640 Matching questions
- What is the varietal and aging requirement for Bandol AOP?
- What is the bottle format containing 3L (4 bottles) called?
- What is the name of the grape permitted in Seyssel AOP?
- What is "Vin de Primeur"?
- What is the condition of Süß designation in German wine?
- What is the AOP that is only allowed to produce Vin Jaune?
- Name the Cuvée de Prestige from
- What is Amarone?
- What is the main ingredient of Rum?
- What is the minimum aging requirement for Tokaji Aszú 3 to 6 Puttonyos?
- What is the Spanish term for
- What is the name of the Italian region in which the vineyards are located in the highest attitude in Europe?
Known for their only DOC.
- Of all the 77 villages allowed to produce Côte du Rhône wines, how many of them are allowed to put their village name on the label?
- What is the minimum varietal requirement for German wines?
- What is the German term for
- What is the name of the large pebbles found in Châteauneuf-du-Pape AOP vineyards?
- Why are Cascade Mountains so important to the viticulture in Pacific Northwest?
- Name all four wine producing regions in Austria.
- This DOC in Portugal is famous for their powerful and dry red wine, but also known for their light and refreshing white wine. You will also find a statue of sommelier in the city of Nelas. What is the name of this DOC?
- Name one of the five "Regions" in South Africa.
- What is the name of the style of ale that are produced in eight authorized Belgian monasteries?
- What is the method of sparkling wine making in which the secondary fermentation takes place in the bottle?
- What is the bottle aging requirement for Millésimé (vintage) champagne?
- Name the only two climats in Alsace Grand Cru that are permitted to produce Gentil.
- What is the bottle format containing 15L (20 bottles) called?
- Name one wine producing region in British Columbia.
- Name three AVAs from Napa Valley AVA.
- This facility is used for Madeira DOC production. The storage facility that is heated up by the sunlight which keeps the building to an average of 30C° (86F°). It is used to keep the barrels containing higher quality Madeira for extended maturation period. What is the name of the facility?
- What is the name for the dry Szamorodni?
- Name two Premier Cru vineyards from Chambolle-Musigny.
- When did Spain introduce
their wine laws?
2/3 of the guests have finished the appetizer and one of the guests
with the empty plate has finished a glass of wine. What is your action?
1), Automatically pour the same wine to the glass.
2), Offer to pour more of the same wine.
3), Collect the empty glass.
4), Wait for the next course to be served, then offer another type of wine to the host.
- What is the aging requirement for white and rosé Gran Reserva in Spain?
- Only 6 bottles of Romanée-Conti in Magnum was produced in 1945.
True or False?
- Pacific Northwest wine producing region is divided by what mountain range?
- What is the grape permitted for Barbera d'Alba DOC?
- What is "Anbaugebiete"?
- Name at least two AVAs from Willamette Valley AVA.
- What is the name of the yeast used for sake production?
- What are the three (or four) levels of wine classification in France?
- What is the regional requirement for labeling in Australia?
- This DOC in Portugal is known to produce light and fruity white and sparkling wine from traditional method. It is named after their clay soil type too. What is the name of this DOC?
- How does an Alsace wine qualify for Gentil on the label?
- Name at least one wine producing regions in South Island of New Zealand.
- What is the name of the varietal native to Bordeaux, which found a new home in Chile that is not Malbec?
- What is the aging requirement for Madeira (no designation).
- Chinon AOP is permitted to produce white wine. True or False?
- What is the grape permitted for
- Name three AVAs that exist on the West of Cascade Mountains, and which exists in Oregon?
- What is the grape permitted for
Barolo DOCG and Barbaresco DOCG?
- What is the base of Dranbuie and what is it seasoned with?
- What is the aging requirement for Crémant d'Alsace?
- What is Limoncello?
- What is the aging requirement for red Gran Reserva in Spain?
- What is the second most planted red varietal in France?
- Name three smaller AVAs from Central Coast AVA.
- Name the Cuvée de Prestige from Mumm.
- What are the dominant red varietals in Touraine?
- What is the name of the wine produced in Greece that is infused with pine resin?
- Which Château in St-Emilion Grand Cru Classé was it promoted from Grand Cru Classé to Grand Cru Classé Château B in 1954, and then to Château A in 2012?
- What is the bottle format containing 1.5L (2 bottles) called?
- What is En Primeur practice?
- What is Barolo Chinato?
- What is the ideal serving temperature of red Burgundy?
- What are the synonyms of Zinfandel?
- What is the second most widely planted red varietal in Argentina?
- Name two of the eight sub-regions of Chianti.
- Name three rivers that flow through Bordeaux region from North to South.
- What is the ideal serving temperature of light red wine?
- What is Tawny Port?
- What is the name of the Anbaugebiete which is located on the banks of the Neckar and its tributaries, and produces the highest volume of red wine in Germany?
- In which class and what commune is Ch. Talbot classified?
- In which state does Yarra Valley exist?
- What is the name of the AOP in Southern Rhône in which
Vin de Liquer is produced?
- What is the name of the Italian region which is the only region in Italy that is not facing the sea? Think of Montefalco Sgrantino DOC.
- What is Vermut di Torino?
- What is the varietal requirement of Coteaux de Die AOP?
- In which years were the prohibition law enforced?
- What is the name of the famous wine produced in Northern Hungary called "Blood of the Egrian Bull"?
- What is the name of the Italian region which is covered with eroded limestone? The capitol is Potenza. Think of Aglianico del Vulture DOCG
- What is Dégorgement
(Disgorgement in English)?
- What is the dominant red varietal in Anjou & Saumur?
- What is the name of the Tokaji Aszú made entirely from botrytised grapes? What is the minimum residual sugar level?
- Who invented the fortified wine Marsala?
- What is the name of the wine making technique in which the red grape is fermented with skin intact, but pressed mid-fermentation to extract lighter coloured juice, then continued the fermentation with the juice alone?
- What is the name of the Italian region which is an island South of Corse (Corsica) which is well known for their Vermentino?
- What is the French term for effervescent, or lightly sparkling wine?
- When was AOC law enacted?
- I am a type of Sherry that initially had the blanket of "Flor", but it somehow disappeared in the process but allowed to continue maturing. I taste somewhat in between Fino and Olorosso. What type of Sherry am I?
- What is the grape permitted for Lambrusco di Sorbara DOC?
- Name two Saint-Émilion Satelite AOPs
- Name three of the five regional AVAs in California.
- What is the formula for C° to F° conversion?
- Which village from Côte Chalonaise that produces simple, acidic white wine made from lesser known white grape varietal very often used for Kir, and what is the name of the varietal?
- Name five Alsace Grand Cru AOP's Lieu-Dit.
- What is the bottle aging requirement for Non Millésimé (non-vintage) champagne?
- When did the French wine legislation reform start and when did the new regulation come into effect?
- What is the biggest wine producing region in Chile?
- What is the bottle format containing 4.5L (6 bottles) called?
