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446 Matching questions

  1. Grand Crus of Chablis North to South.
    100% Chardonnay grapes, aka Beaunois
  2. What is Portugal's largest DOC?
  3. Which is harvested 1st? Vendage Tardive VT & Selection de Grains Nobles SGN.
  4. For what two fortified wines is Portugal famous?
  5. What are the two primary categories of Port?
  6. Define Hochgewächs.
  7. Name the three types of alcohol found in wine.
  8. What are the typical pH values for wine?
  9. Red or White: Roditis?
  10. What is the primary U.S. government agency with responsibility over the wine trade?
  11. What are the three most common grapes incorporated into VDN, vin doux naturel?
  12. List three examples of VDN, vin doux naturel.
  13. What is the most widely planted white grape in Argentina?
  14. Name five crus of Beaujolais.
  15. Which of Italy's regions is known for wines made from Spanna, Barbera, Arneis, and Brachetto?
  16. What unit of measurement do Germans employ to measure sugar levels at harvest?
  17. Wine has been found to increase high density lipoproteins HDL in the blood, which protect against the development of atherosclerosis and promote the production of cellular Nitric oxide, a compound which regulates blood vessel tone and blood pressure?
  18. Chateauneuf-de-Pape
  19. What are the four noble grapes used for top-quality Madeira production?
  20. What is the purpose of chaptalization?
  21. What is the primary grape variety used to make the "black wines" of Cahors?
  22. What are the 3 primary acids found in grapes?
  23. Red or White? Portugieser
  24. What is the Cadastro? Name four of its criteria.
  25. When making sparkling wine in the traditional method, what is the order of the following events?

    Assemblage, Base Wine Fermentation, Disgorging, Liquor de Triage, Liqueur d' Expedition, Pressing, Remuage/Riddling, Second Fermentation
  26. Name the top three wine-producing states?
  27. Cremant
  28. What single region in South Australia is responsible for a quarter of the total national grape production?
  29. Villages of Cote d'Nuits
  30. Name the three grapes used in Sherry production. What soil types does each prefer? What purpose does each grape serve in the production process?
  31. Secco
  32. What is a LBV? How does it differ from a vintage Port?
  33. Name five typical aromas of Cabernet Sauvignon.
  34. What are the three sub-regions of Rioja?
  35. Which northernly German wine region is best known for its red wines?
  36. What Italian wine region produces Taurasi?
  37. Red or White? Grüner Veltliner
  38. Red or White: Agiorgitiko?
  39. What is the largest wine region in Argentina?
  40. Red or White: Verdejo
  41. Define Weissherbst.
  42. Which of the following is not a red grape variety?
    Nebbiolo, Sangiovese, Viognier, Zinfandel?
  43. Red or White: Xarel-lo
  44. What is the most widely planted grape variety in Austria?
  45. Spanish wine is divided into two main categories. What are they?
  46. Red or White: Savatiano?
  47. What is the English translation of Debourage?
  48. What is the most widely planted grape on the island of Madeira?
  49. What are the inputs and products of photosynthesis?
  50. Describe the "rule of 75 percent."
  51. Wines of Upper Loire - Vins du Centre
  52. What is the significance of the Heurige culture in Austria?
  53. What is the total water demand of a grape vine?
  54. What state or territory is the original home of grapevine planting Down Under?
  55. What is the northernmost wine region in South Africa?
  56. In what county is the Anderson Valley AVA?
  57. What is Cannonau and where would you fine it?
  58. What style of wine is a crémant?
  59. What is the highest quality level in the Italian wine quality pyramid?
  60. What is a gyropalette?
  61. What is the common New World synonym for Syrah?
  62. Where does Kabinett fall in the Austrian wine quality pyramid?
  63. The vineyards of South Africa are buffeted by the winds of which two oceans?
  64. What is the level of French quality wine that falls just below AOC?
  65. Describe the cause and effect of the Austrian wine scandal of 1985.
  66. Where are most of New Zealand's vineyards located?
  67. Under Australian law, if a single varietal appears on the label, what is the minimum content from that grape variety in the wine?
  68. Vigna or Vigneto
  69. Name a DOCG in Lombardy that makes sparkling wine.
  70. In Chile, much of what is believed to be Merlot actually turned out to be something else. What?
  71. Amabile
  72. What is the grape variety used to make Pouilly-Fumé?
  73. What is Uhudler?
  74. True or False: Most Ports reflect a blend of several grape varieties, vineyard lots, and vintages.
  75. What is heat stabilization?
  76. What is a parral?
  77. Which of the following grape varieties has the highest natural tannin levels?

    Cabernet Franc, Gamay, Merlot, Syrah
  78. Chiaretto
  79. Define the following terms: Süss, Trocken, Halbtrocken, Feinherb, Classic, Selection
  80. In which Argentine wine region were the first vines planted?
  81. What are anthocyanins?
  82. True or False: Barbera is a tannic grape variety related to Zinfandel.
  83. Describe the climate and topography of Porto's three sub regions.
  84. A vineyard in Oakville, CA is in what AVAs?
  85. Burgundy Regions North to South
  86. Red or White? Morillon
  87. Name three GIs within the Limestone Coast.
  88. Cantina
  89. What is Strategy 2025?
  90. Famous Southern France Rose's
  91. Which of New Zealand's wine regions is also its warmest?
  92. Which Austrian wine region has its own classification system? Describe the three tiers.
  93. What is País?
  94. What are three major soil nutrients required by grapevines?
  95. What are some of the differences between sustainable, organic, and biodynamic viticultural practices?
  96. Where are most of the Argentine vineyards located?
  97. Red or White: Xynomavro?
  98. What is the range of residual sugar found in Marsala?
  99. How much wine is contained in a Magnum, Jeroboam and Balthazar?
  100. What is a solera?
  101. Name the Loire Valley wine district downriver from Anjou.
  102. Red or White: Viura
  103. The Loire Valley - Left to Right, West to East
  104. How much residual sugar is typically present in an Amontillado immediately after fortification?
  105. What is the purpose of drawing air through the mouth while tasting a wine?
  106. Villages of Cote Chalonnaise -- (Red Beans Make Great Mondays)
  107. What is the best procedure for judging the color of a wine?
  108. Frizzante
  109. Fattoria
  110. What is the difference between Deutscher Tafelwein and Tafelwein
  111. What is the difference between detection threshold and recognition threshold?
  112. Mount Olympus is located in which wine region?
  113. What is semi-generic wine?
  114. Various names for sparkling wines made in the Tank Method:
  115. Alsace Geography: what surrounds Alsace
  116. Name the three districts within the Champagne appellation.
  117. When setting a place at a dinner table, where should the wineglass or wineglasses be placed?
  118. A wine with an aromatic profile of rose petals, lychee nut, sandalwood, grapefruit, ginger and nutmeg is likely to be...
  119. Name an appellation that produces a vin doux naturel aka VDN.
  120. Where were New Zealand's first vines planted?
  121. Brut
  122. What attributes does a balanced vine possess?
  123. DOCG
  124. What is the maximum concentration of sulfites a wine can have without requiring a sulfite statement on the label in the United States?
  125. What is New Zealand's largest and most acclaimed wine-growing region?
  126. Describe a "maderized" odor.
  127. Colli
  128. Place the following in order from largest to smallest:
    Anbaugebiet, Bereich, Einzellage, Grosslage.
  129. What is the temperature range during which photosynthesis can occur?
  130. White or Red? Blauer Zweigelt
  131. What is Vin doux natural aka VDN?
  132. Medoc Wine Regions North to South
  133. True or False: Fully three-quarters of the vines planted in the Mittelrhein are Riesling.
  134. True or False: Ninety percent of Greece's dry wine production is produced from just six grapes.
  135. In the United States, for a wine labeled with an AVA as its place of origin, what is the maximum amount of an older vintage that can be blended with the current year's wine and still list a vintage date on the label?
  136. What is C6H12O6?
  137. What two German wine regions were formerly located in East Germany?
  138. What is the difference between IGT wine and a vino da tavola?
  139. Describe the Portuguese wine quality pyramid.
  140. Describe the nature of Australian soils.
  141. Villages of Cote de Beaune
  142. Where would a wine labeled "Premier Grand Cru Classé" come from?
  143. What is the primary grape variety of Bourgueil and Chinon?
  144. What is meant by "hens and chicks" when referencing a grape cluster?
  145. Sturm
  146. What are New Zealand's three most widely planted grape varieties?
  147. Classico
  148. What two GIs within South Australia are famed for their Riesling?
  149. The better vineyards in Greece face which direction? North, South, East, West
  150. Riserva
  151. True or False: Spain possesses the largest amount of grape acreage in the world.
  152. Red or White: Parallada
  153. What is the source of tannins found in wine?
  154. On a varietal labeled U.S. wine, what is the minimum content of that grape variety in the wine? One state has a higher standard: what is the state and what is the standard?
  155. Why are most German vineyards located near rivers or lakes?
  156. What two grape varieties cross-pollinated to give us Cabernet Sauvignon?
  157. Non-Vintage Champagne
  158. Consorzio
  159. Which of the following is not from the South of Italy?
    -Aglianico del Vulture Cirò
    -Prosecco di Conegliano-Valdobbiadene
    -Salice Salentino
  160. What does a Bordeaux wine broker do?
  161. True or False: Most of the wine produced in Bairrada is red.
  162. What district of Burgundy lies between the Côte d'Or and the Mâconnais?
  163. How much pressure is inside a typical bottle of sparkling wine?
  164. What grape variety produces the sweet wines of Quarts-du-Chaume?
  165. How does the production of Malaga and Montilla-Moriles mirror the production methods of other fortified wine products?
