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448 Multiple choice questions

  1. Young, robust reds
    Complex wines with moderate age
    Fully aged and mature wines
    Wines with sediment (p212c2 -213)
  2. Rouge Valley (map cross ref); binder lists Southern Oregon AVA, includes Rouge Valley AVA and Umpqua Valley AVA. (p186c2)
  3. Pressing
    Aging in barrel
    Blending (p56-57)
  4. Tartaric crystals may form in the bottle, when exposed to cold temperatures.
  5. Lightly sparkling
  6. Latium, aka Lazio. it's a white wine made from Trebbiano and Malvasia. (p137)
  7. Central New York (p188c1); responsible for 85% of New York's total wine production. NY is second or third in production to CA, Washington
  8. Sekt (p115).
  9. Bitter
  10. 4.9-6 Atmospheres
  11. Clare Valley (p75c2) and Eden Valley (p76c1).
  12. Breede River Valley Region (p160-161)
  13. Juice Settling (p51).

    This is a wine-making technique whereby must is allowed to rest before fermentation begins in order for the gross particulate matter to fall out of the solution.
  14. Mainly: Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Noir // A little Pinot Gris in Reuilly , Red and Rose
  15. Blauer Wildbacher = Red (78-79)
  16. Wines made by grape growers are designated:
    Gustabfüllung = Estate bottled grape-grower produced.
    Erzeugerafüllung = Producer bottled, includes cooperative. (p114c1)
  17. Napa County AVA, Napa Valley AVA, Oakville AVA
  18. [Extended Maceration] Astringency increases as more and more tannin and pigment is extracted. (p48)
  19. These are all Burgundy Appellations. (p97)
    1) Bourgogne - Burgundy
    2) Côte de Beaune - 1 of 6 major wine districts
    3) Puligny-Montrachet - a Village
    4) Puligny-Montrachet Premier Cru "La Joquelotte" - A Primier cru, below Grand Cru
    5) Chevalier-Montrachet - a Grand Cru
  20. Glucose and fructose (p191c2) 6 carbon sugars are fermentable; 5 carbon sugars are not. Glucose ferments faster than Fructose, Fructose is 2x as sweet. There is always more Fructose in must as a result. Significant for White Zinfandel.
  21. False
  22. Saale-Ustrut and Sashsen are two small wine regions located in what was formerly East Germany (p120).
  23. 1. Puilly-Fuisse
    2. St Veran
    3. Macon AC, Superior AC, -Villages AC,
  24. Bottle
  25. Rheingau (p117).
  26. Malbec (p69c2).
  27. Continental. There are enormous diurnal, within 24 hours, temperature swings and a full rotation of all four seasons. There is also little humidity so growers have less need of chemical sprays. (68c2).
  28. Grape stems, pips and skins, and oak barrels. (p195c1)
  29. 1.5% for alcohol by volume 14% or less; 1% for wines with alcohol greater than 14%. (p174c1)
  30. East: Rhein River and the West: Vosges Mountains
  31. Emilia-Romagna (p135c1)
  32. Sauvignon Blanc (26K acres), Pinot Noir (11K acres), and Chardonnay (10K acres) (p144c1).
  33. 1. Chinon - Cabernet Franc
    2. Bourgueil - Cabernet Franc
    3. St Nicholas-de-Bourgueil
    4. Vouvray:Chenin Blanc for Dry to very sweet wines, moelleux
    5. Montlouis - Chenin Blanc aka Pineau de la Loire
  34. Selection de Grains Nobles SGN-- Harvest 1st due to Nobel Rot.
    Grapes clusters with Botrytis are selected on the first pass through to ensure the best is picked for SGN.
  35. 1) Brand name
    2) Class or type of wine
    3) The name and address of the bottler or the importer
    4) Alcohol content
    5) A sulfite statement, if required
    6) A health warning
    7) The net contents, volume of the bottle.
    Also, country of origin and "imported by" must appear on foreign wines. (p172c1)
  36. Nebbiolo aka Spanna, 100% (p130c2)
    1. Les Clos
    2. Valmur
    3. Vaudesir
    4. Bourgros
    5. Blanchots
    6. Le Preuses
    7. Grenouilles
  38. Red (p165), Rioja
  39. An Italian sweet dessert wine made from grapes that have been dried, maybe on straw mats. straw wine
  40. Vin de Table, Vin de Pays, VDQS, AOC or AC (p87)
  41. 10-30 inches of rain per year (p71c1).
  42. Prestige cuvées or cuvée spéciale wines are the showpieces of the Champagne producers--the highest-quality wine produced and, of course, the most expensive. Generally speaking, these are the Champagnes with the longest aging potential (p104c2).
  43. 75%; 90% in Oregon (p173c2)
  44. Organic - forgoes all synthetics; allows the application of natural in-organic materials like sulfur and copper that can lead to soil toxicity. The planet is an ecosystem.
    Biodynamic - Austrian Rudolf Steiner, Quasi-religious. The universe is your ecosystem. Phases of moon are used to govern vineyard practices.
    Sustainable - Forgoes black/white rules to find the best overall solution. (p15-16)
  45. A fierce, hot, dry wine that blows out of the northwest. If the wind blows during flowering, it will cause poor berry set, which, in turn, reduces crop yield (p68c2).
  46. 15% (p176c2)
  47. 85% from the grape variety (p72c1).
  48. Aged
  49. aka, "Whole-Berry Fermentation" in an anaerobic, oxygen-free, environment where grape sugars create alcohol without yeast.