- I am a type of Fino Sherry that is aged for an extended period of time. I am amber in colour and I have a nutty flavour. I am required to have a minimum alcohol >15%. What type of Sherry am I?
- Name all monopoles owned by Domaine de la Romanée-Conti in Vosne-Romanée.
- What are the three main acids naturally occurring in the grapes?
- Name three Grand Cru vineyards from the village of Gevrey-Chambertin.
- What are the synonyms of
- Name two wine producing regions from South Australia.
- What is the ideal serving temperature of red Rhône wine?
- In Franken, the wines are sold in what bottle in which colour?
- What is the condition of Lieblich in German wine and what colour of seal does it receive?
- What is the name of the mountain range that stands on the West of Alsace wine producing region?
- What is the varietal requirement of Beaumes-de-Venise AOP?
- What is the soil type of right bank Méridional?
- What is the varietal requirement of Crémant de Die AOP?
- Name the only AOP in Côte de Nuits that is permitted to produce rosé wine.
- Define "Monopole" situation in France.
- What is the name of the Italian region known for classical agricultural practices? Think of Biferno DOC.
- What is the bottle format containing 25L (33.33 bottles) called?
- In which state does Hunter Valley exist?
- What is the name of the AOP on the right bank in Centre Nivernais district that produces the world-renowned flinty white wine from Sauvignon Blanc?
- What are the synonyms of Chasselas?
- What is the name of the AOP from Champagne region that produces the red, white, and rosé still wine made from the three champagne varietals?
- This AVA in New York state produces around 85% of the entire output of the state. What is the name of the AVA?
- Name three Premières Crus of Sauternes and its commune.
- Clos de la Barre is a monopole of which Domaine?
- How many total classified growth
are there in Médoc?
- What is the name of the Anbaugebiete which is the most Northerly of all Anbaugebieten in Germany and it hardly produces wines above Spätlese? It is located within former East Germany.
- What is the name of the wine making technique in which the juice is put in a holding tank at below -7C° (19F°) to concentrate the sugar and flavour component?
- What are the synonyms of Malbec?
- How is Irish whisky usually distilled?
- Name three varietals each from eighteen red and white varietals permitted for producing Châteauneuf-du-Pape AOP. (List revised and published by INAO in 2009.)
- What is the name of the Anbaugebiete which is the most Southerly and it has the warmest climate of all Anbaugebieten in Germany?
- What is the grape permitted for
- In which year, who ordered to classify the growth of wines from Médoc according to what?
- Name at least three red grape varietals grown in Greece.
- What are the synonyms of Savagnin?
- What are the three levels of geographical classification in South Africa?
- What is the varietal requirement of red and rosé Châtillon-en-Diois AOP?
- What is the ideal serving temperature of off-dry rosé?
- Which village AOP from
Côte Chalonaise is only permitted to produce white wine from Chardonnay?
- Name three cities in Xérès region of Spain which forms Sherry triangle.
- What is Tawny Indication of Age?
- What is the ideal humidity level when storing wine?
- Name one Cuvée de Prestige from Krug.
- What are the main grapes permitted for Soave Superiore DOCG?
- What is the legal requirement for calling wine Alsace Grand Cru AOP?
- What is the terminology of white to light salmon pink sparkling wine made exclusively from red grapes?
- This Weinbauregionen produces 61% of wine by volume in the entire country. It is also famous for their Grüner Veltliner. Main subregions include Wachau and Weinviertel.
- What are the grapes permitted for producing Coteaux de Saumur AOP and in which style?
- What is Frasueira or Garrafeira?
- What are the three varietals explicitly forbidden from being used for producing Châteauneuf-du-Pape AOP?
- What is the most well known sub-region of Central Valley?
- What is the single most important factor that differentiates Scotch whisky from other types of whisky?
- In Burgenland, Chaptilisation is permitted provided a certain condition is met. True or false?
- Name one from four wine producing regions in New York state.
- When did the Judgement of Paris take place?
- Central Otago belongs to what type of climate?
- What is the name of the Italian region which produces a high volume of Aglianico? The capitol is Napoli (Naples). Think of Greco di Tufo DOCG
- What are the four levels of wine classification in Greece?
- What is the aging requirement for white and rosé Reserva in Spain?
- Name five châteaux from 3rd growth in Margaux.
- What is the main ingredient of Tequilla?
- What is the bottle format containing 30L (40 bottles) called?
- What are the four levels of wine classification in Italy?
- What are the synonyms of Carignan?
- What is the most widely planted red varietal in Argentina?
- What are the two main acids occurring in botrytised wines?
- What is the grape permitted for Gattinara DOCG and Ghemme DOCG?
- Name two Premier Cru climats from Chablis.
- What is Acidification?
- What is the name of the Italian region which is facing Adriatic sea and known for Lambrusco DOC?
- Name two Saint-Emilion Premier Grand Cru Classé Chateaux A.
- What is the only
Premier Cru Supérieur
- What is the name of the Anbaugebiete which is the most Easterly of all Anbaugebieten in Germany? It is also know to produce a high quality dry white wine with earthy character that are sold in Bocksbeutel bottles?
- What are the three most important grape varietals in Cava?
- What does IVDP stand for in Portugal?
- What is the dominant varietal in Northern Greece OPAPs?
- Name three climats from Corton AOP
- What is the name of the Italian region with many mountains which is known for their Montepulciano? The capitol is L'Aquila.
- What is an "Einzellage"?
- What does R.M. on Champagne seal stand for and what does it mean?
- What are the synonyms of Furmint?
- What is the general terminology for brandy made out of fruits such as cherries, raspberries, and plums?
- What is the range of residual sugar content that is allowed to use the terminology Brut?
- Amarone and Aforzato are the same thing. True or false?
- In wines produced in AVAs what is the allowable difference in alcohol by volume between the one that is on the label, and the one actually in wine?
- Name two Premier Cru vineyards from Vosne-Romanée.
- What are the two biggest changes took place in the wine classification law reform of 2006?
- What is the maximum capacity of barrels they are allowed to use for the production of Crianza, Reserva, and Gran Reserva?
- How is Vosge Mountains beneficial to the viticulture in Alsace wine producing region?
- What is the aging requirement for Extra Reserva in Madeira.
- What is "Ampelography"?
- What is the name of the Italian region which is know for their Negroamaro grapes? The capitol is Bari.
- What is the style of wine produced in Bergerac Sec AOP?
- What is a "Bereich"?
- What is the name of the wine produced in Tokaj region made from grapes affected by Botrytis Cinerea, which means "Syrup-like"?
- What is the grape permitted for
Cinque Terre DOC?
- What is the main ingredients of Awamori?
- What are the synonyms of Nebbiolo?
- What are the two most common types of Scotch?
- What is Mutage?
- What is the minimum aging requirement for Very Old Rare Sherry (VORS) defignation?
- By which villages is Bonnes-Mares AOP divided?
- How many Grand Cru monopoles are there in the village of Vosne-Romanée?
