North, is the principal red wine grape of the uplands of Naousa in the regional unit of Imathia. (p124c2.)
- "Tinta del País" in Ribera del Duero (p167c2)
"Cencibel" in La Mancha (p167c2)
"Tinta Roriz" in Portugal
- 1. Split .18L
2. Demi .375L
3. Bottle .75L
4. Magnum 1.5L
5. Jeroboam 3L
- Thessaly (p123c1).
- A unique vineyard ranking system in Portugal. 12 total criteria, including: Altitude, yield, soil and locality. (p152)
- In DOC or DOCG wines, indicates a higher level of alcohol, usually 1%, or aging and sometimes a special geographic origin
- White from Rueda in Italy. (p167c1)
doesn't say. Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah are given as examples
of reds that do well here, Chardonnay, white, was mentioned has barely
hanging on to the prize of being the most widely planted varietal.
- To the right of the water glass, above the knife on the right side of the place-setting, (p209c2).
- The Central Valley is, by far, the largest fine wine region in Chile. (p83)
- Atlantic and Indian, p157c2
- Solera aging and arrested fermentation (p64).
- Nematodes - Xiphinema index. (p13c2)
- Alcohol, Heat, Carbon Dioxide CO2
- Uhudler - A specialty wine of Südburgenland made from a nearly extinct Vitis lambrusca variety.
- French wines made outside of Champagne, in the traditional Method
- Pinot Gris
- Minervois and Banyuls are in the Languedoc-Roussillon (p110). Costières de Nîmes is in Rhone (p109).
- 80; 8 recommended by Casa do Douro:
5 Reds: Touriga Nationale, Touriga Franca, Tinta Barroca, Tinta Roriz aka Tempranillo, and Tinta Cão
3 Whites: Gouveio, Verdelho, Malvasia Fina, Vinosiho. (p153c2)
- To provide a warmer micro-climate and prevent frost (p113).
- 1. Gevrey-Chambertin
2. Morey St Denis
6. Nuits-St Georges
- Olifants River Region (p160c2)
at the turn of the 21st century, Strategy 2025 expresses Australia's
goal to become a $4.5 billion dollar wine industry by being the world's
most influential and profitable supplier of branded wines. (p71c1)
- Dry, as in Amarone della Valpolicella
- Full-bodied, sweet wine made from partly dried grapes
- 1) A first cut, free run & light press juice.
2) Blended base wine.
Rôtie, "Roasted Slope", produces a red wine made from Syrah that is
vinified together with up to 20% white Viognier, although in practice
10% or less is more typical. (p107c2)
- 75% (p176c1)
- Riverina is known for, Bag-in-Box, cask wine and dessert wines, botrytis-affected Semillon, (p73c1).
- Mediterranean: South and Inland
Maritime: North and coast (p150c2)
increase the wine's surface area of warmed wine in one's mouth so that
the concentration of volatile molecules, enabling more odor-saturated
air to reach the olfactory epithelium through the back of the mouth and
nasal cavities, (204c2).
overhead trellis system used to help the vines escape the reflected
heat. These are used in vineyards planted for high yield in deep,
fertile soils in Argentina. These vineyards are typically heavily
- Bottle aged, Wood aged. (p60c2)
- A old red grape in Chili, made into rustic table wine or distilled into brandy.(p83.)
- Greek wine was originally resinated to retard spoilage (p131c2).
- 1655 - growing grapes
1659 - making wine
- 1. Meursault
9. St Aubin
- Because of its proximity to Bordeaux
- Red, Roses: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc
- Whites: Sauvignon Blanc and Semillon
- White, from Rías Baizas, (p167c1)
- 15-15.5% (p56)
- Lake Neusiedl is Central Europe's only steppe lake.
- Ethyl (10-15% wine),
Methanol (toxic) ,
Glycerol (sweet as glucose, 7-10% alcohol), and
Fusel oils (high alcohols, very toxic result from low nitrogen must. Hangover) (p193c1)
Alcohol = body,, legs, tears; less surface tension than water.
- Palomino- the primary grape, white albariza soil of chalk, clay and sand.
Pedro Ximénez- the sweetening agent, aka PX, barro a clay soil with iron oxide
Moscatel- the coloring agent aka Muscat of Alexandria, arena a sandy soil with 10% chalk. (p167c1)
- Prosecco di Conegliano-Valdobbiadene is from the Veneto in the North East, not South of Italy. (p134).
- Sauvignon Blanc, typically with some oak influence , term coined by Robert Mondavi
- Boost sugar levels (p58 c1). Vino dulce is made from raisined Palomino or PX grapes that have been picked and dried in the sun.
communes within the Côte du Rhône AOC, such as Rasteau, Cairanne, and
Seguret, comprise the Côte du Rhône-Villages appellation and are allowed
to append their names to "Côte du Rhône-." The appellation has somewhat
higher production standards than does the Côte du Rhône AOC and
produces 99% red wine (pg108c2-109c1).