    This is an enzymatic fermentation, that runs hot at 85 to 95-degree and long, up to 3 weeks. (p49)
  50. Grüner Veltliner is 1/30 grapes sanctioned for wine-making in Austria, more than a third of the acreage under vine is planted to this varietal. (p78)
  51. A town responsible for maturing and shipping port; tradition, location, and climate, humidity, make this an ideal location. (p153)
  52. 1. Montagne de Reims
    2. Vallée de la Marne
    3. Cotes de Blanc (p103)
  53. Similar to its reds, Bordeaux's white wines are also blends. Sémillon and Sauvignon Blanc dominate the mix. (p89)
  54. 10ppm, at or above; (p196c1)
  55. Red aka Tempranillo in La Mancha, Rioja.
  56. Bacteria. It converts malic acid into lactic acid. (p46)
  57. White, used in Cava production, (p166c2)
  58. 1. Nantes
    2. Anjou & Saumur
    3. Touraine
    4. Central France, Upper Loire
  59. The French Paradox (p208)
  60. 100% (p161)
  61. Chenin Blanc
  62. 62° to 68° F (p210c1)
  63. White, used in Cava production, (p166c2), aka. Viura in Rioja, (p165)
  64. Inputs: sunlight, CO2, water
    Products: Sugar, O2 (p10c2)
  65. Pinot Nero (p129c2)
  66. Constantia (p159c2)
  67. A tart herbal rosé made from the Blauer Wildbacher grape in Weststeiermark, Austria.
  68. Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscadelle.
  69. Riesling and Muller-Thurgau (p115c).
  70. Pays Nantais, aka, Muscadet, closest to the Atlantic, the end point, mouth, of the river, western Loire Valley. (p100)
  71. In Austria, aka Chardonnay
  72. White
  73. Port and Madeira, (p150c1)
  74. Reserve; wine which has been aged a longer, specified time, usually applies to DOC and DOCG.
  75. DOC, IPR, VR, VdM (p156)
  76. Marsala (p140)
  77. Spätburgunder in Germany and Austria. aka Pinot Noir and Pinot Nero (p116)
  78. Known as Sekt
  79. European emigration, 98% population is of European decent; 1/2 of Italian decent. (p67c1).
  80. Dry
  81. The purest expression of Chardonnay. VERY little use of oak.
  82. Cork taint from mold reacts with bleaching agents, produces a wet cardboard smell in wine. Bacterial? (p199c2 / 200c1)
  83. The desert to the north, the tall Andean peaks to the east, the Pacific Ocean to the west, and the frozen ice expanses to of Antarctica to the south have kept this country and its people and island to itself. (p83c1)
  84. Directly through the nostrils and indirectly through the mouth and rear nasal passages as wine is tasted, (p204c1).
  85. Vin Santo is a maderized dessert wine from Tuscany (p136); Vermouth is a Piedmont wine that is fortified and flavored with roots, spices, wood, and so forth. (p130c2).
  86. 1. Still Wine
    2. Liqueur de Tirage
    3. Tirage
    4. Riddling or Remuage
    5. Disgorgement
    6. Dosage or Liqueur d'Expedition
    7. Bottling
  87. 1. Sancerre - Loire classic Sauvignon Blanc and some Pinot Noir; likely fermented dry (p102c2).
    2. Vouvray - Loire Valley, Touraine, white Chenin Blanc wines ranging in style from dry to sweet (p102c1)
    3. Sauternes - famous Left Bank Bordeaux, Graves, sweet white wines from Semillon and Sauvignon Blanc. (p90c2)
  88. This designation may be added to the names of AC designations. It requires a higher minimum alcohol level, usually one percentage point higher than the basic designation. (p88)
  89. To inhibit wild yeast, and prevent spoilage and oxidation.
  90. Late Harvest grapes, which may or may not be affected by noble rot (p106c1). aka, "VT". Alsace wines were the first to be described as vendange tardive but the term is now used in other regions of France.
  91. Viognier
  92. Riddling (p53)
  93. White, from Santorini, (p124c2.)
  94. Detection threshold is the smallest amount of stimulus necessary to trigger an unidentifiable sensation; and recognition threshold is the smallest amount of stimulus necessary to trigger an identifiable sensation. (p202c1)
  95. 4-10% RS.
  96. Brick red => mature (p202c2)
  97. Austrian, Rudolf Steiner in 1929
  98. Red, Rioja
  99. 200 (124c2).
  100. Fino and Oloroso, with or without Flor (p58, 59)
  101. 85% (p175c2)
  102. 10ppm, nearly all wines; many yeast strains produce this much during fermentation alone., (p174c2)
  103. Cahors AC requires 70% Malbec aka locally as cot
  104. 85% and declining, (p157c2)
  105. Chianti (p135)
  106. Cabernet Sauvignon (72.6K acres), p178c2
  107. Crianza- at least 1 year on oak / 6 months in bottle; not released until its 3rd year.
    Reserva- also minimum of 1 year on oak but not released until its 4th year.
    Gran reserva- minimum of 2 years on oak; 3 in bottle, not released until its 6th year. (p164c2)
  108. Steam-filled pipes heating a hot room, armazens de calor, for Madeira production (p62c2-p63c1).
  109. wine library, public or commerical
  110. Began as a grape growers cartel, now a company charged with investing in South Africa's national wine industry (p158-159)
  111. Portugieser = Red (78-79)
  112. Bud Break,
    Shoot and Leaf Growth,
    Berry Set,
    Harvest (p10).
  113. 1. St Amour
    2. Julienas
    3. Chenas
    4. Moulin-a-Vent
    5. Fleurie
    6. Chiroubles
    7. Morgon
    8. Regnie
    9. Brouilly
    10. Cote de Brouilly
  114. Farm, estate
  115. Muscat
  116. 85% from the GI (p72c1).
  117. Coonawarra, Padthaway, Mount Benson, Robe, Wrattonbully (p76c1). They all have the famous red-brown mix of clay, sand, and silt known as 'terra rossa.' Most expensive viticultural land in Australia.
  118. 1. Lirac: Known for great roses, but now shifting to red to white
    2. Tavel: Considered one of the best Rose Appleations. Roses must be made directly from red wine by prefermination or Saignage (bleeding off). Tavel must be rose.
  119. False. These wines are intensly flavored, sometimes with the honeyed influence of botrytis, sometimes not (p115c2).
  120. Nitrogen , N, Phosphorus P, and Potassium K , (p9).
  121. Blackwood Valley. All of these regions, except Blackwood Valley which is located inland, experience sea breezes from the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, or both. Salinity from the oceans is an issue (p73c2-74c1).