  166. Red or White: Asyrtiko?
  167. Wines and Sub-Regions of Touraine
  168. Why was Greek wine originally resinated?
  169. True or False: Eiswein is always influenced by boytrytis.
  170. What is fining?
  171. Argentina has made a name for itself with which red Bordeaux grape variety?
  172. What is the zonda?
  173. Know the Cru Beaujolais
  174. Major Regions of Southern Rhone
  175. What is the largest-volume wine region in South Africa?
  176. Name two sweet wine appellations in Bordeaux.
  177. Which of the following grape varieties has the highest natural acidity?
    Gewurztraminer, Pinot Grigio, Sauvignon Blanc, Viognier?
  178. What is an estufa?
  179. Red or White? Zierfandler
  180. DOC
  181. What is TCA?
  182. What AVA has the warmest climate within the Central Coast AVA?
  183. Name the five large regional AVAs in California.
  184. What three white grapes may be incorporated into the production of Sauternes?
  185. Cerasuolo
  186. How does maceration affect a finished wine's flavor and texture?
  187. Steps for Method Champenoise, Creating the Sparkle
  188. Various names for sparkling wines made in the classic Champagne Method:
  189. Wines of Nantes
  190. Name two ultra-cool wine regions on the Australian mainland.
  191. Place the following in order from driest to sweetest:

    Brut, Demi-Sec, Doux, Extra-Brut, Extra Dry, Sec
  192. Date of Left Bank Classification
  193. What are the typical alcohol and residual sugar levels in Port immediately following fortification?
  194. Schilcher
  195. Red or White? Rotgipfler
  196. What is cava?
  197. Where are most of the vineyards of South Africa located?
  198. Which wine region calls itself New Zealand's "Chardonnay Capital." Why?
  199. With regards to red Rioja, what are the aging requirements of a crianza, reserva, and gran reserva?
  200. Why is vinho verde "green wine" called vinho verde?
  201. True or False: It is illegal to add Süssreserve to Prädikat wines in Austria.
  202. What proportion of Greece's total wine production is produced on its many islands?
  203. Which white grape variety is likely to be given the following cellar treatments: barrel fermentation, malolactic fermentation, and sur lie aging with batonnage?
  204. What does Gustabfüllung indicate on a German wine label? What does Erzeugerafüllung indicate?
  205. What is another name for the J-shaped mortality curve that describes the affects of alcohol consumption?
  206. What is the significance of Lake Neusiedl?
  207. When making white wine, what is the most typical order of the following events?

    Aging, Bottling, Clarification, Crushing, Fermentation, Pressing, Racking.
  208. IGT
  209. A wine with an aromatic profile of wheat berries, straw flower, toasted brioche, clotted cream, pear, and hazelnut is likely to be...?
  210. What is Ausbruch?
  211. Name four AVAs in Sonoma County.
  212. Major Regions of Northern Rhone: North to South
  213. Niederösterreich
  214. Name the four noble grapes of Madeira. Name the grape most widely planted there.
  215. How does "vin santo" differ from vermouth?
  216. True or False: Australia has no indigenous grapevines.
  217. Bottiglia
  218. What red grape variety is well known for its propensity to mutate?
  219. Wachau
  220. What is the difference between Montepulciano d' Abruzzo and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano?
  221. What is Chablis known for?
  222. What seven items are required on the label of all U.S. wines?
  223. What factors contributed to a strong wine culture in Argentina?
  224. What renowned Umbrian wine is made from Trebbiano and Malvasia?
  225. Vino da tavola
  226. What is the meaning of quinta?
  227. What are the Mosel, the Saar, and the Ruwar?
  228. Where is the Finger Lakes AVA?
  229. Rosso
  230. If origin is listed on the bottle of South African wine, what percentage of that bottling must come from the place listed?
  231. What is Tempranillo called in Portugal's Douro Valley?
  232. What is the Cape Doctor?
  233. German Sparkling
  234. Ibottigliata
  235. What are the two definitions of Cuvee?
  236. Vendemmia
  237. What is the name for a Champagne house's top-of-the-line wine?
  238. Define the Chilean borders and describe their significance.
  239. What might happen in the bottle if a wine is not cold stabilized?
  240. How does Spanish wine law differ from French wine law?
  241. What are the two most widely planted grapes in Germany?
  242. What is the primary production step that is avoided in the transfer method?
  243. What type of climate do most of the vineyards of New Zealand have?
  244. In Sparkling wine, the bubbles are comprised of what gas?
  245. Rosato
  246. Date of Right Bank Classification
  247. Southwestern France Areas to Know: Cahors.Black Wines **VERY IMPORTANT
  248. Annata
  249. What is Sturm?
  250. Why is SO2 Sodium Dioxide added to grape must?
  251. Red or White: Mazuelo
  252. What is the Italian wine region produces Lambrusco?
  253. Why are the grapes used for sparkling wine production normally Pressed rather than Crushed?
  254. Fermentazione
  255. Southwestern France Areas to Know: Bergerac
  256. What is an appropriate serving temperature for a full-bodied red wine?
  257. True or False: Colares is a fortified wine region in Estremadura.
  258. Red or White: Garnacha
  259. Name the two counties in the Sierra Foothills AVA.
  260. Castello
  261. Name the southernmost AVA in Oregon.
  262. What does the size of the bubbles in a sparkling wine indicate?
  263. Red or White: Cencibel.
  264. What is 'vendange tardive' VT wine?
  265. How does phylloxera damage a vine?
  266. Who is the father of biodynamic viticultural practices
  267. What is a colheita Port?
  268. Liqoroso
  269. Morillon
  270. What is the most famous wine of Tuscany?
  271. Which of the following wine regions is not located along the coast of Western Australia?
    Geographe, Margaret River, Blackwood Valley, Manjimup, Pemberton, Great Southern.
  272. In what county is the Santa Ynez Valley AVA?
  273. True or False: Rainfall increases and temperatures decrease as you progress south down Chile's Central Valley.
  274. What is the most widely planted red grape in California?
  275. What is the minimum percentage of a wine that must originate in a geographic indication GI to cite that GI as the place of origin on an Australian label?
  276. What is the most widely planted red grape in Washington?
  277. Describe the characteristics of an ideal wine storage area.
  278. DO
  279. How many grape varieties can be incorporated into the production of Port? How many are recommended by the Casa do Douro? Name them.
  280. Brunello is a clone of what grape variety?
  281. What is Mavrodaphne?
  282. Give three synonyms for Tempranillo.
  283. What is the alcoholic content of Fino Sherry after fortification?
  284. Right Bank Regions North to South
  285. What wine growing district lies at the southern end of Chile's Central Valley?
  286. Which grape variety is believed to be the ancestor from which all other wine grapes descended?
  287. In what way does pH affect the color of a red wine?
  288. Southwestern France Areas to Know: Madiran
  289. What is the traditional order of service for a waiter pouring wine at a dinner table?
  290. Red or White: Graciano
  291. What soil pest spreads fan leaf virus?
  292. Passito
  293. Name the three common methods of Madeira production today.
  294. Uhudler
  295. What is an appropriate serving temperature for a white wine for tasting?
  296. What is the original home of the vine in South Africa?
  297. In Sherry production, what is the typical order of the following events?
    Aging in barrel, blending, classification, fermentation, fortification, pressing
  298. What wine region is known for its fortified Muscats?
  299. True or False: Australia's Granite Belt region possesses terra rossa soils.
  300. What is the KWV? Detail its role in South Africa's wine industry.
  301. Name the three primary grape varieties of Burgundy.
  302. Southwestern France Areas to Know: Montbazillac
  303. What is the grape variety used to make Barbaresco?
  304. What is the Italian name for Pinot Noir?
  305. Amaro
  306. Which of the following are not phenolic compounds?
  307. What is flor?
  308. For sparkling wine production, what are the desired levels high, medium, or low of acidity and sugar at harvest?
  309. Name three wine regions (districts?) within Niederösterreich.
  310. Approximately how many indigenous grape varieties are to be found in Greece?
  311. Wines of Anjou
  312. What does the term "supérieur" usually indicate on a French wine label?
  313. What grape varieties are allowed in a wine from Côte Rôtie?
  314. Azienda agricola
  315. Place the following in order of increasing sweetness: Sauternes, Sancerre, Vouvray.
  316. Classifications of Champagne - Driest to Sweetest
  317. Uva
  318. Grapes of Cava
  319. Where is Marsala produced?
  320. Grapes of Vins du Centre
  321. How long has South Africa been growing grapes and making wine?
  322. Red or White: Albariño
  323. What are the tiers within the Greek wine quality pyramid?
  324. List all six categories of QmP wines in order of increasing sugar levels at harvest.
  325. Where will acidity most likely be detected?
  326. What are the four levels of the French wine quality pyramid?
  327. What is the purpose of swirling a wine in the glass while tasting?
  328. What influences Chile's weather patterns?
  329. What is the difference between Côte du Rhône and Côte du Rhône Villages?
  330. Which of the primary acids in wine is not present in any appreciable amount in grapes?
  331. What is the name of the famous fortified wine of Sicily?
  332. What might the red color of a wine indicate?
  333. Which German wine region is comprised of one long hillside that flanks the Rhine River as it takes a sharp westerly bend?