In the extreme Southwest France, along the Basque border, (p111c2).
(Wikipedia) Tannat is a red wine grape, historically grown in South West
France in the Madiran AOC and is now one of the most prominent grapes
in Uruguay, where it is considered the "national grape." Second red
grape is Cabernet Franc.
- 1) Anbaugebiet
4) Einzellage (p120)
- Mendocino County (p182)
the glass over a white surface with natural lighting, view the edge of
the wine for color and hue on the rim. Intense color is high extract and
flavor; compare with other wines. (p198)
- Sercial, Verdelho, Bual, Malmsey are the four noble grapes of Madeira.
Tinta Negra Mole is the most widely planted grape in Madeira. Madeira is unique because it is not only fortified, but oxidized and "cooked," technically referred to as "estufagem" (p156)
- 2 North Island Regions: Gisborne (p148c1), Hawke's Bay (p148c2),
1 South Island Regions: Marlborough (p149c1)
colors in red wines are clues that indicate intense fruit aromas and
high tannin levels. Overall quality in red wines is correlated with
total color and pigment content.
-- Inky purple => young
-- Brick red => mature
-- Ruby/orange => high-acid
-- Black/blue => low-acid (p202c2)
- Côte Chalonnaise (p94)
- Minimal pigment contamination or bitterness (p50).
- VDQS, Vin délimité de qualité supérieure, aka, delimited wine of superior quality, Discontinued in 2011. ( p87)
- 1) North Coast
2) Sierra Foothills
3) San Francisco Bay
4) Central Coast
5) South Coast (p178)
- Northland typically experiences the country's warmest ripening conditions (p145c2).
77K acres of vineyards in Champagne are grouped into the districts of
1) Vallée de la Marne, 2) Montagne de Reims, and 3) Cotes de Blanc
- Much of what was thought to be Merlot is actually Carmenère. (p84c1)
- White used in Cava production, (p166c2)
- A dark, sweet desert wine (p123c1). One of three grapes responsible for 97% of sweet wines in Greece (p124c2).
term Deutscher preceding Tafelwein or Landwein indicates that all the
grapes came from within Germany. If the wine label does not say
"Deutscher," the wine is probably not German-grown, but rather an
imported wine blended with German wine and bottled in Germany (p114c2).
- QbA wines may be chaptalized (p115c1/119).
St Émillion family of appellations. the wines of St Émillion were
classified for the first time in 1954, and since been updated three
times. There are officially two levels: Grand Cru Classé "great
classified growths" and the higher ranked Premier Grand Cru classé
"first great classified growths". Château Cheval Blanc and Château
Ausone are considered to be the very best Premier Grand Cru Classé and
are elevated to "category A". All others are "category B" (p93).
- Temperate, maritime climate (p143c1)
of Noble Grapes: Any Combination of Riesling, Gewurztraminer, Muscat,
Pinot Gris, Zwicker: Non- Noble Blend Grapes: Pinot Blanc, Auxerrois,
Sylvaner and Chasselas aka Fendant
Oechsle. Oechsle is the difference between the specific gravity of
grape must and that of water [1.00]; must with a specific gravity of
1.068 has a must weight of 68° Oechsle (p114).
- The principal pigments occurring in red wine. (p194c2) These are also found in flowers like petunias and delphinias.
- Resveratrol and Quercetin (p207c2).
feeding on vine roots, phylloxera injects saliva that causes the
development of galls. Feeding wounds also allow bacteria and fungi to
invade the vine and rot the root.
- Niederösterreich Lower Austria ,
Carnintum, Kamptal, Kremstal, Thermenregion, Traisental, Wachau, Wagram, Weinveiertel (p79-80).
- average 1%, range 0.5-2.5% (p192c1)
- Malvasia or Malmsey wine was named after the Greek port town on Monemvasia (p121c1).
- Tinta Negra Mole, a native vinifera not considered to be the grape of choice for high-quality, long-lived Madeira (p62c2).
- Farm or estate
avoid over-ripening, better vineyards often face north, contrary to
most classic wine areas in the Northern Hemisphere, where vines need to
hug the sun-drenched south-facing slopes (p122, c2).
- DOCG (p127c2)
is the flattest, driest continent in the world, with the oldest, most
depleted soils on Earth. Some say the soil itself is a fossil. It is
leached, acidic, and saline with a high Potassium, K, content. In the
entire world, only South Africa has a slightly similar soil profile
- Sauvignon Blanc
- Red, from Aegean Islands, (p124c2).
- White, from Patras, is a pink-skinned Greek wine grape traditionally grown in the Peloponnese region of Greece.(p124c2).