  122. Soave. Widely grown in the Veneto region of North East Italy, particularly in the provinces of Verona and Vicenza. (p134c1)
  123. There are eight Chianti subregions: Chianti Classico (located between Florence and Siena), Colli Aretini, Colli Fiorentini, Colli Sensesi, Colline Pisane, Montalbano, Montespertoli, and Ruffina. (p135c2)
  124. Title of merit in Tuscany for wines that are produced by members of the private Capitolare, formerly Predicato, group; this use and group was to be disbanded in 1997.
  125. Sangiovese (p35)
  126. Macroclimate = Region
    Mesoclimate = The Vineyard
    Microclimate = The Vine (p11)
  127. Polyphenols (p207c2).
  128. Black cherry, tobacco, vanilla, blackberry, chocolate, cigar box, black pepper, tea, herbs, coffee, toffee, mint ... (p28)
  129. 19% alcohol, 8-12% RS (p60 c1)
  130. There are four, all are Valleys:
    Maipo Valley - status symbol estates.
    Rapel Valley - wide expanses of flat farmland.
    Curicó Valley - coastal range, quite warm.
    Maule Valley - cloud cover and cooler temp. (p85)
  131. White, from Attica, (p124c2).
  132. The Sherry Triangle is formed by the towns of Jerez de la Frontera, Sanlúcar de Barrameda, and Puerto de Santa María. (p167c1)
  133. Privately owned winery; négociant
  134. Magnum = 2 bottles, 1.5L
    Jeroboam = 4 bottles, 3L
    Balthazar =16 bottles,12L
    (p53 - table of bottle sizes)
  135. Gewurztraminer (p23)
  136. Some winemakers were found to be adulterating their wines with diethylene glycol to them more body. This resulted in some of the toughest laws in the world being instituted in Austria, now considered to be one of the most modern, dynamic, and active wine producing countries in the world (p78).
  137. Fermentation
  138. Acreage planted and production = Rheinhessen (p117)
    Physical size = Baden (p120)
  139. Harvest or vintage
  140. Red Wine only , Tannat + Bordeaux Varieties, Tannat big in Uruguay as well
  141. Resveratrol (p207c2).
  142. Galets stones // Chaptalization is illegal // Vin de Garde 13 permitted grapes. 8 red & 5 white
  143. Yeast layer (p55)
  144. None. Amontillado is fermented dry. (p57)
  145. 1. Sonoma Coast, 2. Los Carneros, 3. Sonoma Valley, 4. Sonoma Mountain, 5. Russian River Valley, 6. Green Valley of Russian River Valley, 7. Bennett Valley (newest), 8. Chalk Hill, 9. Alexander Valley, 10. Knights Valley, 11. Dry Creek Valley, 12. Rockpile, 13. Northern Sonoma, 13 AVAs, (p180-181)
  146. Species - Within the genus vinifera, only vitis vinifera is used on a wide-scale for wine production.
    Clone - vines descended from a single plant, by cutting.
    Variety - a sub-species of grape. (p9).
    1. Pomerol
    2. Lalande-de-Pomerol
    3. Canon-Fronsac
    4. Fronsac
    5. Cotes de Bourg
    6. Cotes de Blaye
  148. Tinta Roriz
  149. The Bio-Bio Valley marks the southern end of the Central Valley. The Coastal Range is lower here, so the weather is more heavily affected by the Pacific Ocean. There is more rain, less sun, and cooler temperatures. (p85)
  150. Pre-Cambian schist and decomposing schist, with outcroppings of granite, some sand, clay and quartz. (p152c2)
  151. Rioja Alta, Rioja Alavesa, and Rioja Baja (p165c2)
  152. Rivers. Saar and Ruwar are tributaries to the Mosel (p117).
  153. In-mouth evaluation. (p199c1) On the mid-palate?
  154. Mendoza (p68).
  155. Uneven berry set; grape berries of different size within a cluster. Developed for the Argentine wine industry by the University of California at Davis, the Mendoza clone of Chardonnay is prone to 'hens and chicks' to offer the advantage of a greater skin-to-juice ratio (p69c1).
  156. Tartaric, Malic and Citric acid (p192c1). These are fixed acids that do not pass into wine spirits by remain in the residue. They are odorless.
  157. Sparkling. Crémant refers to French AOC sparkling wine made outside the Champagne region e.g., Crémant d'Alsace, Crémant de Die, Crémant de Loire, (p104c2).
  158. 1) Grenache
    2) Muscat a Petits Grains
    3) Muscat of Alexandria (p65c1)
  159. denomination of controlled origin
  160. Bottled. all'origine: at the source
  161. Piedmont (p130c1-2)
  162. The major quality winegrowing zone is in the northwest section of the country on the lower slopes of the Andes (p67c2).
  163. White aka Macabeo outside of Rioja in Spain, (p165) ... the most important white wine grape of Rioja.
  164. Los Carneros lies half in Napa County and half in Sonoma County. Carneros is the coolest part of Napa County. (p180c1)
  165. Young wine of Portugal, crafted for immediate consumption. (p150c2)
  166. Almost a quarter of Chile's Chardonnay is grown is Casablanca, and there is some growing excitement over the Pinot Noir plantings in the areas as well (p85.)
  167. Weather patterns are significantly influenced by the Pacific Ocean and its cold Humboldt Current.
  168. Henty and the Macedon Ranges vie for the title of the coolest growing region on the Australian mainland (p75c1).
  169. Niederösterreich is one of four wine growing regions in Austria. It is divided further into eight districts:
    Carnuntum, Donauland, Kamptal, Kremstal, Thermenregion, Traisental, Wachau and the Weinviertel.
  170. Wachau.
    1) Steinfeder- light body/dry up to 11% alcohol,
    2) Federspiel - medium body/dry under 12.5%,
    3) Smaragd - full-bodied/dry over 12.5%.