  334. How many levels of red crus were defined in the 1855 Bordeaux Classification?
  335. Recioto
  336. A fourth of Chile's Chardonnay comes from one wine region. Which one?
  337. Cantine sociale or cantine cooperativa
  338. What is Vila Nova de Gaia?
  339. Name Spain's two DOCa.
  340. How is Amarone della Valpolicella made?
  341. For a wine that lists AVA as its place of origin, what is the minimum content that must be from that AVA?
  342. Abboccato
  343. Ausbruch
  344. What is Germany's largest wine-growing region according to acreage planted? According to production numbers? According to physical size?
  345. What is the allowable variation from the stated alcohol content on a U.S. wine label?
  346. What are Steen, Pinotage, and Hanepoot?
  347. True or False: All Port spends time aging in cask.
  348. What cool-climate AVA stretches across southern Napa and Sonoma counties?
  349. Barricas
  350. Red or White? Blauer Wildbacher
  351. Villages of Maconnaise
  352. What is Edelzwicker?
  353. Name the three principal towns within the Sherry district.
  354. What AVA produces the largest amount of grapes in Washington?
  355. What Prädikat levels are always sweet?
  356. What would be the approximate alcoholic content of a dry wine made from grapes harvested at 22-degrees Brix?
  357. What is the section of the Bordeaux region that lies on the left bank of the Gironde north of the city of Bordeaux called?
  358. Which portions of Portugal enjoy a Mediterranean climate? Maritime climate?
  359. Invecchiato
  360. Name the two primary white grape varieties of the Bordeaux region.
  361. In what way does pH affect the color of a white wine?
  362. Which of the four tastes is not found in wine?
  363. What is the smallest amount of residual sugar that most people can recognize in a wine?
  364. What is the difference between a species, a clone, and a variety of grape?
  365. Which German wines are bottled traditionally in bocksbeutels?
  366. What is unique among the Australian geographic indications GI about South Eastern Australia?
  367. What might the brick red color of a wine indicate?
  368. What are the principal products of fermentation?
  369. True or False: Grenache aka Garnacha is a high-acid red.
  370. Under what circumstances should a wine be decanted?
  371. What is the largest fine wine region in Chile?
  372. Vermentino di Gallura comes from which of Italy's 20 regions?
  373. Sizes of Champange needed for Test - Smallest to Largest
  374. Important Appleations in France making Cremant
  375. What chemical compounds are formed by the oxidation of alcohols in wines such as sherry?
  376. Name two compounds found in wine that are powerful antioxidants.
  377. What and when was Prohibition?
  378. What region produces Frascati?
  379. What is cold stabilization?
  380. Name three wine growing areas with Chile's Central Valley.
  381. What are the two general categories into which Sherry can be classified after fermentation?
  382. What is a common synonym for Pinot Grigio?
  383. What are the three types of Marsala?
  384. If a single county is named as a wine's place of origin, what is the minimum content from that county?
  385. What is the typical range of temperatures for red wine fermentation?
  386. What percentage of South Africa's wine production is produced by cooperatives?
  387. What are the 5 grapes allowed in Alsace Grand Cru
  388. What is Edelfäule?
  389. Where are Minervois, Costières de Nîmes, and Banyuls located?
  390. What quantity of sulfites is naturally produced during fermentation?
  391. What are the two main six-carbon sugars that can be fermented into alcohol by yeast?
  392. What restrictions are placed on a U.S. wine by the TTB in order to use the term reserve on the label?
  393. What other appellation produces wine from the same grapes as Valpolicella?
  394. Name four grand crus in the Côte de Nuits.
  395. How far is New Zealand from Australia?
  396. Place the following appellations in the most likely order of increasing quality and price: Côte de Beaune, Puligny-Montrachet Premier Cru "La Joquelotte," Puligny-Montrachet, Chevalier-Montrachet, Bourgogne.
  397. Casa vinicola
  398. Red or White: Airén.
  399. In South Africa, the climate is cooler than the latitude might suggest. Why?
  400. What are the grape varieties allowed for a grand cru in Alsace?
  401. Bianco
  402. Garganega is the primary grape in what wine?
  403. What is the difference between a QbA and a QmP?
  404. Vino dulce serves what purpose?
  405. Is the Argentine climate Mediterranean, continental, or maritime?
  406. What is the southernmost wine-growing region in the world?
  407. What restrictions are imposed on grape growing and wine-making to qualify for naming an AVA as a wine's place of origin?
  408. Name three subregions of Chianti.
  409. What grape variety/wine was named after the Greek port Monemvasia?
  410. Vecchio
  411. Major districts of Champagne
  412. Where are Europe's oldest vineyards located?
  413. What is the name of the sparkling wine method in which the second fermentation is accomplished in a tank rather than a bottle?
  414. What is the soil composition of the Douro Valley?
  415. What are the differences between a macroclimate, a mesoclimate, and a microclimate?
  416. What do legs or tears on the inside of the glass after swirling a wine indicate?
  417. Defines different climates: Macro, Meso and Micro
  418. What is the primary volatile acid found in wine?
  419. Spumante
  420. What is Schilcher?
  421. Enoteca
  422. What causes malolactic fermentation, MLF?
  423. Red or White? St. Laurent
  424. What is the correct progression of the following during the grapevine's annual cycle?
    Berry Set, Bud Break, Flowering, Harvest, Shoot and Leaf Growth, Verasion
  425. Red or White: Mandilaria?
  426. What is the name of the Sangiovese clone used to make the rich reds of Montalcino?
  427. What is Spätburgunder?
  428. What phenolic compound gives wine an advantage over other alcoholic beverages such as beer and spirits in contributing to cancer prevention?
  429. Riverina is best known for what two wine products?
  430. What are the two routes by which odors reach the olfactory epithelium?
  431. Superiore
  432. What is the probable source of hydrogen sulfide in a wine?
  433. What is the primary grape variety used to make Madiran wine? Second red grape?
  434. Capitolare
  435. Amarone
  436. What is carbonic maceration?
  437. Produttore
  438. What is Austria's largest wine district?
  439. What is the German name for sparkling wine?
  440. What is a synonym for true Riesling?
  441. Red or White: Macabeo
  442. Fume' Blanc is made from what grape variety?
  443. Metodo Classico or Tradizionale
  444. The Cortese grape is used to make which DOCG wine?
  445. In which of Italy's regions is one most likely to encounter Teroldego, Müller-Thurgau, and Riesling?
  446. Name two wine regions on the North Island and one wine region on the South Island known for Sparkling wine production.
  1. a Australia is the flattest, driest continent in the world, with the oldest, most depleted soils on Earth. Some say the soil itself is a fossil. It is leached, acidic, and saline with a high Potassium, K, content. In the entire world, only South Africa has a slightly similar soil profile (p70c1).
  2. b Ahr. The Ahr is one of Germany's most northerly and smallest wine regions. Despite the fact that it sits at 50° 30' north latitude, it is best known for its red wines. Spätburgunder aka Pinot Noir and Portugieser both produce light, fruity wines here. (p116c2).
  3. c Seller of wine. not producer, responsible for sale of 75% of export wine, primarily though selling futures. (p89)
  4. d Shiraz
  5. e White, most widely planted varietal in world, mainly bulk wine, known in Castilla-La Mancha (p167c2)
  6. f Brunello is a local name for a Sangiovese clone that picks up a brown (brun) sheen on its skin when ripe. (p136c1)
  7. g Lake Neusiedl is Central Europe's only steppe lake.
  8. h When feeding on vine roots, phylloxera injects saliva that causes the development of galls. Feeding wounds also allow bacteria and fungi to invade the vine and rot the root.
  9. i The principal pigments occurring in red wine. (p194c2) These are also found in flowers like petunias and delphinias.
  10. j 1,200 miles east of Australia (p143c1)
  11. k Rheingau (p117).
  12. l average 1%, range 0.5-2.5% (p192c1)
  13. m Napa County AVA, Napa Valley AVA, Oakville AVA
  14. n Sweet wine, usually fortified with alcohol
  15. o Table wine
  16. p Syrah, High Tannin, (p34)
    Cabernet Franc & Merlot, Moderate Tannin,
    Gamay , Low Tannin
  17. q Red, from Nemea, aka, St George. (p124c2.)
  18. r Atlantic and Indian, p157c2
  19. s White, from Patras, is a pink-skinned Greek wine grape traditionally grown in the Peloponnese region of Greece.(p124c2).
  20. t Macabeo
    Pinot Noir
  21. u Acreage planted and production = Rheinhessen (p117)
    Physical size = Baden (p120)
  22. v Bitter
  23. w To the right of the water glass, above the knife on the right side of the place-setting, (p209c2).
  24. x True. 3 million acres under vine with Airen the largest amount. (p163c1)
  25. y DOCG (p127c2)
  26. z Fermentation
  27. aa Muscat
  28. ab 10-30 inches of rain per year (p71c1).
  29. ac Center or "classic" growing area of a specific zone
  30. ad The alcohol content (p198c1)
  31. ae Red, from Aegean Islands, (p124c2).
  32. af Gewurztraminer (p23)
  33. ag Sparkling wine fermented in the bottle, Champagne method
  34. ah False. Moderate tannins, not related to Zinfandel.