- What is the varietal requirement of red Vin de Corse AOP?
- How is Cognac distilled
and how is it aged?
- What is the bottle format containing 0.1875L (0.25 bottle) called?
- What is the name of second wine of
- Name at least two wine producing regions from Chile.
- What is the name for the sweet Szamorodni?
- Name at least two white grape varietals grown in Greece.
- What are the four levels of wine classification in Austria?
- What is the varietal requirement in California?
- What is the main ingredients of Satsuma-Shochu?
- What is the grape permitted for
- Name two Premier Cru vineyards from Puligny-Montrachet.
- What grapes are permitted for producing rosé from Crémant de Loire AOP?
- What is the Italian term for
- What is the soil type of Septentrional?
- What is the dominant varietal of
Vallée de la Marne?
- What is the terminology of sparkling wine made exclusively from white grapes? (100% Chardonnay in Champagne AOP)
- In which class and what commune is Ch. Cos d'Estournel classified?
- What are the synonyms of Mouvèdre?
- What are the permitted varietals in Blanquette de Limoux AOP? How long does it have to be aged?
- Name all ten Crus of Beaujolais
- What is the name of the Anbaugebiete known for the high quality Riesling from vineyards with slate soil situated on steep hills along the Saar and the Ruwer?
- Name two red varietals permitted in Provence.
- What is the legal requirement for Vintage Port?
- What is the minimum residual sugar level for Vendenge Tardive for Riesling and Muscat?
- Name two Grand Crus monopoles in the village of Vosne-Romanée that do not belong to
Domaine de la Romanée-Conti and who do they belong to?
- When opening a sparkling wine bottle, the cage must be removed before twisting the bottle/cork. True or false?
- Passito and Recioto are the same thing. True or false?
- What is the only third growth from Saint-Estèphe?
- What is the bottle format containing 0.75L (1 bottle) called?
- What is the measurement of sweetness derived from the name of the bucket with the capacity of 26kg used to determine the sweetness of the Tokaji Aszú wine?
- What grapes other than Pinot Noir and Gamay are permitted in
Bourgogne Passe-Tout-Grains AOP?
What is the maximum allowable percentage of each varietals?
- Name two "Districts" within Coastal Region in South Africa.
- What is the name of the AVA that exists on the West of Cascade Mountains, and in Washington State?
- What is the name of the Anbaugebiete which has vineyards stretching for approximately 130km (80miles) and it is situated where Nahe merges with Rhein (the Rhine)?
- What is the name of the wine making technique in which the wine is deliberately not racked after the fermentation is complete, and aged with the sediment to extract more flavour?
- I am a type of Sherry that did not take on the blanket of "Flor". I am golden in colour and quite dry. I am required to have a minimum alcohol >17%. What type of Sherry am I?
- When serving Alsace Grand Cru AOP wine, it is necessary to name the varietal when presenting the bottle. True or False?
- Name three appellations in
Entre-Deux-Mers district that are allowed to produce botrytised wine.
- What is the first AVA recognised?
- What is the soil type of left bank Méridional?
- This DOC in a Portuguese island is famous for their fortified wine. What is the name of this DOC?
- What are the grapes permitted for Marsala DOC?
- Name two terminology allowed for Champagne that did not receive any sugar in dosage?
- What is the varietal requirement for white Patrimonio AOP?
- What is the name of the disease in which the leaves are covered in white powdery residue?
- What is the specie of grapes that is generally used for making wine?
- What is the official name of Sherry?
- How long does an Irish whisky have to be aged in wood before released?
- What are the three grape varietals permitted in Champagne AOP?
- What is the name of the AOP in Languedoc that produces rosé from Carigan, Grenche, Mouvèdre, and Syrah?
- What is the varietal requirement of
Vin de Paille produced in Hermitage AOP?
- What is Strohwein?
- Which village in Côte d'Or does it have a Grand Cru vineyard but lacks Premier Cru Vineyard?
- What is Vin de Paille?
- What is the main soil composition of Côte de Beaune?
- How is Scotch whisky usually distilled?
- What is the name of the Italian region which boarders Austria, and it is the most Northerly region in Italy? Think of Teroldego Rotaliano DOC.
- What is the name of second wine of
- What is the grape permitted for Vernaccia di Oristano DOC?
- What is the name of the Italian region which mostly produces early drinking wine? Think of Est! Est!! Est!!! di Montefiascone DOC
- What are the four levels of wine classification in Portugal?
- Name three Grand Cru vineyards shared by Pernand-Vergelesses and Aloxe-Corton.
- This region produces about 80% of entire output of Canada and known for German style Ice Wine from Riesling and Vidal. Which region is this?
- What are the two Provincias producing wine in Centro-Oeste in Argentina?
- This DOC in Portugal produces early drinking lightly sparkling wine from Alvarinho. What is the name of this DOC?
- What are the famous AOPs in Bretagne and in Normadie that produce apple cider?
- What is the predominant varietal in Cahors AOP?
- What is the name of the wine producing region in New Zealand coined as "The Capitol of Chardonnay in New Zealand"?
- Which villages in Côte de Nuits do they lack Grand Cru vineyards?
- What is the ideal serving temperature of Vintage Port?
- What is Süßreserve?
- Name one wine producing region in Switzerland.
- Name two Grand Cru vineyards from Morey-Saint-Denis.
- Napa Valley AVA and Sonoma Valley AVA belong to what larger AVA?
- Hermitage is permitted to produce rosé wine. True or false?
- What are the notable legal requirements of Vin Jaune?
- What does N.M. on Champagne seal stand for and what does it mean?
- Name all three sub-regions of Champagne AOP that have Cru 100% (Grand Cru) villages.
- What is the dominant varietal of
Côte des Blancs?
- In order to qualify for "Añejo" deisgnation, how long does Tequila have to be aged in the barrel?
- What are the three main acids occurring as a result of fermentation?
- What is the dominant white varietal in Anjou & Saumur?
- What is Frangelico flavoured with?
- What is the varietal requirement in Oregon?
- What is the name of the AVA that is known the world over for their
- Relative to Bordeaux, in which direction is Cognac located?
- Name the only 4th growth from Pauillac.
- Name two white grape varietals permitted in Rioja DOC
- What is the dominant varietal of
- What is the French term for Sparkling Wine?
- What is the unofficial designation of high quality Sélection de Grains Nobles wine in Alsace that far exceeds the legal requirement for Sélection de Grains Nobles, regarded as equivalent or higher in quality to German Trockenbeerenauslese or Hungarian Tokaji Eszencia?
- What is the name of this Spanish wine region which is only permitted to produce white wine using mostly Albariño?
- What is the name of the cult vignéron from Burgundy who is credited for macération-à-froid (cold soaking) technique and revolutionlised many aspects of viticulture and wine making in 1960's, and who passed away in 2006?
- What is the most widely planted grape in Canada?