- Sweet wine, usually fortified with alcohol
- 1) Concrete vats with submerged coils.
2) Heated warehouses aka estufagen.
3) Uncooled warehouses, (p62-63)
- St Laurent = Red (78-79)
- 1954: 2 levels
- Romanée-Conti, Musigny, and Clos de Tart.
Burgundy, p96) Its 25 Grand Cru vineyards are all red, except Musigny, which produces both red and white wine. ...
- Sparkling wine, dry or sweet. Old term in Italy.
- Dry, sparkling wine.
- ...doesn't say, but the Columbia Valley AVA is one of the largest in the country, covering 1/3 of the state. (p186)
- 1. Macro-Climate: Wine Growing Region
2. Meso-Climate: Vineyard
3. Micro-Climate: Area Surrounding the Canopy of the Vine
- Riverland = 25% of Australia's total wine production (p76c2).
- denomination of controlled and guaranteed origin
- (Alt answer?)
Baixo Corgo - no steep slopes, fertile soils, 47 inches of rain
Cima Corgo - quality heartland, steep slopes/rocky, 28 inches of rain
Douro Superior - Gentle slopes, 15 inches of rain (p152)
- Rioja and Priorat (Ribera del Duero was slated to be added in 2008) (p164c1)
- New South Wales (p72c2).
- High Acid, Moderate Sugar (p50)
- The solera can refer to:
(1) a set of casks often arranged in scales,
(2) a dynamic aging and fractional blending system
(3) the butts that contain the oldest wine in the system... name comes from Latin solum, floor/soil b/c these butts are closest to the ground. (p57 c2)
- Grape sugar, a carbohydrate
- Weinviertel (p80 c2) district, in Niederösterreich region.
Progressing south and east from the northern portion of the Central
Valley, rainfall increases and temperatures decrease (p83).
- Setúbal, Portugal. (p155)
- False. Of the two Queensland GIs,
Granite Belt is composed of decomposing granite soils
South Burnett is composed of terra rossa soils (p76c2).
- Winery or wine cellar
temperatures, moderately humid, constant temperature, no vibrations, no
light, bottles stored on the side or at an angle to keep the cork moist
and labels facing up to avoid scuffing, (p213.)
- Bardolina produces wines from Corvina, Veronese/Corvinone and Rondinella (p134, 133).
- Sicily. The island of Sicily (63c2).
- 1. Methode Champenoise
2. Metonde Tradionnelle
3. Classic Method
4. Metodo Classico
5. Cap Classique
7. Traditional Method
- Gisborne (p148c1); 1/2 vineyard production is Chardonnay.
- Morillon = White , aka Chardonnay (78-79)
- False. Moderate tannins, not related to Zinfandel.
- True (p70c1).
- Aldehydes (p195c2)
Also? - Acetic acid results from oxidation of ethyl alcohol. It smells like vinegar. (p193c1)
- White, most widely planted varietal in world, mainly bulk wine, known in Castilla-La Mancha (p167c2)
- Mostly 100% Chenin Blanc // Savennières , famous dry Chenin Blanc
- Grape must served in Südsteiermark, Austria during harvest
- Under Chilean wine law updated in 1996, the "rule of 75 percent" established the minimum proportions for:
* Estate bottling
* Place of origin
Many wineries still use 85% to be compliant for EU exports. (p84c2)
- The alcohol content (p198c1)
- Pinot Noir (p31)
- Spain's traditional-method sparkling wine, produced mainly in the Penedés region in Northeastern Spain. (p166c1)
Austrian wine made by co-fermenting the must of late harvest,
non-botrysized grapes with a must that has been affected by botrytis
from the same vineyard (p82).
- 1) Shoot length is between 3-4 feet long, before it stops naturally on its own without hedging.
2) Shoot density is sparse enough that most, if not all, of the leaves are in the sun for a good % of the day.
3) Shoot girth is smaller than the width of your little finger.
4) There are few, if any laterals, on the shoots.
5) Berry size is small for that variety because the shoot length stopped on its own, (p12).
Austrian wine made by fermenting the must of late harvest,
non-botrysized grapes with a must that has been affected by botrytis.
- Late Bottled Vintage. Vintage Port ages in large vats for 2 years. LBV matures in large vats for 4-6 years (p61c2).
- Wine cooperative; wineries owned by a group of members
- Rivesaltes, Languedoc-Roussillon, produces nearly half of the vins doux naturales of France (p110c2).
- False. Tawnies are aged in small barrels. Rubies are aged in large vats. (p60c2)
that can be applied to any class or type of grape wine, e.g, Red,
White, Chablis, Burgundy, Port, Champagne, Chianti, and Madeira (p172c2)
- Southwest, around Cape Town (p157c2)
- Chenin Blanc
The Ahr is one of Germany's most northerly and smallest wine regions.