  35. ai Wachau.
    1) Steinfeder- light body/dry up to 11% alcohol,
    2) Federspiel - medium body/dry under 12.5%,
    3) Smaragd - full-bodied/dry over 12.5%.
  36. aj Vino Nobile di Montepulciano DOCG should not be confused with Montepulciano d' Abruzzo: Vino Nobile is a blend based on Sangiovese grown on the slopes of the Tuscan town of Montepulon, whereas Montepulciano d' Abruzzo is made in the Abruzzo region from the Montepulciano grape. (p136c1).
  37. ak Sparkling wine, dry or sweet. Old term in Italy.
  38. al 1. Alsace
    2. d'Die
    3. Bourgogne . Burgundy
    4. Loire
    5. Limoux
    6. Bordeaux
  39. am Vineyard
  40. an Full-bodied, sweet wine made from partly dried grapes
  41. ao Much of what was thought to be Merlot is actually Carmenère. (p84c1)
  42. ap Muscadet AC
    grape: Melon de Bourgogne, aka Melon Blanc
  43. aq NORTH TO SOUTH:
    1. St Estephe
    2. Pauillac
    3. St Julien
    4. Listrac
    5. Moulis
    6. Margaux
  44. ar 50-95 degrees Fahrenheit. Extremes. Optimally, 70-85-degrees F. (p10.)
  45. as No growing or wine-making restrictions (p175c1). If an AVA appears on the label as the place of origin, 85% of the wine in the bottle must have been grown in that area (p175c2).
  46. at Pedro Giménez. It is typically used in the production of grape concentrate and is not the Pedro Ximénez of Jerez (p69c1).
  47. au A wine district in Niederösterreich known for its Riesling and Grüner Veltliner. The area has it's own wine classification system.
  48. av Amador, Calaveras, El Dorado, Placer, Nevada, Yuba, Tuolumne, and Mariposa counties (p184c1)
  49. aw Viognier
  50. ax Dark colors in red wines are clues that indicate intense fruit aromas and high tannin levels. Overall quality in red wines is correlated with total color and pigment content.
    -- Inky purple => young
    -- Brick red => mature
    -- Ruby/orange => high-acid
    -- Black/blue => low-acid (p202c2)
  51. ay Red
  52. az Paso Robles, inland and Northern half of San Luis Obispo County protected from the Ocean by Mountains and too far upriver to be reached by fog. (p183c1)
  53. ba White from Rueda in Italy. (p167c1)
  54. bb In German, this means "this year's" and refers both to new wine and the vintner-owned inns/taverns/wine bars that serve food and proprietary wines in Vienna (p81).
  55. bc To avoid over-ripening, better vineyards often face north, contrary to most classic wine areas in the Northern Hemisphere, where vines need to hug the sun-drenched south-facing slopes (p122, c2).
  56. bd Winery or wine cellar
  57. be Soave. Widely grown in the Veneto region of North East Italy, particularly in the provinces of Verona and Vicenza. (p134c1)
  58. bf Oro, Ambra, Rubio (p63c2).
  59. bg There are 10 communes, villages, in the Cru Beaujolais zone. They are marketed with only the name of the village on the label: St Amour, Juliénas, Chénas, Moulin-à-Vent, Fleurie, Chiroubles, Morgon, Régnié, Côte de Brouilly, Brouilly (p98c2).
  60. bh 1. St Amour
    2. Julienas
    3. Chenas
    4. Moulin-a-Vent
    5. Fleurie
    6. Chiroubles
    7. Morgon
    8. Regnie
    9. Brouilly
    10. Cote de Brouilly
  61. bi Prosecco di Conegliano-Valdobbiadene is from the Veneto in the North East, not South of Italy. (p134).
  62. bj Castle
  63. bk 1. Meursault
    2. Beaune
    3. Puligny-Montrachet
    4. Chassagne-Montrachet
    5. Aloxe-Corton
    6. Sauvigny-les-Beaune
    7. Pommard
    8. Volnay
    9. St Aubin
    10. Santenay
    11. Maranges
  64. bl Steam-filled pipes heating a hot room, armazens de calor, for Madeira production (p62c2-p63c1).
  65. bm Vinho Verde (p150-151)
  66. bn Port and Madeira, (p150c1)
  67. bo Riddling (p53)
  68. bp A tart herbal rosé made from the Blauer Wildbacher grape in Weststeiermark, Austria.
  69. bq Red, from The North, is the principal red wine grape of the uplands of Naousa in the regional unit of Imathia. (p124c2.)
  70. br Almost a quarter of Chile's Chardonnay is grown is Casablanca, and there is some growing excitement over the Pinot Noir plantings in the areas as well (p85.)
  71. bs False. Tawnies are aged in small barrels. Rubies are aged in large vats. (p60c2)
  72. bt White
  73. bu Pressing
    Aging in barrel
    Blending (p56-57)
  74. bv 25% (p123 c1)
  75. bw A old red grape in Chili, made into rustic table wine or distilled into brandy.(p83.)
  76. bx 50°-60°, (p197c2.)
  77. by Terms that can be applied to any class or type of grape wine, e.g, Red, White, Chablis, Burgundy, Port, Champagne, Chianti, and Madeira (p172c2)
  78. bz White aka Macabeo outside of Rioja in Spain, (p165) ... the most important white wine grape of Rioja.
  79. ca Sturm - Grape must served in Südsteiermark, Austria during harvest.
  80. cb Niederösterreich is one of four wine growing regions in Austria. It is divided further into eight districts:
    Carnuntum, Donauland, Kamptal, Kremstal, Thermenregion, Traisental, Wachau and the Weinviertel.
  81. cc Minimal pigment contamination or bitterness (p50).
  82. cd 1) Grenache
    2) Muscat a Petits Grains
    3) Muscat of Alexandria (p65c1)
  83. ce Muscat de Frontignan, Muscat de Lunel, Muscat de Mireval, Muscat de St Jean-de-Minervois, Muscat de Rivesaltes, Bayuls, Maury, Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise, Rasteau (p64c2).
  84. cf Uneven berry set; grape berries of different size within a cluster. Developed for the Argentine wine industry by the University of California at Davis, the Mendoza clone of Chardonnay is prone to 'hens and chicks' to offer the advantage of a greater skin-to-juice ratio (p69c1).
  85. cg 1) Brand name
    2) Class or type of wine
    3) The name and address of the bottler or the importer
    4) Alcohol content
    5) A sulfite statement, if required
    6) A health warning
    7) The net contents, volume of the bottle.
    Also, country of origin and "imported by" must appear on foreign wines. (p172c1)
  86. ch Acetic acid (p192c2)
  87. ci Five (p 91-92): First Growths, aka Premiers Crus,
    Second Growths, aka, Deuxièmes Crus,
    Third Growths, aka, Troisièmes Crus,
    Fourth Growths, aka, Quatrièmes Crus
    Fifth Growths, aka, Cinquièmes Crus.
  88. cj An Austrian wine made by co-fermenting the must of late harvest, non-botrysized grapes with a must that has been affected by botrytis from the same vineyard (p82).
  89. ck The Central Valley is, by far, the largest fine wine region in Chile. (p83)
  90. cl In Spain, Aging requirements, both in barrel and in bottle, are set down by law. (p163c2)
  91. cm 1. Macro-Climate: Wine Growing Region
    2. Meso-Climate: Vineyard
    3. Micro-Climate: Area Surrounding the Canopy of the Vine
  92. cn Blauer Wildbacher = Red (78-79)
  93. co Weather patterns are significantly influenced by the Pacific Ocean and its cold Humboldt Current.
  94. cp Red, Rioja
  95. cq Chianti (p135)
  96. cr Sauvignon Blanc
  97. cs False, Carcavelos is a fortified wine region in Estremadura (p155).
  98. ct Chardonnay
  99. cu CO2, Carbon Dioxide
  100. cv Prestige cuvées or cuvée spéciale wines are the showpieces of the Champagne producers--the highest-quality wine produced and, of course, the most expensive. Generally speaking, these are the Champagnes with the longest aging potential (p104c2).
  101. cw 80; 8 recommended by Casa do Douro:
    5 Reds: Touriga Nationale, Touriga Franca, Tinta Barroca, Tinta Roriz aka Tempranillo, and Tinta Cão
    3 Whites: Gouveio, Verdelho, Malvasia Fina, Vinosiho. (p153c2)
  102. cx These are all Burgundy Appellations. (p97)
    1) Bourgogne - Burgundy
    2) Côte de Beaune - 1 of 6 major wine districts
    3) Puligny-Montrachet - a Village
    4) Puligny-Montrachet Premier Cru "La Joquelotte" - A Primier cru, below Grand Cru
    5) Chevalier-Montrachet - a Grand Cru
  103. cy The major quality winegrowing zone is in the northwest section of the country on the lower slopes of the Andes (p67c2).
  104. cz Farm or estate
  105. da Grape varieties in South Africa ...
    Steen = Chenin Blanc
    Pinotage = a 1925 cross of Pinot Noir x Cinsault
    Hanepoot = Muscat d' Alexandria (p159c1)
  106. db Portugieser = Red (78-79)
  107. dc Sardinia (p128c2)
  108. dd Rivesaltes, Languedoc-Roussillon, produces nearly half of the vins doux naturales of France (p110c2).
  109. de Wine cooperative; wineries owned by a group of members
  110. df Dry, sparkling wine.