- This Spanish wine region is known for introducing the drip irrigation system in the 1980 by two legendary wine makers René Barbier and Álvaro Palacios. It is known to produce mostly red wine from the blend of Garnacha with international varietals such as Cariñena, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Merlot. What is the name of this region?
- Name two from all the AVAs in New York state.
- What is the ideal annual average temperature for growing vitis vinifera?
- Define Chaptilisation.
- What is the name of the Swiss wine producing region with half of the entire outputs in the country?
- What are the synonyms of Cinsaut?
- How do you convert Öchsle to residual sugar (percentage)?
- What is the name of second wine of
- What is the range of maximum yield in white village appellation in Burgundy?
- What is the maximum yield in Mosel?
- What is the most widely grown white varietal in Italy?
- Name all six levels of Prädikatswein from highest to lowest in Öchsle level.
- Name the only Grand Cru vineyard from Vougeot.
- Vidal is a cross hybrid of what two varietals?
- Clos de Tart AOP is a monopole of which Domaine?
- What is the bottle format containing 6L (8 bottles) called?
- What are the synonyms of
- What is the second most widely planted white varietal in Argentina?
- What does VQA stand for in Canada?
- What is the aging requirement for Reserva in Madeira DOC.
- What is the river mouth estuary in which three great rivers of Bordeaux converge near the vineyards of Graves and flows by Médoc towards the Atlantic?
- What is the minimum residual sugar level for Vendenge Tardive for Gewurtztraminer and Pinot Gris?
- What is the method of sparkling wine making in which the secondary fermentation and soutillage (racking) takes place in a large air-tight fermentation tank?
- What are the synonyms of Vermentino?
- Name three AOPs in Graves permitted to produce botrytised wines.
- What is the third most widely planted white varietal in Argentina?
- What are the synonyms of Pinot Gris?
- Name the Cuvée de Prestige from Perrier-Jouët.
- What are the dominant varietal in wines produced in Libournais?
- What are the permitted varietals in Crémant de Limoux?
- What are the two AOPs in Provence that gained the AOP status in 2005?
- What is the climate of Septentrional?
- What are the grapes permitted for
Est! Est!! Est!!! di Montefiascone DOC?
- What is the condition of Halbtrocken in German wine and what colour of seal does it receive?
- What is "Première Taille" in
- What are the three Provincias producing wine in Noroeste in Argentina?
- What is the aging requirement for white and rosé Crianza?
- What is the name of the Italian region in which the half of it is a flat and the other half is mountains and foothills? It is know for Soave DOCG, Bardolino DOCG, and Valpolicella DOC.
- What are the main stylistic differences between Northern Rhône wines and Southern Rhône wines?
- What is the terminology used for late harvest Chenin Blanc in Vouvray?
- Name two Premier Cru vineyards from Gevrey-Chambertin.
- What is the name of the AOP in Corsica that produces Vin Doux Nturel?
- How is Campari seasoned?
- Name one of the varietals permitted to produce wine in Savoie wine region.
- Define Malolactic Fermentation.
- I am a type of Sherry lighter in colour and quite dry. My flavour is fragile and I am meant to be drunk within a couple of days after being opened. I was covered by "Flor" during production. Jerez de la Frontera and El Puerto de Santa Maria are mainly where we come from. I am required to have >15% ABV. What type of Sherry am I?
- Name two Cru 100% (Grand Cru) Villages from Côte des Blancs.
- What are the synonyms of Syrah?
- What is the aging requirement for red Reserva in Spain?
- What are the grape permitted for Franciacorta DOCG?
- What is the third most planted white varietal in California?
- What is the AOP in Southern Rhône that gained the AOP status in 2006?
- Which AOP of Mâconais are permitted to produce white, red, and rosé wine?
- What is the main soil composition of Chablis from Jurassic Period?
- What is the soil type in Saint-Émilion?
- Name all six red varietals and three white varietals permitted to grow in Bordeaux.
- What is the permitted alcohol percentage range of Madeira DOC?
- What is the name of the Anbaugebiete in which the wine is said to have the floral characteristic of Mosel and elegance of Rheingau?
- What is the name of the Anbaugebiete near the French boarder which is the second largest Anbaugebieten in Germany that benefits from warmer climate?
- Name the only AOP in Burgundy that is permitted to produce wine from Sauvignon Blanc. Upgraded to AOC in 2003.
- What is the name for the levels of barrels that are above the "solera" barrels?
- Which Grand Cru vineyard in
Côte de Nuits is it permitted to produce white wine?
- What is the name of the AOP in Languedoc that produces exclusively rosé wine?
- What is the benefit of Solera system?
- What is the grape permitted for Vino Nobile di Montalcino DOCG?
- What is the main ingredients of
- In which year, which château was upgraded from which growth to which growth?
- What are "Passito" grapes?
- What is the ideal serving temperature of dry rosé?
- What is the range of maximum yield in white regional appellation in Burgundy?
- Name one each from red and white grape varietals permitted in Jura?
- Which wines each from red and white won the first place in Paris tasting?
- Name two sub-regions of Champagne AOP that don't have
Cru 100% (Grand Cru) villages.
- What is the name of the Italian region which has many lakes that softens the Continental climate? This region is known for sparkling wine made from traditional method such as Franciacorta DOCG.
- Name the Cuvée de Prestige from Pommery
- What are the common ingredients of Vodka?
- This region in Australia is known for their superior Pinot Noir. What region is this?
- What is the maximum yield in Franken?
- Name at least three chateaux from Saint-Emilion Premier Grand Cru Classé Chateaux B.
- What are the synonyms of Arbois?
- In order to qualify for VQA with the name of the vineyard in Canada, how much grape has to come from the said vineyard?
- Gigondas AOP is allowed to produce rosé wine. True or false?
- What is the range of maximum yield in white Premier Cru Burgundy?
- Name all six commues of Médoc from North to South
- What are the four noble varietals and four other varietals permitted in Alsace wine producing region?
- Name one château from 5th growth in Haut-Médoc.
- What are the grapes permitted for Valpolicella DOC?
- What is the method of sparkling wine making in which the wine that has gone through the secondary fermentation is transferred to the pressurized tank, then cooled, and racked before bottled?
- What is the name of the AOPs enclaved in Anjou AOP known for their botrytised Chenin Blanc and what are the two communal AOPs that are known to produce some of the best examples of the botrytised Chenin Blanc in the world?
- In which class and what commune is Ch. Léoville-Barton classified?
- Which country in the world consumes the most wine per capita?
- What are the three sub-appellations of Armagnac AOP?
- What grapes are permitted for producing rosé from Touraine AOP?
- What are the five classification of Sake and how much surface weight (in percentage) need to be polished off to qualify them?
- What is the bottle format containing 0.375L (0.5 bottle) called?
- Madiran AOP is know for producing red wine from predominantly what varietal?
- What are the three sub-regions of
- Which village does the vineyard "Criots-Bâtard-Montrachet" exist?
- What is the formula for F° to C° conversion?