Despite the fact that it sits at 50° 30' north latitude, it is best
known for its red wines. Spätburgunder aka Pinot Noir and Portugieser
both produce light, fruity wines here. (p116c2).
- Schilcher - A tart herbal rosé made from the Blauer Wildbacher grape in Weststeiermark, Austria.
- Vinho Verde (p150-151)
- High growth wines, a declassified QmP Kabinett or a "super QbA", chaptalization is permitted for these wines (p119).
- Süss = sweet (GWA Glossary)
Trocken, Classic, and Selection = Dry
Halbtrocken and Feinherb = Off Dry (p116c1)
- Esters (p196)
- Mechanized Riddling
- Central Otago, South Island of New Zealand. (p149c2)
- Syrah, High Tannin, (p34)
Cabernet Franc & Merlot, Moderate Tannin,
Gamay , Low Tannin
German, this means "this year's" and refers both to new wine and the
vintner-owned inns/taverns/wine bars that serve food and proprietary
wines in Vienna (p81).
- Sauternes, Barsac, and Cérons (p90)
Eastern Australia is the only current appellation that covers an area
larger than a single state. It combines New South Wales, Victoria,
Tasmania, The Australian Capital Territory, and parts of Queensland and
South Australia (p71c2).
- The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau aka TTB, p172c1.
- Cross of Cabernet Franc x Sauvignon Blanc.
Robles, inland and Northern half of San Luis Obispo County protected
from the Ocean by Mountains and too far upriver to be reached by fog.
- 2.9 - 3.8, for grape juice and wine.
Higher acid = lower pH. Higher acid wines are longer lived. (p193c1)
- NORTH TO SOUTH:
1. St Estephe
3. St Julien
- 1. Extra Brut
3. Extra Dry
- Most wineries are situated within 20 miles of the east coast. (p143 c2).
- Santa Barbara County (p183; map cross reference)
- Grüner Veltliner = White (78-79)
- Brunello is a local name for a Sangiovese clone that picks up a brown (brun) sheen on its skin when ripe. (p136c1)
- Barrels (p166c1)
acid precipitates out of solution as tartrate crystals when wine is
chilled. To prevent what looks like 'glass shards' in the bottle, wines
are chilled to 25-degrees to 27-degrees for 2-4 weeks in the cask.
- The Benguela current and winds from cold oceans, Atlantic and Indian.
- 1. Sancerre
- Raise sugar levels of the must for fermentation (p46)
- A specialty wine of Südburgenland made from a nearly extinct Vitis lambrusca variety.
- 1. Cote Rotie
2. Condrieu --only W Viognier
3. Chateau Grillet --only W Viognier
4. St Joseph
7. Cornas --only R Syrah
8. St Peray -- only W Marsanne, Roussane
Northern Rhône reds are often identified by their signature aromas of green olive and smoky bacon.
- Center or "classic" growing area of a specific zone
- Gavi in Piedmont (p130c1).
growing or wine-making restrictions (p175c1). If an AVA appears on the
label as the place of origin, 85% of the wine in the bottle must have
been grown in that area (p175c2).
- Médoc and Haut-Médoc, (p90 c2)
will change form according to pH. Brighter red hue at low pH, high
acid; blue/purple hue at a high pH. low acid; less stable, (p194c2).
These are only found in red wine, not white, they have Flavones.
- Cannonau is another name for Grenache in Sardinia (p140c2).
- Group of producers of a specific wine
- 50-95 degrees Fahrenheit. Extremes. Optimally, 70-85-degrees F. (p10.)
increase the wine's surface area so that the concentration of volatile
molecules in the air above the wine will be higher, thus increasing the
taster's ability to detect aromas and flavors (204c2).
- Quinta means "Single Estate" (p60c2).
- Blauer Zweigelt = Red (78-79)
- 1) QmP Kabinett. Cabinet)
2) QmP Spätlese, Late-harvest
3) QmP Auslese, Select bunches
4) QmP Beerenauslese, Select berries
5) QmP Trockenbeerenauslese, Dried select berries
6) QmP Eisewein, Ice wine (p119)
- Table wine
- Trentino - Alto Adige
- Salty (p205c1)
- The smaller the bead, bubble, the higher the pedigree, (p198c1).
wine district in Niederösterreich known for its Riesling and Grüner
Veltliner. The area has it's own wine classification system.
18th Amendment to the constitution to prohibit the sale and consumption
of alcohol, passed in 1919 and enacted in 1920 til 1933. (p170c2)
- 1. Rully
- Lactic, succinic, and acetic acids. (p192c2)
- 12.2% , 55% Brix,( p43)
- Pale red, rosé.
- NORTH TO SOUTH:
2. Cote de Nuits
3. Cotes de Beaune
4. Cotes de Chalonnaise
- Eastern Crete (p121c1).