  111. dg Aged
  112. dh Spain's traditional-method sparkling wine, produced mainly in the Penedés region in Northeastern Spain. (p166c1)
  113. di Central New York (p188c1); responsible for 85% of New York's total wine production. NY is second or third in production to CA, Washington
  114. dj Sauvignon Blanc, typically with some oak influence , term coined by Robert Mondavi
  115. dk 1. Sancerre - Loire classic Sauvignon Blanc and some Pinot Noir; likely fermented dry (p102c2).
    2. Vouvray - Loire Valley, Touraine, white Chenin Blanc wines ranging in style from dry to sweet (p102c1)
    3. Sauternes - famous Left Bank Bordeaux, Graves, sweet white wines from Semillon and Sauvignon Blanc. (p90c2)
  116. dl Wines made by grape growers are designated:
    Gustabfüllung = Estate bottled grape-grower produced.
    Erzeugerafüllung = Producer bottled, includes cooperative. (p114c1)
  117. dm White, used in Cava production, (p166c2)
  118. dn Red (p165), Rioja
  119. do 85% (p175c2)
  120. dp Hills
  121. dq Blackwood Valley. All of these regions, except Blackwood Valley which is located inland, experience sea breezes from the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, or both. Salinity from the oceans is an issue (p73c2-74c1).
  122. dr Bacteria. It converts malic acid into lactic acid. (p46)
  123. ds To increase the wine's surface area so that the concentration of volatile molecules in the air above the wine will be higher, thus increasing the taster's ability to detect aromas and flavors (204c2).
  124. dt Olifants River Region (p160c2)
  125. du High growth wines, a declassified QmP Kabinett or a "super QbA", chaptalization is permitted for these wines (p119).
  126. dv Niederösterreich Lower Austria ,
    Wine Regions:
    Carnintum, Kamptal, Kremstal, Thermenregion, Traisental, Wachau, Wagram, Weinveiertel (p79-80).
  127. dw In-mouth evaluation. (p199c1) On the mid-palate?
  128. dx Chenin Blanc
  129. dy typical geographic origin indication
  130. dz Directly through the nostrils and indirectly through the mouth and rear nasal passages as wine is tasted, (p204c1).
  131. ea Uhudler - A specialty wine of Südburgenland made from a nearly extinct Vitis lambrusca variety.
  132. eb La Rioja (p68).
  133. ec Sauvignon Blanc (26K acres), Pinot Noir (11K acres), and Chardonnay (10K acres) (p144c1).
  134. ed The term Deutscher preceding Tafelwein or Landwein indicates that all the grapes came from within Germany. If the wine label does not say "Deutscher," the wine is probably not German-grown, but rather an imported wine blended with German wine and bottled in Germany (p114c2).
  135. ee Quinta means "Single Estate" (p60c2).
  136. ef Cork taint from mold reacts with bleaching agents, produces a wet cardboard smell in wine. Bacterial? (p199c2 / 200c1)
  137. eg Rioja and Priorat (Ribera del Duero was slated to be added in 2008) (p164c1)
  138. eh An Austrian wine made by fermenting the must of late harvest, non-botrysized grapes with a must that has been affected by botrytis.
  139. ei Bordeaux's St Émillion family of appellations. the wines of St Émillion were classified for the first time in 1954, and since been updated three times. There are officially two levels: Grand Cru Classé "great classified growths" and the higher ranked Premier Grand Cru classé "first great classified growths". Château Cheval Blanc and Château Ausone are considered to be the very best Premier Grand Cru Classé and are elevated to "category A". All others are "category B" (p93).
  140. ej Extra-Brut, Brut, Extra Dry, Sec, Demi-Sec, Doux (p52-53)
  141. ek Nitrogen , N, Phosphorus P, and Potassium K , (p9).
  142. el Marlborough, NorthEast corner of South Island. (p148c2)
  143. em Sparkling. Crémant refers to French AOC sparkling wine made outside the Champagne region e.g., Crémant d'Alsace, Crémant de Die, Crémant de Loire, (p104c2).
  144. en Trentino - Alto Adige
  145. eo A dark, sweet desert wine (p123c1). One of three grapes responsible for 97% of sweet wines in Greece (p124c2).
  146. ep 62° to 68° F (p210c1)
  147. eq Côte Chalonnaise (p94)
  148. er Juice Settling (p51).

    This is a wine-making technique whereby must is allowed to rest before fermentation begins in order for the gross particulate matter to fall out of the solution.
  149. es A fierce, hot, dry wine that blows out of the northwest. If the wind blows during flowering, it will cause poor berry set, which, in turn, reduces crop yield (p68c2).
  150. et True. Progressing south and east from the northern portion of the Central Valley, rainfall increases and temperatures decrease (p83).
  151. eu 1. Gigondas
    2. Beaumes-de-Venise
    3. Vacqueyras
    4. Chateauneuf-de-Pape
  152. ev Continental. There are enormous diurnal, within 24 hours, temperature swings and a full rotation of all four seasons. There is also little humidity so growers have less need of chemical sprays. (68c2).
  153. ew Gisborne (p148c1); 1/2 vineyard production is Chardonnay.
  154. ex 100% (p161)
  155. ey Minervois and Banyuls are in the Languedoc-Roussillon (p110). Costières de Nîmes is in Rhone (p109).
  156. ez Pinot Gris
  157. fa 1655 - growing grapes
    1659 - making wine
  158. fb Pinot Noir (p31)
  159. fc (Alt answer?)
    Baixo Corgo - no steep slopes, fertile soils, 47 inches of rain
    Cima Corgo - quality heartland, steep slopes/rocky, 28 inches of rain
    Douro Superior - Gentle slopes, 15 inches of rain (p152)
  160. fd Table wines and quality wines (p163c2)
  161. fe IGT was created to ... these wines can be varietal labeled, be labeled under a geographic indication, and be vintage dated (p129).
  162. ff The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau aka TTB, p172c1.
  163. fg In Austria, aka Chardonnay
  164. fh Yeast layer (p55)
  165. fi True (124c2).
  166. fj 2.9 - 3.8, for grape juice and wine.
    Higher acid = lower pH. Higher acid wines are longer lived. (p193c1)
  167. fk Lactic, succinic, and acetic acids. (p192c2)
  168. fl Malvasia or Malmsey wine was named after the Greek port town on Monemvasia (p121c1).
  169. fm light red, cherry colored; rosé
  170. fn California, Washington and New York (p169c1)
  171. fo Flavones and flavonols are yellow pigments in white wine (and red. They will change form according to pH. High pH, low acid; less stable, will tend toward amber or brown, (p194c2 / 195c1).
  172. fp The top three:
    QmP Beerenauslese,select berries
    QmP, Trockenbeerenauslese, dried select berries
    QmP Eiswein, ice wine (p119)
  173. fq QbA wines may be chaptalized (p115c1/119).
  174. fr Known as the "House Style" of a Champagne House or Producer
  175. fs Santa Barbara County (p183; map cross reference)
  176. ft The Benguela current and winds from cold oceans, Atlantic and Indian.
  177. fu 85% from the grape variety (p72c1).
  178. fv Dry, as in Amarone della Valpolicella
  179. fw Romanée-Conti, Musigny, and Clos de Tart.
    Burgundy, p96) Its 25 Grand Cru vineyards are all red, except Musigny, which produces both red and white wine. ...
  180. fx ...doesn't say, but the Columbia Valley AVA is one of the largest in the country, covering 1/3 of the state. (p186)
  181. fy Lightly sparkling
  182. fz False. Of the two Queensland GIs,
    Granite Belt is composed of decomposing granite soils
    South Burnett is composed of terra rossa soils (p76c2).
  183. ga The Bay of Islands: New Zealand's first vineyards were planted around 1819 by the Reverand Samuel Marsden in the Bay of Islands at the top of the North Island (p143c2).
  184. gb A town responsible for maturing and shipping port; tradition, location, and climate, humidity, make this an ideal location. (p153)
  185. gc 1. Chinon - Cabernet Franc
    2. Bourgueil - Cabernet Franc
    3. St Nicholas-de-Bourgueil
    4. Vouvray:Chenin Blanc for Dry to very sweet wines, moelleux
    5. Montlouis - Chenin Blanc aka Pineau de la Loire
  186. gd 1. Extra Brut
    2. Brut
    3. Extra Dry
    4. Sec
    5. Demi-Sec
    6. Doux
  187. ge A specialty wine of Südburgenland made from a nearly extinct Vitis lambrusca variety.
  188. gf 1. Lirac: Known for great roses, but now shifting to red to white
    2. Tavel: Considered one of the best Rose Appleations. Roses must be made directly from red wine by prefermination or Saignage (bleeding off). Tavel must be rose.
  189. gg Grüner Veltliner is 1/30 grapes sanctioned for wine-making in Austria, more than a third of the acreage under vine is planted to this varietal. (p78)
  190. gh Palomino- the primary grape, white albariza soil of chalk, clay and sand.
    Pedro Ximénez- the sweetening agent, aka PX, barro a clay soil with iron oxide
    Moscatel- the coloring agent aka Muscat of Alexandria, arena a sandy soil with 10% chalk. (p167c1)
  191. gi Naturally sweetened wine, achieved by arrested fermentation through the addition of grape spirits to leave residual grape sugars in the product (p64c2).