- Name three Premier Cru vineyards from Chassagne-Montrachet.
- What is the second most planted white varietal in France?
- What are the four levels of wine classification in Germany?
- Name three most notable white grape varietals in Portugal.
- How long does the Alsace wine producing region stretch from North to South?
- This DOC in Portugal produces world famous fortified wine from mainly Touriga Nacional. What is the name of this DOC?
- What is the most Southerly AVA in Oregon?
- Which style of wine is produced by which grapes in Bourgueil?
- What is the name of the Anbaugebiete which is the largest of all Anbaugebiten in Germany? Wine is known to be soft, delicate, and fruity.
- What is the main soil composition of Côte de Nuits?
- Name two 2nd growth from Pauillac.
- What are the synonyms of Temperanillo?
- Name one châteaux from classed growth in Graves that are only classified for their white wines.
- What is Liqueur d'Expedition?
- What is the name of the Italian region in which it produces the best examples of Nebbiolo grapes such as
Barolo DOCG, and Barbaresco DOCG?
- Name the Cuvée de Prestige from Nicolas Feuillatte.
- La Romanée AOP is a monopole of which domaine?
- This AOP in Northern Rhône is a monopole, and it is known for their Viognier wine. What is the name of the AOP?
- What is the minimum residual sugar level for Sélection de Grains Nobles for Riesling and Muscat?
- Name the Cuvée de Prestige from Henri Boillot.
- What is
- What is the ideal latitude for growing vitis vinifera in Northern Hemisphere?
- Name the Cuvée de Prestige from Taittinger.
- What is the most widely planted white varietal in Argentina?
- What is the specie of grapes that is regarded as table grapes and when made into wine impart a "foxy flavor" profile?
- What is the grape permitted for
Colli Orientali del Friuli Piccolit DOCG?
- What is the name of the Tokaji Aszú equivalent to 7 to 8 Puttonyos? What is the minimum residual sugar level? What is the aging requirement?
- What is the name of the soil type in Sherry?
- What are the varietals permitted for producing red Anjou AOP?
- What is the name of the wine region that produces the second biggest volume in New Zealand?
- What is the style of wine produced in Monbazillac AOP?
- Which villages in Côte de Beaune lacks Premier Cru Vineyards?
- This Spanish wine region produces around 90% of all the Cava produced. What is the name of this region?
- What are the seven levels of wine classification in Spain?
- What is the legal requirement for Late Bottled Vintage Port (LBV)?
- What is the name of the Anbaugebiete in which the vineyards stretch from Lorchhusen to Assmannhausen, then to Wiesbaden? The wine from this Anbaugebiete is known to be elegant, yet fruity, while attaining sophisticated aroma and power.
- What is Vin Santo in Italy?
- What is the maximum yield in Rheingau?
- What is the only DO recognised in La Rioja region in Argentina?
- In which year was Wine Institute in the United States established? It is also the year in which UC Davis opened the faculty of Viticulture and Oenology.
- What is the range of maximum yield in red regional appellation in Burgundy?
- Who regulates and enforces the AOC (prior to 2012) or AOP (after 2012) law?
- Name two Vin de Liqueur.
- What is the varietal permitted for producing Retsina?
- What is Sélection de Grains Nobles in Alsace wine?
- Name three Premier Cru Vineyrards from Meursault.
- What is the name of this Spanish wine region which is located at the heart of Castillia Léon and it produces wine from at least 75% Tinto Fino (a.k.a.Tempranillo)?
- What is the Spanish term for effervescent, or lightly sparkling wine?
- What is the bottle format containing 9L (12 bottles) called?
- Name all Grand Cru
- What is the climate of Méridional?
- What is the varietal requirement of Côte Rôtie AOP?
- What is the name of the wine in Switzerland that is made from vinifying at least 51% of Pinot Noir and Gamay together?
- Which AOP from Mâconnais are permitted to produce white wine only?
- What is the bottle format containing 27L (36 bottles) called?
- What are the main ingredients of Bourbon and what is the legal requirement to qualify for being called a Bourbon?
- What is the system in which Sherry is aged? It is the system that the new wine is added from the top of the stack of barrels, then that barrel tops off the next level of barrels below and so on.
- Name at least three châteaux from Pomerol AOP
- What is the name of the Italian region which is stylistically similar to Greek wine due to the influences by Greek seafarers who originally brought wine making to this region? Think of Cirò DOC.
- What are the synonyms of Rousette?
- What is the designation in Austria that exists in between BA and TBA with minimum 27° KMW?
- What is the varietal requirement of Cornas AOP?
- What is Grappa?
- In which vintages was Romanée-Conti AOP not produced?
- In which state does
Adelaide Hills exist?
- Cornas AOP produces a small amount of white wine made out of Rousanne & Marsanne. True or false?
- What is the name for noble rot in Germany?
- Which mountain ranges stands in between Napa County and Sonoma County?
- In which class and what commune is Ch. Branaire-Ducru classified?
- Is Bordeaux AOP permitted to produce white wine?
- What is a "Großlage"?
- What are the synonyms of Maccabeu?
- Name all seven (or eight) Grand Cru Vineyards of Chablis from North-West to South-East.
- Name two AVAs that exist on the East of Cascade Mountains, and in Washington State?
- What is the name of the Vin de Liquer AOP produced in Jura?
- In which class and what commune is Ch. Clerc-Milon classified?
- What is Rancio?
- What is the second most widely grown red varietal in Italy?
- What is the name of the wine produced in Tokaj region made from grapes unaffected by Botrytis Cinerea, which means "Au Naturel"?
- Name two Grand Cru vineyards shared by Pernand-Vergelesses, Aloxe-Corton, and Ladoix.
- Name three Cru 100% (Grand Cru) Villages from Montagne de Reims.
- Name three most notable red grape varietals in Portugal.
- What grapes are permitted for producing Vouvray AOP?
- This facility is used for producing Madeira DOC. It is a man made heating machine in which the wine is heated in large stainless steel vats which heats the wine to 35C° (95C°) to 50C° (120F°) for minimum three months, then cooled down for three to four weeks before transferred to a large barrel called Cuba. What is the name of the facility?
- What is the German term for effervescent, or lightly sparkling wine?
- Name three Premier Cru vineyards from Nuits-Saint-Georges.
- Which Château in St-Emilion Grand Cru Classé was it promoted from Grand Cru Classé to Grand Cru Classé Château B in 1996, and then to Château A in 2012?
- What are the synonyms of Cabernet Franc?
- What is White Port?
- What is the Italian term for effervescent, or lightly sparkling wine?
- What is the third most planted red varietal in California?
- Which commune has the largest number of classified growth in Médoc?
- What is the name of grape brandy AOP from Burgundy that is made from fermenting the pips and skins?
- What does DVA stand for in Canada?
- Who organized the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976?
- What is the range of maximum yield in white Grand Cru Burgundy?