  171. light red, cherry colored; rosé
  172. A Rosé made typically from Spätburgunder aka Pinot Noir, (p116).
  173. Extra-Brut, Brut, Extra Dry, Sec, Demi-Sec, Doux (p52-53)
  174. 15% Quality wines, OPE for sweet and OPAP for dry, Regional wines, TO, 50% Table wines, EO, and Restina, TZ or OKP (p123).
  175. La Rioja (p68).
  176. Old, rarely used term.
  177. A clarification technique used to removed fine dissolved sediment in the fermented solution.

    Fining agents bind to particles in the wine and settle out of solution via gravity. These bond particles are then removed through racking. (p47)
  178. True (p82)
  179. red, still Italian wines based principally on the Aglianico grape variety produced in the Province of Avellino in the Campania region. (p128c2)
  180. A cooked or baked odor. Oxidized red wine. (p201c1)
  181. Red, famous in Priorat. (p165)
  182. Loire Valley, 100% Chenin Blanc (p101). The sweet white wines of Anjou-Saumur come from Coteaux du Layon and its sub-regions Bonezeaux and Quarts-de-Chaume. All three regions are 100% Chenin Blanc and are very long-lived sweet wines.This area, along the Layon River tributary of the Loire, is similar to Sauternes in that it has the right climatic conditions for botrytis, aka, pourriture noble, noble rot (p101c2).
  183. True. 3 million acres under vine with Airen the largest amount. (p163c1)
  184. There are 10 communes, villages, in the Cru Beaujolais zone. They are marketed with only the name of the village on the label: St Amour, Juliénas, Chénas, Moulin-à-Vent, Fleurie, Chiroubles, Morgon, Régnié, Côte de Brouilly, Brouilly (p98c2).
  185. Vintage year
  186. Charmat aka, Cuvee Close or Tank Method (p53)
  187. Rotgipfler = White (78-79)
  188. True (p60c2). Most Ports do.
  189. Franciacorta, 85% Chardonnay, 10% Pinot nero and 5% Pinot bianco. (p131, c2)
  190. Only White Riesling and Johannisburg Riesling (p 20)
  191. Sardinia (p128c2)
  192. Vino Nobile di Montepulciano DOCG should not be confused with Montepulciano d' Abruzzo: Vino Nobile is a blend based on Sangiovese grown on the slopes of the Tuscan town of Montepulon, whereas Montepulciano d' Abruzzo is made in the Abruzzo region from the Montepulciano grape. (p136c1).
  193. Crushing, Pressing, Fermentation, Racking,Clarification, Aging, Bottling.
  194. True. Three-quarters of the vines planted here are Riesling (p117).
  195. Lightly sweet
  196. Noble rot aka botrytis. (p115).
  197. Seller of wine. not producer, responsible for sale of 75% of export wine, primarily though selling futures. (p89)
  198. Nitrogen deficient must fermentation. Rotten egg smell comes from yeast breaking down amino acids to retrieve nitrogen needed to grow and multiply, (p200c2).
  199. 1,200 miles east of Australia (p143c1)
  200. IGT was created to ... these wines can be varietal labeled, be labeled under a geographic indication, and be vintage dated (p129).
  201. Cuve Close
    Tank Method
  202. 1. Gigondas
    2. Beaumes-de-Venise
    3. Vacqueyras
    4. Chateauneuf-de-Pape
  203. Pedro Giménez. It is typically used in the production of grape concentrate and is not the Pedro Ximénez of Jerez (p69c1).
  204. Moving counterclockwise, serve the female guests; moving clockwise serve the male guests, finish with the host, male or female, (p211c1). Wine is always poured from the customer's right.
  205. typical geographic origin indication
  206. Qualitatswein, 2nd tier in Austria. In Germany, 1st tier QmP. (p82)"
  207. Pressing, Base Wine Fermentation, Assemblage, Liquor de Triage, Second Fermentation, Remuage/Riddling, Disgorging, Liqueur d' Expedition (p 50-52).
  208. In Spain, Aging requirements, both in barrel and in bottle, are set down by law. (p163c2)
  209. The Bay of Islands: New Zealand's first vineyards were planted around 1819 by the Reverand Samuel Marsden in the Bay of Islands at the top of the North Island (p143c2).
  210. Rare, less than 1% of Ports. It is a single vintage tawny Port, tawnies are aged in small barrels. It remains in cask for a minimum of 7 years. There is no limit to the number of years that it can spend in wood. Some colheitas are 10, 15, even 50 years old. (p61c2)
  211. Loire Valley, Touraine: AOCs Bourgueil and Chinon produce some of the Loire's finest red wines. All are at least 90 percent Cabernet Franc, with the remainder, if any, being Cabernet Sauvignon (p102).
  212. Sweet Wines from Semillon and Sauvignon Blanc
  213. 1. Alsace
    2. d'Die
    3. Bourgogne . Burgundy
    4. Loire
    5. Limoux
    6. Bordeaux
  214. Amador, Calaveras, El Dorado, Placer, Nevada, Yuba, Tuolumne, and Mariposa counties (p184c1)
  215. 1. Riesling
    2. Muscat
    3. Pinot Gris
    4. Gewurztraminer
    5. Sylvaner
  216. Grape varieties in South Africa ...
    Steen = Chenin Blanc
    Pinotage = a 1925 cross of Pinot Noir x Cinsault
    Hanepoot = Muscat d' Alexandria (p159c1)
  217. Oro, Ambra, Rubio (p63c2).
  218. Gewurztraminer, Muscat, Pinot Gris, or Riesling (p106c1).
  219. Sparkling wine fermented in the bottle, Champagne method
  220. Five (p 91-92): First Growths, aka Premiers Crus,
    Second Growths, aka, Deuxièmes Crus,
    Third Growths, aka, Troisièmes Crus,
    Fourth Growths, aka, Quatrièmes Crus
    Fifth Growths, aka, Cinquièmes Crus.