  192. gj The 77K acres of vineyards in Champagne are grouped into the districts of 1) Vallée de la Marne, 2) Montagne de Reims, and 3) Cotes de Blanc (p103).
  193. gk Gavi in Piedmont (p130c1).
  194. gl Breede River Valley Region (p160-161)
  195. gm Polyphenols (p207c2).
  196. gn 1. Rully
    2. Bouzeron
    3. Mercurey
    4. Givry
    5. Montagny
  197. go 10ppm, nearly all wines; many yeast strains produce this much during fermentation alone., (p174c2)
  198. gp At least 70% Malbec, known locally as Cot, in SW France. (p111).
  199. gq Pinot Nero (p129c2)
  200. gr 1) Sercial
    2) Verdelho
    3) Bual or Boal
    4) Malvasia (p62c2)
  201. gs Barrels (p166c1)
  202. gt Fino and Oloroso, with or without Flor (p58, 59)
  203. gu Resveratrol (p207c2).
  204. gv Selection de Grains Nobles SGN-- Harvest 1st due to Nobel Rot.
    Grapes clusters with Botrytis are selected on the first pass through to ensure the best is picked for SGN.
  205. gw Northland typically experiences the country's warmest ripening conditions (p145c2).
  206. gx Vintage year
  207. gy The Bio-Bio Valley marks the southern end of the Central Valley. The Coastal Range is lower here, so the weather is more heavily affected by the Pacific Ocean. There is more rain, less sun, and cooler temperatures. (p85)
  208. gz In DOC or DOCG wines, indicates a higher level of alcohol, usually 1%, or aging and sometimes a special geographic origin
  209. ha Charmat aka, Cuvee Close or Tank Method (p53)
  210. hb Lightly sweet
  211. hc A Rosé made typically from Spätburgunder aka Pinot Noir, (p116).
  212. hd South Eastern Australia is the only current appellation that covers an area larger than a single state. It combines New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, The Australian Capital Territory, and parts of Queensland and South Australia (p71c2).
  213. he NORTH TO SOUTH:
    1. Pomerol
    2. Lalande-de-Pomerol
    3. Canon-Fronsac
    4. Fronsac
    5. Cotes de Bourg
    6. Cotes de Blaye
  214. hf Pale red, rosé.
  215. hg The French Paradox (p208)
  216. hh Médoc and Haut-Médoc, (p90 c2)
  217. hi Setúbal, Portugal. (p155)
  218. hj Young wine of Portugal, crafted for immediate consumption. (p150c2)
  219. hk Passito (p133c2)
  220. hl Bud Break,
    Shoot and Leaf Growth,
    Berry Set,
    Harvest (p10).
  221. hm Title of merit in Tuscany for wines that are produced by members of the private Capitolare, formerly Predicato, group; this use and group was to be disbanded in 1997.
  222. hn Coonawarra, Padthaway, Mount Benson, Robe, Wrattonbully (p76c1). They all have the famous red-brown mix of clay, sand, and silt known as 'terra rossa.' Most expensive viticultural land in Australia.
  223. ho Producer
  224. hp Only White Riesling and Johannisburg Riesling (p 20)
  225. hq Red, famous in Priorat. (p165)
  226. hr Austrian, Rudolf Steiner in 1929
  227. hs A unique vineyard ranking system in Portugal. 12 total criteria, including: Altitude, yield, soil and locality. (p152)
  228. ht A strong wind in the summer, from the South East. Oak Trees were planted to block this wind, (p158c1).
  229. hu 1. Split .18L
    2. Demi .375L
    3. Bottle .75L
    4. Magnum 1.5L
    5. Jeroboam 3L
  230. hv Sercial, Verdelho, Bual, Malmsey are the four noble grapes of Madeira.
    Tinta Negra Mole is the most widely planted grape in Madeira. Madeira is unique because it is not only fortified, but oxidized and "cooked," technically referred to as "estufagem" (p156)
  231. hw Rotgipfler = White (78-79)
  232. hx 10ppm, at or above; (p196c1)
  233. hy Weinviertel (p80 c2) district, in Niederösterreich region.
  234. hz Mendocino County (p182)
  235. ia The solera can refer to:
    (1) a set of casks often arranged in scales,
    (2) a dynamic aging and fractional blending system
    (3) the butts that contain the oldest wine in the system... name comes from Latin solum, floor/soil b/c these butts are closest to the ground. (p57 c2)
  236. ib denomination of controlled origin
  237. ic 85% and declining, (p157c2)
  238. id Old, rarely used term.
  239. ie This designation may be added to the names of AC designations. It requires a higher minimum alcohol level, usually one percentage point higher than the basic designation. (p88)
  240. if Detection threshold is the smallest amount of stimulus necessary to trigger an unidentifiable sensation; and recognition threshold is the smallest amount of stimulus necessary to trigger an identifiable sensation. (p202c1)
  241. ig 75% (p176c1)
  242. ih Pinot Noir, Gamay, Chardonnay and the 4th is Aligote (p98)
  243. ii 75%; 90% in Oregon (p173c2)
  244. ij 1. Sancerre
    2. Pouilly-Fume
    3. Quincy
    4. Reuilly
    5. Menetou-Salon
  245. ik 1) Concrete vats with submerged coils.
    2) Heated warehouses aka estufagen.
    3) Uncooled warehouses, (p62-63)
  246. il Because of its proximity to Bordeaux
    - Red, Roses: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc
    - Whites: Sauvignon Blanc and Semillon
  247. im A cooked or baked odor. Oxidized red wine. (p201c1)
  248. in ... doesn't say. Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah are given as examples of reds that do well here, Chardonnay, white, was mentioned has barely hanging on to the prize of being the most widely planted varietal. (p185)
  249. io Sauvignon Blanc, in France's Upper Loire next to Sancerre. (p102c2).
  250. ip Clare Valley (p75c2) and Eden Valley (p76c1).
  251. iq Alcohol, Heat, Carbon Dioxide CO2
  252. ir 1. Cote Rotie
    2. Condrieu --only W Viognier
    3. Chateau Grillet --only W Viognier
    4. St Joseph
    5. Hermitage
    6. Crozes-Hermitage
    7. Cornas --only R Syrah
    8. St Peray -- only W Marsanne, Roussane
    Northern Rhône reds are often identified by their signature aromas of green olive and smoky bacon.
  253. is Riverland = 25% of Australia's total wine production (p76c2).
  254. it None (p177c1)
  255. iu New South Wales (p72c2).
  256. iv Degrees Oechsle. Oechsle is the difference between the specific gravity of grape must and that of water [1.00]; must with a specific gravity of 1.068 has a must weight of 68° Oechsle (p114).
  257. iw denomination of origin laws passed by the Italian government on July 12, 1963.
  258. ix aka, "Whole-Berry Fermentation" in an anaerobic, oxygen-free, environment where grape sugars create alcohol without yeast.
    This is an enzymatic fermentation, that runs hot at 85 to 95-degree and long, up to 3 weeks. (p49)
  259. iy Salty (p205c1)
  260. iz Raise sugar levels of the must for fermentation (p46)
  261. ja 15% (p176c2)
  262. jb Temperate, maritime climate (p143c1)
  263. jc Zierfandler = White (78-79)
  264. jd St Laurent = Red (78-79)
  265. je 1) Shoot length is between 3-4 feet long, before it stops naturally on its own without hedging.
    2) Shoot density is sparse enough that most, if not all, of the leaves are in the sun for a good % of the day.
    3) Shoot girth is smaller than the width of your little finger.
    4) There are few, if any laterals, on the shoots.
    5) Berry size is small for that variety because the shoot length stopped on its own, (p12).
  266. jf The smaller the bead, bubble, the higher the pedigree, (p198c1).
  267. jg High Acid, Moderate Sugar (p50)
  268. jh Farm, estate
  269. ji Galets stones // Chaptalization is illegal // Vin de Garde 13 permitted grapes. 8 red & 5 white
  270. jj Cuve Close
    Tank Method
  271. jk grape
  272. jl White used in Cava production, (p166c2)
  273. jm Tartaric crystals may form in the bottle, when exposed to cold temperatures.
  274. jn The 18th Amendment to the constitution to prohibit the sale and consumption of alcohol, passed in 1919 and enacted in 1920 til 1933. (p170c2)
  275. jo Loire Valley, Touraine: AOCs Bourgueil and Chinon produce some of the Loire's finest red wines. All are at least 90 percent Cabernet Franc, with the remainder, if any, being Cabernet Sauvignon (p102).
  276. jp Crianza- at least 1 year on oak / 6 months in bottle; not released until its 3rd year.
    Reserva- also minimum of 1 year on oak but not released until its 4th year.
    Gran reserva- minimum of 2 years on oak; 3 in bottle, not released until its 6th year. (p164c2)
  277. jq Inputs: sunlight, CO2, water
    Products: Sugar, O2 (p10c2)
  278. jr 1) QmP Kabinett. Cabinet)
    2) QmP Spätlese, Late-harvest
    3) QmP Auslese, Select bunches
    4) QmP Beerenauslese, Select berries
    5) QmP Trockenbeerenauslese, Dried select berries
    6) QmP Eisewein, Ice wine (p119)
  279. js 2 North Island Regions: Gisborne (p148c1), Hawke's Bay (p148c2),

    1 South Island Regions: Marlborough (p149c1)
  280. jt Ethyl (10-15% wine),
    Methanol (toxic) ,
    Glycerol (sweet as glucose, 7-10% alcohol), and
    Fusel oils (high alcohols, very toxic result from low nitrogen must. Hangover) (p193c1)

    Alcohol = body,, legs, tears; less surface tension than water.