- Which Grand Cru vineyards of Montrachet are shared by the villages of both Puligny-Montrachet
- What are the six (or seven)
sub-appellations of Cognac AOP?
- What is the legal requirement for Crémant de Jura?
- What are the two levels of EU wine classification according to the 1962 Treaty of Rome?
- What is the ideal serving temperature for dry white wine?
- What is the name for the pre-fermentation sugar rich soup that is used to make beer?
- What is the varietal requirement of white Châtillon-en-Diois AOP?
- Name one of the Cuvée de Prestige from Laurent Perrier.
- What is the ideal serving temperature of red Bordeaux wine?
- In AVAs, what percentage of wine does it have to come from the vintage in order to put the said vintage on the label?
- Name two AVAs that exist on the East of Cascade Mountains, and are shared by both Washington State and Oregon?
- What is the name of the famous Benedictine monk credited for improving the quality of then-still wine of the Champagne Region?
- What is the name of the river that flows on the East of Alsace wine producing region that serves as a natural boarder between France and Germany?
- What is the formula of alcoholic fermentation?
- Jurançon AOP is known to produce what style of wine from predominantly which varietals?
- What are the three tiers in traditional wine classification of Wachau.
- Name the Cuvée de Prestige from Billecart-Salmon.
- What is the name of the disease in which the whole plant gets covered in white mold, and it causes leaves, flowers, and fruits to fall off?
- Name one white varietals permitted in Provence.
- What is the range of maximum yield in red Premier Cru Burgundy?
- What is the varietal requirement for red Patrimonio AOP?
- What is the name of the tiny insects that suck out the sup of the vine especially the root that causes vines to die?
- What is the range of maximum yield in red Grand Cru Burgundy?
- What is the name of the AOP in Languedoc that produces red from minimum 50% Merlot and rosé from 50% Cabernet Franc in which it gained AOP status in 2007?
- Clos des Cortons is a monopole of which Domain?
- What does AVA stand for?
- What are the synonyms of
- What is the ideal cellar temperature for storage of wine?
- What is the most widely planted red varietal in New Zealand.
- Grèves Vigne de l'Enfant Jésus is a monopole of which Domaine?
- Domaine de la Romanée-Conti is under a co-ownership of which families?
- Which AVA is shared by Napa Valley AVA and Sonoma Valley AVA?
- Name two wine producing regions of Greece.
- Name the only Grand Cru vineyard in Côte de Beaune which is permitted to produce red wine.
- What is the dominant varietal of Sauternes AOP?
- What is the third most widely grown white varietal in Italy?
- What is a "Flor"?
- What are the famous AOPs in Normandie that produces apple brandy?
- How did the Champagne wine come to be associated with celebration?
- This Alsace Grand Cru is the only climat that is permitted to produce Sylvaner instead of Muscat. What is the name of this climat?
- What is Liquer de Tirage?
- What is the method of sparkling wine making in which the wine going through the fermentation is bottled and the remaining fermentation takes place in the bottle?
- What is the varietal requirement of red Hermitage AOP?
- What is the third most widely planted red varietal in Australia?
- In which year was Phylloxera discovered in Sonoma?
- What is the second most widely grown white varietal in Italy?
- What are the varietals permitted for Rasteau AOP,
and Rasteau Rancio AOP?
- What are the main grape varietals in Sherry?
- What is the legal requirement for Colheita?
- What is Occhio di Pernice?
- What are the synonyms of
- Name the Cuvée de Prestige from Ruinart.
- What is Young Tawny?
- What is the varietal requirement of Saint-Péray AOP?
- What is the name for the Southern Rhône region in French?
- What is the name of second wine of
- What is Remuage?
- This DOC in Portugal produces still wine from the same area as Porto DOC. What is the name of this DOC?
- What is the main ingredients of
- Lirac AOP is allowed to produce red, white, and rosé. True or false?
- What is the legal requirement of
Vin de Paille made in Hermitage AOP?
- Name the Cuvée de Prestige from Philipponnat.
- What is Vin Jaune and how is it made?
- What is the minimum aging requirement for Very Old Sherry (VOS) defignation?
- What is the name of the wine making technique in which the skin is immersed in the juice prior to fermentation?
- What does "Jambes", "Larmes", or "Legs", "Tears" indicate?
- What is the name of the Italian region that is a thin and long stretch of hills descending from Alps to Mediterranean?
Think of Cinque Terre DOC.
- What is Ruby Port?
- What are the synonyms of Chardonnay?
- In which class and what commune is Ch. Palmer classified?
- This grape, found in South Africa, is a cross hybrid of two varietals. What is the name of the parent varietals and the resulting varietal?
- What are the synonyms of
- What are the five smallest AOPs in France?
- What is the range of residual sugar content that is allowed to use the terminology Demi Sec?
- What are the synonyms of
- What are the conditions for upgrading DOC to DOCG?
- Name two grapes permitted for Madeira DOC.
- This region in Australia has similar climate to Pomerol or Saint-Emillion and well known for their Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. Which region is this?
- What are Vins Doux Naturels?
- Brick tinge to the rim of wine indicates the age of the wine. True or false?
- What grapes are permitted for producing Rosé d'Anjou AOP?
- Clos des Réas in Vosne-Romanée AOP is a monopole of which Domaine?
- What soil type is Coonawarra known for?
- What are the synonyms of Sangiovese Piccolo (not Sangiovese Grosso)?
- What is the name of the Italian region which is mostly clay soil with the capitol of Ancona? Think of Verdicchio dei Castelli.
- What are the two AOPs in Northern Rhône known for their wines made out of Viognier?
- What is the aging requirement for red Crianza in Spain?
- What are the names of Scotch producing regions?
- In the United States, Chaptilisation is prohibited. True or false?
- What are the synonyms of Ugni Blanc?
- Name three smaller AVAs from
North Coast AVA.
- What is the name of the twin enclaves in Savennières AOP that is not
- What is the name of the AOP situated on the left bank directly across from
- What is the most ideal environment for storing wine?
- What is the minimum alcohol percentage in Champagne AOP?
- What is the varietal requirement of red Saint-Joseph AOP?
- Name all Grand Cru Vineyards from Vosne-Romanée.
- Name the Cuvée de Prestige from Deutz.
- When serving Vintage Port, it is necessary to decant. True or False?
- Who discovered the effect of fermentation by yeast?
- What is the most planted white varietal in France?
- With what varietal is Clare Valley known for?
- Name one wine producing region in Ontario.
- What is the ideal annual sunlight hours for growing vitis vinifera?
- What is the varietal permitted in Tokaji?
- This AVA in Pacific Northwest produces about 98% of grapes used for wine in Washington State. What is the name of the AVA?
- What is the minimum alcohol level allowed for BA and TBA in Germany?
- What is the ideal temperature for complex white wine?
- What is the most widely grown red varietal in Italy?
- What does "La Cuvée"
(a.k.a. Tête de Cuvée) in
Champagne AOP consist of?