  221. Orvieto, in central Italy. (p137)
  222. 60 to 95-degrees (p48)
  223. The top three:
    QmP Beerenauslese,select berries
    QmP, Trockenbeerenauslese, dried select berries
    QmP Eiswein, ice wine (p119)
  224. A strong wind in the summer, from the South East. Oak Trees were planted to block this wind, (p158c1).
  225. Passito (p133c2)
  226. Franken wine is bottled in a distinctive squat, green flagon called the Bocksbeutel (p118c2).
  227. denomination of origin laws passed by the Italian government on July 12, 1963.
  228. Flavones and flavonols are yellow pigments in white wine (and red. They will change form according to pH. High pH, low acid; less stable, will tend toward amber or brown, (p194c2 / 195c1).
  229. CO2, Carbon Dioxide
  230. Table wines and quality wines (p163c2)
  231. Marlborough, NorthEast corner of South Island. (p148c2)
  232. California, Washington and New York (p169c1)
  233. Farm or estate
  234. Sturm - Grape must served in Südsteiermark, Austria during harvest.
  235. 1855: divided into Growth system
  236. 25% (p123 c1)
  237. Pinot Noir, Gamay, Chardonnay and the 4th is Aligote (p98)
  238. True (124c2).
  239. Acetic acid (p192c2)
  240. True, 70%+ Portuguese red or rosé, deep colored tannic red wines that often have bell pepper and black currant flavors, (p154c1)
  241. False, Carcavelos is a fortified wine region in Estremadura (p155).
  242. Known as the "House Style" of a Champagne House or Producer
  243. None (p177c1)
  244. At least 70% Malbec, known locally as Cot, in SW France. (p111).
  245. Muscadet AC
    grape: Melon de Bourgogne, aka Melon Blanc
  246. Red, from Nemea, aka, St George. (p124c2.)
  247. Sauvignon Blanc, in France's Upper Loire next to Sancerre. (p102c2).
  248. 50°-60°, (p197c2.)
  249. Muscat de Frontignan, Muscat de Lunel, Muscat de Mireval, Muscat de St Jean-de-Minervois, Muscat de Rivesaltes, Bayuls, Maury, Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise, Rasteau (p64c2).
  250. Proteins turn into a white haze when exposed to heat. Fining agents remove proteins to prevent this.
  251. Naturally sweetened wine, achieved by arrested fermentation through the addition of grape spirits to leave residual grape sugars in the product (p64c2).
  252. Zierfandler = White (78-79)
  253. 1) Sercial
    2) Verdelho
    3) Bual or Boal
    4) Malvasia (p62c2)
  254. Red, from The North, is the principal red wine grape of the uplands of Naousa in the regional unit of Imathia. (p124c2.)
  255. "Tinta del País" in Ribera del Duero (p167c2)
    "Cencibel" in La Mancha (p167c2)
    "Tinta Roriz" in Portugal
  256. 1. Split .18L
    2. Demi .375L
    3. Bottle .75L
    4. Magnum 1.5L
    5. Jeroboam 3L
  257. Thessaly (p123c1).
  258. A unique vineyard ranking system in Portugal. 12 total criteria, including: Altitude, yield, soil and locality. (p152)
  259. In DOC or DOCG wines, indicates a higher level of alcohol, usually 1%, or aging and sometimes a special geographic origin
  260. White from Rueda in Italy. (p167c1)
  261. ... doesn't say. Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah are given as examples of reds that do well here, Chardonnay, white, was mentioned has barely hanging on to the prize of being the most widely planted varietal. (p185)
  262. To the right of the water glass, above the knife on the right side of the place-setting, (p209c2).
  263. The Central Valley is, by far, the largest fine wine region in Chile. (p83)
  264. Atlantic and Indian, p157c2
  265. Solera aging and arrested fermentation (p64).
  266. Nematodes - Xiphinema index. (p13c2)
  267. Alcohol, Heat, Carbon Dioxide CO2
  268. Uhudler - A specialty wine of Südburgenland made from a nearly extinct Vitis lambrusca variety.
  269. French wines made outside of Champagne, in the traditional Method
  270. Pinot Gris
  271. Chardonnay
  272. Minervois and Banyuls are in the Languedoc-Roussillon (p110). Costières de Nîmes is in Rhone (p109).
  273. 80; 8 recommended by Casa do Douro:
    5 Reds: Touriga Nationale, Touriga Franca, Tinta Barroca, Tinta Roriz aka Tempranillo, and Tinta Cão
    3 Whites: Gouveio, Verdelho, Malvasia Fina, Vinosiho. (p153c2)
  274. To provide a warmer micro-climate and prevent frost (p113).
  275. 1. Gevrey-Chambertin
    2. Morey St Denis
    3. Vougeot
    4. Flagey-Echezeaux
    5. Vosne-Romanee
    6. Nuits-St Georges
    7. Premeuaux-Prissey
  276. Olifants River Region (p160c2)
  277. Launched at the turn of the 21st century, Strategy 2025 expresses Australia's goal to become a $4.5 billion dollar wine industry by being the world's most influential and profitable supplier of branded wines. (p71c1)
  278. Dry, as in Amarone della Valpolicella
  279. Full-bodied, sweet wine made from partly dried grapes
  280. 1) A first cut, free run & light press juice.
    2) Blended base wine.
  281. Côte Rôtie, "Roasted Slope", produces a red wine made from Syrah that is vinified together with up to 20% white Viognier, although in practice 10% or less is more typical. (p107c2)
  282. 75% (p176c1)
  283. Riverina is known for, Bag-in-Box, cask wine and dessert wines, botrytis-affected Semillon, (p73c1).
  284. grape
  285. Mediterranean: South and Inland
    Maritime: North and coast (p150c2)
  286. To increase the wine's surface area of warmed wine in one's mouth so that the concentration of volatile molecules, enabling more odor-saturated air to reach the olfactory epithelium through the back of the mouth and nasal cavities, (204c2).
  287. An overhead trellis system used to help the vines escape the reflected heat. These are used in vineyards planted for high yield in deep, fertile soils in Argentina. These vineyards are typically heavily irrigated (p68c2).