  281. ju 1954: 2 levels
  282. jv Bottled. all'origine: at the source
  283. jw 19% alcohol, 8-12% RS (p60 c1)
  284. jx To provide a warmer micro-climate and prevent frost (p113).
  285. jy Grape stems, pips and skins, and oak barrels. (p195c1)
  286. jz None. Amontillado is fermented dry. (p57)
  287. ka Nitrogen deficient must fermentation. Rotten egg smell comes from yeast breaking down amino acids to retrieve nitrogen needed to grow and multiply, (p200c2).
  288. kb [Extended Maceration] Astringency increases as more and more tannin and pigment is extracted. (p48)
  289. kc Most wineries are situated within 20 miles of the east coast. (p143 c2).
  290. kd Began as a grape growers cartel, now a company charged with investing in South Africa's national wine industry (p158-159)
  291. ke Glucose and fructose (p191c2) 6 carbon sugars are fermentable; 5 carbon sugars are not. Glucose ferments faster than Fructose, Fructose is 2x as sweet. There is always more Fructose in must as a result. Significant for White Zinfandel.
  292. kf red, still Italian wines based principally on the Aglianico grape variety produced in the Province of Avellino in the Campania region. (p128c2)
  293. kg Young, robust reds
    Complex wines with moderate age
    Fully aged and mature wines
    Wines with sediment (p212c2 -213)
  294. kh Cahors AC requires 70% Malbec aka locally as cot
  295. ki Brick red => mature (p202c2)
  296. kj Cabernet Sauvignon (72.6K acres), p178c2
  297. kk Grape sugar, a carbohydrate
  298. kl 1. Sonoma Coast, 2. Los Carneros, 3. Sonoma Valley, 4. Sonoma Mountain, 5. Russian River Valley, 6. Green Valley of Russian River Valley, 7. Bennett Valley (newest), 8. Chalk Hill, 9. Alexander Valley, 10. Knights Valley, 11. Dry Creek Valley, 12. Rockpile, 13. Northern Sonoma, 13 AVAs, (p180-181)
  299. km NORTH TO SOUTH:
    1. Les Clos
    2. Valmur
    3. Vaudesir
    4. Bourgros
    5. Blanchots
    6. Le Preuses
    7. Grenouilles
  300. kn Nebbiolo aka Spanna, 100% (p130c2)
  301. ko Species - Within the genus vinifera, only vitis vinifera is used on a wide-scale for wine production.
    Clone - vines descended from a single plant, by cutting.
    Variety - a sub-species of grape. (p9).
  302. kp True (p60c2). Most Ports do.
  303. kq Constantia (p159c2)
  304. kr Rioja Alta, Rioja Alavesa, and Rioja Baja (p165c2)
  305. ks Bardolina produces wines from Corvina, Veronese/Corvinone and Rondinella (p134, 133).
  306. kt Tinta Negra Mole, a native vinifera not considered to be the grape of choice for high-quality, long-lived Madeira (p62c2).
  307. ku Rouge Valley (map cross ref); binder lists Southern Oregon AVA, includes Rouge Valley AVA and Umpqua Valley AVA. (p186c2)
  308. kv 200 (124c2).
  309. kw 1. Riesling
    2. Muscat
    3. Pinot Gris
    4. Gewurztraminer
    5. Sylvaner
  310. kx To increase the wine's surface area of warmed wine in one's mouth so that the concentration of volatile molecules, enabling more odor-saturated air to reach the olfactory epithelium through the back of the mouth and nasal cavities, (204c2).
  311. ky Blauer Zweigelt = Red (78-79)
  312. kz Mediterranean: South and Inland
    Maritime: North and coast (p150c2)
  313. la NORTH TO SOUTH:
    1. Chablis
    2. Cote de Nuits
    3. Cotes de Beaune
    4. Cotes de Chalonnaise
    5. Maconnaise
    6. Beaujolais
  314. lb Los Carneros lies half in Napa County and half in Sonoma County. Carneros is the coolest part of Napa County. (p180c1)
  315. lc Schilcher - A tart herbal rosé made from the Blauer Wildbacher grape in Weststeiermark, Austria.
  316. ld Malbec (p69c2).
  317. le DOC, IPR, VR, VdM (p156)
  318. lf Organic - forgoes all synthetics; allows the application of natural in-organic materials like sulfur and copper that can lead to soil toxicity. The planet is an ecosystem.
    Biodynamic - Austrian Rudolf Steiner, Quasi-religious. The universe is your ecosystem. Phases of moon are used to govern vineyard practices.
    Sustainable - Forgoes black/white rules to find the best overall solution. (p15-16)
  319. lg East: Rhein River and the West: Vosges Mountains
  320. lh There are eight Chianti subregions: Chianti Classico (located between Florence and Siena), Colli Aretini, Colli Fiorentini, Colli Sensesi, Colline Pisane, Montalbano, Montespertoli, and Ruffina. (p135c2)
  321. li Tilt the glass over a white surface with natural lighting, view the edge of the wine for color and hue on the rim. Intense color is high extract and flavor; compare with other wines. (p198)
  322. lj Aldehydes (p195c2)

    Also? - Acetic acid results from oxidation of ethyl alcohol. It smells like vinegar. (p193c1)
  323. lk Noble rot aka botrytis. (p115).
  324. ll French wines made outside of Champagne, in the traditional Method
  325. lm Red aka Tempranillo in La Mancha, Rioja.
  326. ln Some winemakers were found to be adulterating their wines with diethylene glycol to them more body. This resulted in some of the toughest laws in the world being instituted in Austria, now considered to be one of the most modern, dynamic, and active wine producing countries in the world (p78).
  327. lo 1. Montagne de Reims
    2. Vallée de la Marne
    3. Cotes de Blanc (p103)
  328. lp Grape must served in Südsteiermark, Austria during harvest
  329. lq Mainly: Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Noir // A little Pinot Gris in Reuilly , Red and Rose
  330. lr Harvest or vintage
  331. ls Riesling and Muller-Thurgau (p115c).
  332. lt 1) Anbaugebiet
    2) Bereich
    3) Grosslage
    4) Einzellage (p120)
  333. lu Tannat, In the extreme Southwest France, along the Basque border, (p111c2). (Wikipedia) Tannat is a red wine grape, historically grown in South West France in the Madiran AOC and is now one of the most prominent grapes in Uruguay, where it is considered the "national grape." Second red grape is Cabernet Franc.
  334. lv Franciacorta, 85% Chardonnay, 10% Pinot nero and 5% Pinot bianco. (p131, c2)
  335. lw White, from Rías Baizas, (p167c1)
  336. lx Moving counterclockwise, serve the female guests; moving clockwise serve the male guests, finish with the host, male or female, (p211c1). Wine is always poured from the customer's right.
  337. ly Black cherry, tobacco, vanilla, blackberry, chocolate, cigar box, black pepper, tea, herbs, coffee, toffee, mint ... (p28)
  338. lz Launched at the turn of the 21st century, Strategy 2025 expresses Australia's goal to become a $4.5 billion dollar wine industry by being the world's most influential and profitable supplier of branded wines. (p71c1)
  339. ma Sauternes, Barsac, and Cérons (p90)
  340. mb 4.9-6 Atmospheres
  341. mc Mechanized Riddling
  342. md True (p70c1).
  343. me Franken wine is bottled in a distinctive squat, green flagon called the Bocksbeutel (p118c2).
  344. mf denomination of controlled and guaranteed origin
  345. mg wine library, public or commerical
  346. mh "Tinta del País" in Ribera del Duero (p167c2)
    "Cencibel" in La Mancha (p167c2)
    "Tinta Roriz" in Portugal
  347. mi Bottle aged, Wood aged. (p60c2)
  348. mj 60 to 95-degrees (p48)
  349. mk Spätburgunder in Germany and Austria. aka Pinot Noir and Pinot Nero (p116)
  350. ml Cross of Cabernet Franc x Sauvignon Blanc.
  351. mm Red Wine only , Tannat + Bordeaux Varieties, Tannat big in Uruguay as well
  352. mn Süss = sweet (GWA Glossary)
    Trocken, Classic, and Selection = Dry
    Halbtrocken and Feinherb = Off Dry (p116c1)
  353. mo Group of producers of a specific wine
  354. mp 85% from the GI (p72c1).
  355. mq 1. Gevrey-Chambertin
    2. Morey St Denis
    3. Vougeot
    4. Flagey-Echezeaux
    5. Vosne-Romanee
    6. Nuits-St Georges
    7. Premeuaux-Prissey
  356. mr Latium, aka Lazio. it's a white wine made from Trebbiano and Malvasia. (p137)
  357. ms Bottle
  358. mt Riverina is known for, Bag-in-Box, cask wine and dessert wines, botrytis-affected Semillon, (p73c1).
  359. mu There are four, all are Valleys:
    Maipo Valley - status symbol estates.
    Rapel Valley - wide expanses of flat farmland.
    Curicó Valley - coastal range, quite warm.
    Maule Valley - cloud cover and cooler temp. (p85)
  360. mv An overhead trellis system used to help the vines escape the reflected heat. These are used in vineyards planted for high yield in deep, fertile soils in Argentina. These vineyards are typically heavily irrigated (p68c2).