- What is the name of the Italian region which is an island which is known for Marsala DOC?
- What is the name of the Anbaugebiete in which vineyards are located North of Heiderberg, East of Rhein (the Rhine), and the West of Odenwald mostly producing Spätburgunder?
- What is the varietal requirement of Clairette de Die AOP?
- White wine turns from darker colour to lighter colour as it matures. True or false?
- Which Grand Cru vineyards from Gevrey-Chambertin are they allowed to interchange their names?
- What primary ingredient is added to the beer for flavouring?
- Name at least two wine producing regions in North Island of New Zealand.
- What is the dominant varietal in Barossa Valley?
- When is Beaujolais Nouveau AOP released each year?
- What is the name of the Anbaugebiete which produces the smallest volume of wine in Germany? It is also the most Easterly Anbaugebiete in Germany.
- Relative to Bordeaux, in which direction is Armagnac located?
- What is the name of the rosé wine made with 100% Pinot Noir in Neuchâtel?
- What are the factors that determines the speed of maturation in wine?
- Who administrates AVAs?
- Name the only two Grand Cru vineyrds from Chambolle-Musigny
- What is the name of the insects that transmit Pierce's Disease?
- Which village in Côte de Nuits does it lack Premier Cru or Grand Cru vineyards?
- What are the synonyms of Riesling?
- Name the Cuvée de Prestige from Veuve Cliquot.
- What is the dominant varietal of left bank Bordeaux?
- This wine region in New Zealand is well known for their Pinot Noir. Which region is this?
- What is the second most widely planted white varietal in Australia?
- Which one of the following AOP is not permitted to produce wine from Chenin Blanc?
1), Jasnières AOP
2), Cour-Cheverny AOP
3), Quincy AOP
4), Chinon AOP
- What is Tavel AOP famous for?
- What is the name of the Italian region which is known for their world renowned Chianti DOCG, Chianti Classico DOCG, and Brunello di Montalcino DOCG?
- What is the name of the Italian region in which it has the most rain fall in Italy that is known for their sweet white wine? Think of Collio DOC
- What is the second second planted red varietal in California?
- What is the bottle format containing 20L (26.66 bottles) called?
- What are the five châteaux of Première Grand Cru Classé of Médoc and in which commune are they located?
- In which state does Great Southern ecist?
- Name one wine producing region in Hungary besides Tokaj-Hegyalija.
- What are the dominant white varietals in Centre Nivernais?
- What are the synonyms of Pinot Blanc?
- What is Amaretto flavoured with?
- What is the aging requirement for Special Reserva, or Old Reserva in Madeira.
- What are the two DOs in Mendoza?
- What is the name of the AOP from Champagne region that produces the rosé still wine made exclusively from Pinot Noir?
- Name the Cuvée de Prestige from Gosset?
- a North
- b Chenin Blanc a.k.a Pineau de la Loire.
- c Rice
- d Kimméridgien - Layers of fossilised oyster shells.
- e Ribera del Duoro DOC
- f False
- g Weisser Riesling (Germany)
White Riesling (US)
Johannisberg Riesling (US)
- h Brunello (Brunello di Montalcino), Prugnolo Gentile (Vino Nobile di Montepulciano)
- i Saint-Estèphe
- j Sir Winston Churchill
- k 70% to 75%
- l Brut Zéro
Brut de Brut
- m Cabernet Sauvignon
- n Dôle
- o At least 50% of the cépage is from noble grapes.
- p 1873
- q Cornouaille AOP
Pays d'Auge AOP
- r 12 months in the barrel,
24 months in the bottle.
Total: 36 months before release.
- s Tokaji Aszúeszencia
5 years before release.
- t 12C° (54F°) to 14C° (57F°)
- u Sancerre AOP
- v Hessische Bergstraße
- w Bourgros
La Moutone is also permitted on the label but not recognized by INAO as a Grand Cru vineyard.
- x Blue Agave
- y Solomon
- z South Australia
- aa Grand Champagne
- ab Augusta, Missouri
- ac Sugar Cane
- ad Ch. Duhart-Milon Rothschild
- ae Rivaner (Luxembourg, Slovenia)
- af Prädikatswein
- ag Veneto
- ah Yakima Valley AVA
Red Mountains AVA
Horse Heaven Hills AVA
Wahluke Slope AVA
Rattlesnake HIlls AVA
- ai Turning of bottles to bring the yeast sediment to the neck of the bottles.
It is also called Riddling in English.
- aj Victoria
- ak Minimum 85%
- al Sweet White Wine
- am Celebri
- an 1935
- ao Minervois la Livinière AOP
from total of at least 60% of Syrah, Mourvèdre, and Grenache.
Must be matured until 1 November following the year of the harvest.
- ap 1), Renaming of Appellation d'Origine Controlée (AOC) to Appellation d'Origine Protégée (AOP)
2), Abolishment of Appellation d'Origine de Vin de Qualité Supérieur (AOVDQS)
- aq En Primeur is the the practice of merchants and trade organizations are invited to taste the barrel sample of wines that are entering the maturing phase. It is then sold before bottling at a significantly lower price than after being bottled. Though it is often seen as a gamble since the wine price can appreciate or depreciate depending on many factors such as overall quality, age-worthiness, or the economy.
- ar Jerez-Xérès-Sherry
y Manzanilla de Barrameda DOC.
- as Négociant-Manipulant - It is used to identify that the wine comes from a large négociant that mainly purchases grapes from the growers to make their wine. Majority of Champagne productions including most major Maison fall into this category.
- at Full bodied rosé produced from the blend of predominantly Grenache, with Cinsault, Mouvèdre, and Syrah.
- au Wines made out of late harvested grapes which is largely affected by Botrytis Cinerea.
- av Corton AOP
- aw La Grande Rue - Domaine François Lamarche
La Romanée - Domaine du Château de Vosne-Romanée (a.k.a. Domaine du Comte Liger-Belair)
- ax Vintners Quality Alliance
- ay Aconcagua Valley
San Antonio Valley
Bio Bio Valley
- az Ull de Llebre (Cataluña)
Ojo de Lliebre (Cataluña)
Cencibel (La Mancha)
Tinto Fino (Castilla Léon)
Tinto del Pais (Castilla Léon)
Tinta de Toro (Spain)
Tinto de Madrid (Madrid)
Tinta Roriz (Portugal)
- ba Furmint
Sarga Muskotály (a.k.a. Muscat Blancs à Petits Grains)
- bb Colombard
- bc 2), In the interest of service excellence.
- bd Pavillon Rouge
- be Charmes-Chambertin AOP and Mazoyères-Chambertin AOP
- bf 20 years
- bg Smaragd 18.2°KMW
- bh Carignan, Marsanne, and Viognier.
- bi Auxerrois (a.k.a. Côt and Malbec)
- bj Garganega
- bk 1976
- bl Grapes that went through Passito process are pressed and fermented sweet, then put in the barrel partially full with yeast film allowed to develop on the surface. Produced mainly in Toscana from white grapes. If it is produced from red grapes, it is allowed to be labeled as "Occhio di Pernice".