  288. Bottle aged, Wood aged. (p60c2)
  289. A old red grape in Chili, made into rustic table wine or distilled into brandy.(p83.)
  290. Greek wine was originally resinated to retard spoilage (p131c2).
  291. 1655 - growing grapes
    1659 - making wine
  292. 1. Meursault
    2. Beaune
    3. Puligny-Montrachet
    4. Chassagne-Montrachet
    5. Aloxe-Corton
    6. Sauvigny-les-Beaune
    7. Pommard
    8. Volnay
    9. St Aubin
    10. Santenay
    11. Maranges
  293. Because of its proximity to Bordeaux
    - Red, Roses: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc
    - Whites: Sauvignon Blanc and Semillon
  294. White, from Rías Baizas, (p167c1)
  295. 15-15.5% (p56)
  296. Lake Neusiedl is Central Europe's only steppe lake.
  297. Ethyl (10-15% wine),
    Methanol (toxic) ,
    Glycerol (sweet as glucose, 7-10% alcohol), and
    Fusel oils (high alcohols, very toxic result from low nitrogen must. Hangover) (p193c1)

    Alcohol = body,, legs, tears; less surface tension than water.
  298. Palomino- the primary grape, white albariza soil of chalk, clay and sand.
    Pedro Ximénez- the sweetening agent, aka PX, barro a clay soil with iron oxide
    Moscatel- the coloring agent aka Muscat of Alexandria, arena a sandy soil with 10% chalk. (p167c1)
  299. Prosecco di Conegliano-Valdobbiadene is from the Veneto in the North East, not South of Italy. (p134).
  300. Sauvignon Blanc, typically with some oak influence , term coined by Robert Mondavi
  301. Boost sugar levels (p58 c1). Vino dulce is made from raisined Palomino or PX grapes that have been picked and dried in the sun.
  302. Sixteen communes within the Côte du Rhône AOC, such as Rasteau, Cairanne, and Seguret, comprise the Côte du Rhône-Villages appellation and are allowed to append their names to "Côte du Rhône-." The appellation has somewhat higher production standards than does the Côte du Rhône AOC and produces 99% red wine (pg108c2-109c1).
  303. Tannat, In the extreme Southwest France, along the Basque border, (p111c2). (Wikipedia) Tannat is a red wine grape, historically grown in South West France in the Madiran AOC and is now one of the most prominent grapes in Uruguay, where it is considered the "national grape." Second red grape is Cabernet Franc.
  304. 1) Anbaugebiet
    2) Bereich
    3) Grosslage
    4) Einzellage (p120)
  305. Mendocino County (p182)
  306. Tilt the glass over a white surface with natural lighting, view the edge of the wine for color and hue on the rim. Intense color is high extract and flavor; compare with other wines. (p198)
  307. Sercial, Verdelho, Bual, Malmsey are the four noble grapes of Madeira.
    Tinta Negra Mole is the most widely planted grape in Madeira. Madeira is unique because it is not only fortified, but oxidized and "cooked," technically referred to as "estufagem" (p156)
  308. Shiraz
  309. 2 North Island Regions: Gisborne (p148c1), Hawke's Bay (p148c2),

    1 South Island Regions: Marlborough (p149c1)
  310. Dark colors in red wines are clues that indicate intense fruit aromas and high tannin levels. Overall quality in red wines is correlated with total color and pigment content.
    -- Inky purple => young
    -- Brick red => mature
    -- Ruby/orange => high-acid
    -- Black/blue => low-acid (p202c2)
  311. Côte Chalonnaise (p94)
  312. Minimal pigment contamination or bitterness (p50).
  313. VDQS, Vin délimité de qualité supérieure, aka, delimited wine of superior quality, Discontinued in 2011. ( p87)
  314. 1) North Coast
    2) Sierra Foothills
    3) San Francisco Bay
    4) Central Coast
    5) South Coast (p178)
  315. Northland typically experiences the country's warmest ripening conditions (p145c2).
  316. The 77K acres of vineyards in Champagne are grouped into the districts of 1) Vallée de la Marne, 2) Montagne de Reims, and 3) Cotes de Blanc (p103).
  317. Much of what was thought to be Merlot is actually Carmenère. (p84c1)
  318. White used in Cava production, (p166c2)
  319. A dark, sweet desert wine (p123c1). One of three grapes responsible for 97% of sweet wines in Greece (p124c2).
  320. The term Deutscher preceding Tafelwein or Landwein indicates that all the grapes came from within Germany. If the wine label does not say "Deutscher," the wine is probably not German-grown, but rather an imported wine blended with German wine and bottled in Germany (p114c2).
  321. QbA wines may be chaptalized (p115c1/119).
  322. Rosé
  323. Bordeaux's St Émillion family of appellations. the wines of St Émillion were classified for the first time in 1954, and since been updated three times. There are officially two levels: Grand Cru Classé "great classified growths" and the higher ranked Premier Grand Cru classé "first great classified growths". Château Cheval Blanc and Château Ausone are considered to be the very best Premier Grand Cru Classé and are elevated to "category A". All others are "category B" (p93).
  324. Temperate, maritime climate (p143c1)
  325. Blend of Noble Grapes: Any Combination of Riesling, Gewurztraminer, Muscat, Pinot Gris, Zwicker: Non- Noble Blend Grapes: Pinot Blanc, Auxerrois, Sylvaner and Chasselas aka Fendant
  326. Degrees Oechsle. Oechsle is the difference between the specific gravity of grape must and that of water [1.00]; must with a specific gravity of 1.068 has a must weight of 68° Oechsle (p114).
  327. The principal pigments occurring in red wine. (p194c2) These are also found in flowers like petunias and delphinias.
  328. Resveratrol and Quercetin (p207c2).
  329. When feeding on vine roots, phylloxera injects saliva that causes the development of galls. Feeding wounds also allow bacteria and fungi to invade the vine and rot the root.