  361. mw 1) North Coast
    2) Sierra Foothills
    3) San Francisco Bay
    4) Central Coast
    5) South Coast (p178)
  362. mx The Sherry Triangle is formed by the towns of Jerez de la Frontera, Sanlúcar de Barrameda, and Puerto de Santa María. (p167c1)
  363. my 15% Quality wines, OPE for sweet and OPAP for dry, Regional wines, TO, 50% Table wines, EO, and Restina, TZ or OKP (p123).
  364. mz Gewurztraminer, Muscat, Pinot Gris, or Riesling (p106c1).
  365. na Solera aging and arrested fermentation (p64).
  366. nb Dry
  367. nc Cool temperatures, moderately humid, constant temperature, no vibrations, no light, bottles stored on the side or at an angle to keep the cork moist and labels facing up to avoid scuffing, (p213.)
  368. nd 1) A first cut, free run & light press juice.
    2) Blended base wine.
  369. ne Tinta Roriz
  370. nf 1. Methode Champenoise
    2. Metonde Tradionnelle
    3. Classic Method
    4. Metodo Classico
    5. Cap Classique
    6. Cava
    7. Traditional Method
    8. Cremant
  371. ng Late Harvest grapes, which may or may not be affected by noble rot (p106c1). aka, "VT". Alsace wines were the first to be described as vendange tardive but the term is now used in other regions of France.
  372. nh Eastern Crete (p121c1).
  373. ni Emilia-Romagna (p135c1)
  374. nj Central Otago, South Island of New Zealand. (p149c2)
  375. nk Tartaric acid precipitates out of solution as tartrate crystals when wine is chilled. To prevent what looks like 'glass shards' in the bottle, wines are chilled to 25-degrees to 27-degrees for 2-4 weeks in the cask.
  376. nl Saale-Ustrut and Sashsen are two small wine regions located in what was formerly East Germany (p120).
  377. nm Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscadelle.
  378. nn 1. Still Wine
    2. Liqueur de Tirage
    3. Tirage
    4. Riddling or Remuage
    5. Disgorgement
    6. Dosage or Liqueur d'Expedition
    7. Bottling
  379. no 1. Puilly-Fuisse
    2. St Veran
    3. Macon AC, Superior AC, -Villages AC,
  380. np Anthocyanins will change form according to pH. Brighter red hue at low pH, high acid; blue/purple hue at a high pH. low acid; less stable, (p194c2). These are only found in red wine, not white, they have Flavones.
  381. nq True. Three-quarters of the vines planted here are Riesling (p117).
  382. nr White, from Santorini, (p124c2.)
  383. ns Pays Nantais, aka, Muscadet, closest to the Atlantic, the end point, mouth, of the river, western Loire Valley. (p100)
  384. nt 1855: divided into Growth system
  385. nu 15-15.5% (p56)
  386. nv Under Chilean wine law updated in 1996, the "rule of 75 percent" established the minimum proportions for:
    * Varietal
    * Estate bottling
    * Vintage
    * Place of origin
    Many wineries still use 85% to be compliant for EU exports. (p84c2)
  387. nw Pressing, Base Wine Fermentation, Assemblage, Liquor de Triage, Second Fermentation, Remuage/Riddling, Disgorging, Liqueur d' Expedition (p 50-52).
  388. nx Marsala (p140)
  389. ny The desert to the north, the tall Andean peaks to the east, the Pacific Ocean to the west, and the frozen ice expanses to of Antarctica to the south have kept this country and its people and island to itself. (p83c1)
  390. nz Orvieto, in central Italy. (p137)
  391. oa Tartaric, Malic and Citric acid (p192c1). These are fixed acids that do not pass into wine spirits by remain in the residue. They are odorless.
  392. ob Mendoza (p68).
  393. oc Sixteen communes within the Côte du Rhône AOC, such as Rasteau, Cairanne, and Seguret, comprise the Côte du Rhône-Villages appellation and are allowed to append their names to "Côte du Rhône-." The appellation has somewhat higher production standards than does the Côte du Rhône AOC and produces 99% red wine (pg108c2-109c1).
  394. od Reserve; wine which has been aged a longer, specified time, usually applies to DOC and DOCG.
  395. oe Known as Sekt
  396. of Morillon = White , aka Chardonnay (78-79)
  397. og A clarification technique used to removed fine dissolved sediment in the fermented solution.

    Fining agents bind to particles in the wine and settle out of solution via gravity. These bond particles are then removed through racking. (p47)
  398. oh Loire Valley, 100% Chenin Blanc (p101). The sweet white wines of Anjou-Saumur come from Coteaux du Layon and its sub-regions Bonezeaux and Quarts-de-Chaume. All three regions are 100% Chenin Blanc and are very long-lived sweet wines.This area, along the Layon River tributary of the Loire, is similar to Sauternes in that it has the right climatic conditions for botrytis, aka, pourriture noble, noble rot (p101c2).
  399. oi Cannonau is another name for Grenache in Sardinia (p140c2).
  400. oj Vin Santo is a maderized dessert wine from Tuscany (p136); Vermouth is a Piedmont wine that is fortified and flavored with roots, spices, wood, and so forth. (p130c2).
  401. ok False
  402. ol Southwest, around Cape Town (p157c2)
  403. om Vin de Table, Vin de Pays, VDQS, AOC or AC (p87)
  404. on To inhibit wild yeast, and prevent spoilage and oxidation.
  405. oo Privately owned winery; négociant
  406. op 12.2% , 55% Brix,( p43)
  407. oq Greek wine was originally resinated to retard spoilage (p131c2).
  408. or Rare, less than 1% of Ports. It is a single vintage tawny Port, tawnies are aged in small barrels. It remains in cask for a minimum of 7 years. There is no limit to the number of years that it can spend in wood. Some colheitas are 10, 15, even 50 years old. (p61c2)
  409. os VDQS, Vin délimité de qualité supérieure, aka, delimited wine of superior quality, Discontinued in 2011. ( p87)
  410. ot European emigration, 98% population is of European decent; 1/2 of Italian decent. (p67c1).
  411. ou Sicily. The island of Sicily (63c2).
  412. ov Thessaly (p123c1).
  413. ow Boost sugar levels (p58 c1). Vino dulce is made from raisined Palomino or PX grapes that have been picked and dried in the sun.
  414. ox Blend of Noble Grapes: Any Combination of Riesling, Gewurztraminer, Muscat, Pinot Gris, Zwicker: Non- Noble Blend Grapes: Pinot Blanc, Auxerrois, Sylvaner and Chasselas aka Fendant
  415. oy 1.5% for alcohol by volume 14% or less; 1% for wines with alcohol greater than 14%. (p174c1)
  416. oz Piedmont (p130c1-2)
  417. pa The purest expression of Chardonnay. VERY little use of oak.
  418. pb An Italian sweet dessert wine made from grapes that have been dried, maybe on straw mats. straw wine
  419. pc Resveratrol and Quercetin (p207c2).
  420. pd Proteins turn into a white haze when exposed to heat. Fining agents remove proteins to prevent this.
  421. pe Macroclimate = Region
    Mesoclimate = The Vineyard
    Microclimate = The Vine (p11)
  422. pf Rivers. Saar and Ruwar are tributaries to the Mosel (p117).
  423. pg 4-10% RS.
  424. ph Nematodes - Xiphinema index. (p13c2)
  425. pi Sweet Wines from Semillon and Sauvignon Blanc
  426. pj White, from Attica, (p124c2).
  427. pk False. These wines are intensly flavored, sometimes with the honeyed influence of botrytis, sometimes not (p115c2).
  428. pl Côte Rôtie, "Roasted Slope", produces a red wine made from Syrah that is vinified together with up to 20% white Viognier, although in practice 10% or less is more typical. (p107c2)
  429. pm Magnum = 2 bottles, 1.5L
    Jeroboam = 4 bottles, 3L
    Balthazar =16 bottles,12L
    (p53 - table of bottle sizes)
  430. pn Semisweet
  431. po Qualitatswein, 2nd tier in Austria. In Germany, 1st tier QmP. (p82)"
  432. pp True (p82)
  433. pq Late Bottled Vintage. Vintage Port ages in large vats for 2 years. LBV matures in large vats for 4-6 years (p61c2).
  434. pr Henty and the Macedon Ranges vie for the title of the coolest growing region on the Australian mainland (p75c1).
  435. ps Sekt (p115).
  436. pt Crushing, Pressing, Fermentation, Racking,Clarification, Aging, Bottling.
  437. pu Pre-Cambian schist and decomposing schist, with outcroppings of granite, some sand, clay and quartz. (p152c2)
  438. pv Grüner Veltliner = White (78-79)
  439. pw Rosé
  440. px Esters (p196)
  441. py 1. Nantes
    2. Anjou & Saumur
    3. Touraine
    4. Central France, Upper Loire
  442. pz Sangiovese (p35)
  443. qa White, used in Cava production, (p166c2), aka. Viura in Rioja, (p165)
  444. qb True, 70%+ Portuguese red or rosé, deep colored tannic red wines that often have bell pepper and black currant flavors, (p154c1)
  445. qc Mostly 100% Chenin Blanc // Savennières , famous dry Chenin Blanc
  446. qd Similar to its reds, Bordeaux's white wines are also blends. Sémillon and Sauvignon Blanc dominate the mix. (p89)