  330. Niederösterreich Lower Austria ,
    Wine Regions:
    Carnintum, Kamptal, Kremstal, Thermenregion, Traisental, Wachau, Wagram, Weinveiertel (p79-80).
  331. average 1%, range 0.5-2.5% (p192c1)
  332. Malvasia or Malmsey wine was named after the Greek port town on Monemvasia (p121c1).
  333. Tinta Negra Mole, a native vinifera not considered to be the grape of choice for high-quality, long-lived Madeira (p62c2).
  334. Farm or estate
  335. To avoid over-ripening, better vineyards often face north, contrary to most classic wine areas in the Northern Hemisphere, where vines need to hug the sun-drenched south-facing slopes (p122, c2).
  336. DOCG (p127c2)
  337. Australia is the flattest, driest continent in the world, with the oldest, most depleted soils on Earth. Some say the soil itself is a fossil. It is leached, acidic, and saline with a high Potassium, K, content. In the entire world, only South Africa has a slightly similar soil profile (p70c1).
  338. Sauvignon Blanc
  339. Red, from Aegean Islands, (p124c2).
  340. White, from Patras, is a pink-skinned Greek wine grape traditionally grown in the Peloponnese region of Greece.(p124c2).
  341. Sweet wine, usually fortified with alcohol
  342. 1) Concrete vats with submerged coils.
    2) Heated warehouses aka estufagen.
    3) Uncooled warehouses, (p62-63)
  343. St Laurent = Red (78-79)
  344. 1954: 2 levels
  345. Romanée-Conti, Musigny, and Clos de Tart.
    Burgundy, p96) Its 25 Grand Cru vineyards are all red, except Musigny, which produces both red and white wine. ...
  346. Sparkling wine, dry or sweet. Old term in Italy.
  347. Dry, sparkling wine.
  348. ...doesn't say, but the Columbia Valley AVA is one of the largest in the country, covering 1/3 of the state. (p186)
  349. 1. Macro-Climate: Wine Growing Region
    2. Meso-Climate: Vineyard
    3. Micro-Climate: Area Surrounding the Canopy of the Vine
  350. Riverland = 25% of Australia's total wine production (p76c2).
  351. denomination of controlled and guaranteed origin
  352. (Alt answer?)
    Baixo Corgo - no steep slopes, fertile soils, 47 inches of rain
    Cima Corgo - quality heartland, steep slopes/rocky, 28 inches of rain
    Douro Superior - Gentle slopes, 15 inches of rain (p152)
  353. Semisweet
  354. Rioja and Priorat (Ribera del Duero was slated to be added in 2008) (p164c1)
  355. New South Wales (p72c2).
  356. High Acid, Moderate Sugar (p50)
  357. The solera can refer to:
    (1) a set of casks often arranged in scales,
    (2) a dynamic aging and fractional blending system
    (3) the butts that contain the oldest wine in the system... name comes from Latin solum, floor/soil b/c these butts are closest to the ground. (p57 c2)
  358. Grape sugar, a carbohydrate
  359. Weinviertel (p80 c2) district, in Niederösterreich region.
  360. True. Progressing south and east from the northern portion of the Central Valley, rainfall increases and temperatures decrease (p83).
  361. Setúbal, Portugal. (p155)
  362. False. Of the two Queensland GIs,
    Granite Belt is composed of decomposing granite soils
    South Burnett is composed of terra rossa soils (p76c2).
  363. Winery or wine cellar
  364. Cool temperatures, moderately humid, constant temperature, no vibrations, no light, bottles stored on the side or at an angle to keep the cork moist and labels facing up to avoid scuffing, (p213.)
  365. Bardolina produces wines from Corvina, Veronese/Corvinone and Rondinella (p134, 133).
  366. Sicily. The island of Sicily (63c2).
  367. 1. Methode Champenoise
    2. Metonde Tradionnelle
    3. Classic Method
    4. Metodo Classico
    5. Cap Classique
    6. Cava
    7. Traditional Method
    8. Cremant
  368. Gisborne (p148c1); 1/2 vineyard production is Chardonnay.
  369. Morillon = White , aka Chardonnay (78-79)
  370. False. Moderate tannins, not related to Zinfandel.
  371. True (p70c1).
  372. Aldehydes (p195c2)

    Also? - Acetic acid results from oxidation of ethyl alcohol. It smells like vinegar. (p193c1)
  373. White, most widely planted varietal in world, mainly bulk wine, known in Castilla-La Mancha (p167c2)
  374. Mostly 100% Chenin Blanc // Savennières , famous dry Chenin Blanc
  375. Grape must served in Südsteiermark, Austria during harvest
  376. Under Chilean wine law updated in 1996, the "rule of 75 percent" established the minimum proportions for:
    * Varietal
    * Estate bottling
    * Vintage
    * Place of origin
    Many wineries still use 85% to be compliant for EU exports. (p84c2)
  377. The alcohol content (p198c1)
  378. Pinot Noir (p31)
  379. Spain's traditional-method sparkling wine, produced mainly in the Penedés region in Northeastern Spain. (p166c1)
  380. An Austrian wine made by co-fermenting the must of late harvest, non-botrysized grapes with a must that has been affected by botrytis from the same vineyard (p82).
  381. 1) Shoot length is between 3-4 feet long, before it stops naturally on its own without hedging.
    2) Shoot density is sparse enough that most, if not all, of the leaves are in the sun for a good % of the day.
    3) Shoot girth is smaller than the width of your little finger.
    4) There are few, if any laterals, on the shoots.
    5) Berry size is small for that variety because the shoot length stopped on its own, (p12).
  382. An Austrian wine made by fermenting the must of late harvest, non-botrysized grapes with a must that has been affected by botrytis.
  383. Late Bottled Vintage. Vintage Port ages in large vats for 2 years. LBV matures in large vats for 4-6 years (p61c2).
  384. Wine cooperative; wineries owned by a group of members
  385. Rivesaltes, Languedoc-Roussillon, produces nearly half of the vins doux naturales of France (p110c2).
  386. False. Tawnies are aged in small barrels. Rubies are aged in large vats. (p60c2)
  387. Terms that can be applied to any class or type of grape wine, e.g, Red, White, Chablis, Burgundy, Port, Champagne, Chianti, and Madeira (p172c2)
  388. Southwest, around Cape Town (p157c2)
  389. Chenin Blanc
  390. Hills
  391. Ahr. The Ahr is one of Germany's most northerly and smallest wine regions. Despite the fact that it sits at 50° 30' north latitude, it is best known for its red wines. Spätburgunder aka Pinot Noir and Portugieser both produce light, fruity wines here. (p116c2).
  392. Schilcher - A tart herbal rosé made from the Blauer Wildbacher grape in Weststeiermark, Austria.
  393. Vinho Verde (p150-151)
  394. High growth wines, a declassified QmP Kabinett or a "super QbA", chaptalization is permitted for these wines (p119).
  395. Süss = sweet (GWA Glossary)
    Trocken, Classic, and Selection = Dry
    Halbtrocken and Feinherb = Off Dry (p116c1)
  396. Esters (p196)
  397. Mechanized Riddling
  398. Central Otago, South Island of New Zealand. (p149c2)
  399. Syrah, High Tannin, (p34)
    Cabernet Franc & Merlot, Moderate Tannin,
    Gamay , Low Tannin
  400. In German, this means "this year's" and refers both to new wine and the vintner-owned inns/taverns/wine bars that serve food and proprietary wines in Vienna (p81).
  401. Sauternes, Barsac, and Cérons (p90)
  402. South Eastern Australia is the only current appellation that covers an area larger than a single state. It combines New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, The Australian Capital Territory, and parts of Queensland and South Australia (p71c2).
  403. The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau aka TTB, p172c1.
  404. Cross of Cabernet Franc x Sauvignon Blanc.
  405. Paso Robles, inland and Northern half of San Luis Obispo County protected from the Ocean by Mountains and too far upriver to be reached by fog. (p183c1)
  406. 2.9 - 3.8, for grape juice and wine.
    Higher acid = lower pH. Higher acid wines are longer lived. (p193c1)
  407. Red
    1. St Estephe
    2. Pauillac
    3. St Julien
    4. Listrac
    5. Moulis
    6. Margaux
  409. 1. Extra Brut
    2. Brut
    3. Extra Dry
    4. Sec
    5. Demi-Sec
    6. Doux
  410. Most wineries are situated within 20 miles of the east coast. (p143 c2).
  411. Santa Barbara County (p183; map cross reference)
  412. Grüner Veltliner = White (78-79)
  413. Brunello is a local name for a Sangiovese clone that picks up a brown (brun) sheen on its skin when ripe. (p136c1)
  414. Barrels (p166c1)
  415. Tartaric acid precipitates out of solution as tartrate crystals when wine is chilled. To prevent what looks like 'glass shards' in the bottle, wines are chilled to 25-degrees to 27-degrees for 2-4 weeks in the cask.
  416. The Benguela current and winds from cold oceans, Atlantic and Indian.
  417. 1. Sancerre
    2. Pouilly-Fume
    3. Quincy
    4. Reuilly
    5. Menetou-Salon
  418. Raise sugar levels of the must for fermentation (p46)
  419. A specialty wine of Südburgenland made from a nearly extinct Vitis lambrusca variety.
  420. 1. Cote Rotie
    2. Condrieu --only W Viognier
    3. Chateau Grillet --only W Viognier
    4. St Joseph
    5. Hermitage
    6. Crozes-Hermitage
    7. Cornas --only R Syrah
    8. St Peray -- only W Marsanne, Roussane
    Northern Rhône reds are often identified by their signature aromas of green olive and smoky bacon.
  421. Macabeo
    Pinot Noir
  422. Center or "classic" growing area of a specific zone
  423. Gavi in Piedmont (p130c1).
  424. No growing or wine-making restrictions (p175c1). If an AVA appears on the label as the place of origin, 85% of the wine in the bottle must have been grown in that area (p175c2).
  425. Médoc and Haut-Médoc, (p90 c2)
  426. Anthocyanins will change form according to pH. Brighter red hue at low pH, high acid; blue/purple hue at a high pH. low acid; less stable, (p194c2). These are only found in red wine, not white, they have Flavones.
  427. Cannonau is another name for Grenache in Sardinia (p140c2).
  428. Group of producers of a specific wine
  429. 50-95 degrees Fahrenheit. Extremes. Optimally, 70-85-degrees F. (p10.)
  430. To increase the wine's surface area so that the concentration of volatile molecules in the air above the wine will be higher, thus increasing the taster's ability to detect aromas and flavors (204c2).
  431. Quinta means "Single Estate" (p60c2).
  432. Blauer Zweigelt = Red (78-79)
  433. 1) QmP Kabinett. Cabinet)
    2) QmP Spätlese, Late-harvest
    3) QmP Auslese, Select bunches
    4) QmP Beerenauslese, Select berries
    5) QmP Trockenbeerenauslese, Dried select berries
    6) QmP Eisewein, Ice wine (p119)
  434. Table wine
  435. Trentino - Alto Adige
  436. Salty (p205c1)
  437. The smaller the bead, bubble, the higher the pedigree, (p198c1).
  438. Producer
  439. A wine district in Niederösterreich known for its Riesling and Grüner Veltliner. The area has it's own wine classification system.
  440. The 18th Amendment to the constitution to prohibit the sale and consumption of alcohol, passed in 1919 and enacted in 1920 til 1933. (p170c2)
  441. 1. Rully
    2. Bouzeron
    3. Mercurey
    4. Givry
    5. Montagny
  442. Lactic, succinic, and acetic acids. (p192c2)
  443. 12.2% , 55% Brix,( p43)
  444. Castle
  445. Pale red, rosé.
    1. Chablis
    2. Cote de Nuits
    3. Cotes de Beaune
    4. Cotes de Chalonnaise
    5. Maconnaise
    6. Beaujolais
  447. Eastern Crete (p121c1).
  448. Vineyard