- bm Brandy made out of fermenting pips and skins of grapes. Same as Marc in France. Most Grappa does not see wood but if it is aged, takes on amber colour.
- bn La Tâche AOP
- bo Grand Cru
- bp Institut National des Appellations d'Origine (prior to 1 January 2007) - INAO
Institut National de l'Origine et de la Qualité (Still called INAO despite the new name's acronym being INOQ)
- bq Stone of apricot
(for the flavour of almond).
- br Les Amoureuses
- bs Grande Cuvée
- bt *It has to be made exclusively from grapes that are harvested in the inferior-declared vintage.
*It has to display the vintage on the label.
*The application to declare vintage must be submitted to IVDP in the fourth year from the vintage between March and September.
*It has to be bottled in between July of the second year from the harvest to the end of the sixth year from the harvest.
- bu 3rd, Margaux
- bv They are fortified wines in which the fermentation is halted by the addition of brandy. Leaving the resulted wine sweet and high in alcohol.
- bw Touriga Nacional
Tinta Roriz (a.k.a. Aragones, Tempranillo)
Tinta Negro Mole
- bx Corvina Veronese
- by Cabernet Francs
- bz Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac
- ca Vins Doux Naturels made out of Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains.
- cb Ausbruch
- cc Minimum 95%
- cd Marsannay
- ce Ch. Bahans Haut Brion
- cf La Grande Rue AOP
La Romanée AOP
La Tâche AOP
- cg Third Thursday of November following the harvest.
- ch Eau-de-Vie
- ci 40hl/ha to 64hl/ha
- cj Montepulciano
- ck It homogenizes the quality and flavor of the wine while allowing it to mature for an extended period of time.
- cl *Red Grapes
Pinot Noir (Gros Noirien)
Chardonnay (Melon d'Arbois)
- cm Sémillon
- cn Niellucio minimum 90%
- co Finger Lakes AVA
Hudson River AVA
Long Island AVA
Lake Erie AVA
- cp 36 months after Tirage.
- cq Minimum 10 years.
- cr North Coast AVA
Central Coast AVA
Sierra Foothills AVA
Central Valley AVA
South Coast AVA
- cs Vino Spumante
- ct Grande Dame
- cu Muscat du Cap Corse AOP
- cv Palomino (Dry)
Pedro Ximénez (Sweet)
- cw Marsannay
- cx False. No large format of Romanée-Conti was produced in 1945.
- cy Vale d'Aosta
- cz Penedès DOC
- da Toscana (Tuscany in English)
- db Cataratto Bianco Comune
- dc 8C° (46F°) to 10C° (50F°)
- dd It started in 2006 and came into effect in 2012.
- de Hermitage (South Africa)
- df Standard or Full Bottle
- dg Mondeuse
- dh Niederöstrreich
- di Viula (a.k.a. Macabeo)
- dj 50hl/ha to 69hl/ha
- dk 5th, Pauillac
- dl Sauvignon Blanc
- dm 1934
- dn Avize
- do Primat or Goliath
- dp Méthode Charmat, or Méthode de la Cuvée Close
- dq Ch. Calon-Ségur
- dr Pinot Noir
- ds True
- dt Agiorgitiko
- du Gros Plant (Loire, Cognac, Armangac)
- dv False. Cornas is only permitted to produce red wine exclusively from Syrah.
- dw Château-Chalon AOP
- dx Corton AOP (including all 32 climats)
- dy Pedro Gimenez (completely unrelated to Pedro Ximénez in Spain)
- dz Magnum
- ea Colli Arteri
Montespertoli (since 1996)
- eb Chorey-lès-Beaune
- ec Domaine des Comtes Lafon
- ed Ch. Belair
- ee False. Hermitage is only permitted to produce white and red wines.
- ef Rogue Valley AVA
- eg Priorat DOC
- eh Nielluccio (Corsica)
- ei Succinic Acid, Acetic Acid, and Lactic Acid.
- ej Altesse (Jura)
- ek Grenache Noir
- el Wort
- em Chardonnay
- en Corton AOP
- eo 2nd, Saint-Estèphe
- ep Demi or Half Bottle
- eq Merlot
- er 2nd, Saint-Julien
- es Le Petit Mouton
- et Canteiro
- eu Pineau de la Loire (Loire)
Steen (South Africa)
- ev Ch. Lafite Rothschild (Pauillac)
Ch. Latour (Pauillac)
Ch. Mouton-Rothschild (Pauillac)
Ch. Margaux (Margaux)
Ch. Haut-Brion (Péssac-Léognan) -*Not in Médoc but in Graves.
- ew Cabarnet Franc
- ex American Viticultural Area
- ey Château-Grillet AOP
- ez Sardignia
- fa Grolleau
- fb At least 51% of ingredients has to be corn, and aged in new charred American oak barrel.
- fc Rheinhessen
- fd Sandstone mixed with small pebbles and sand.
- fe 45hl/ha to 75hl/ha
- ff Macvin de Jura AOP
- fg Fleur de Champagne
- fh Sovereign
- fi Koji
- fj A collection of vineyards within a district.
167 of them in existence as of 2009.
- fk 6C° (43F°) to 8C° (46F°)
- fl Solera System
- fm Monastrell (Spain)
Mataro (Australia, US)
- fn Cascade Mountains
- fo Tannat
- fp Riesling
Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains
Pinot Blanc (Klevner)
- fq Mâcon AOP
Mâcon+Commune (eg. Mâcon-Solutré AOP, Mâcon-Vinzelles AOP, Mâcon-Loché AOP)
- fr Pinot-Chardonnay-Mâcon AOP
- fs Bairrada DOC
- ft 0g/L to 15g/L.
- fu Hawkes Bay
- fv With the peel of bitter orange.
- fw Limestone
- fx Dom Pérignon
- fy Bosco
- fz True. Mainly from Grenache and Clairette.
- ga Barbera
- gb Muscadet a.k.a. Melon de Bourgogne
- gc Western Australia
- gd Friuli-Venezia-Giulia
- ge Minimum 3 years.
- gf 6C° (43F°) to 12C° (54F°)
- gg Franken
- gh Jerez de la Frontera
El Puerto de Santa Maria
Sanlúcar de Barrameda
- gi Macabeo (a.k.a. Viula)
also permitted are:
- gj Mont de Milleu
Montée de Tonnerre
Côte de Léchet
- gk Aszú
- gl 125hL/ha
(except for Elbling: 150hL/ha)
- gm Jeroboam
- gn Four
- go Sangiovese (Grosso)
- gp Aged Ruby Port.
- gq No
- gr 2), Cour-Cheverny AOP.
Produced exclusively from Romarantin.
- gs Loureiro
Alvarinho (Alvariño in Spain)
- gt 55hl/ha to 75hl/ha
- gu C° = (F°-32) x 5/9
- gv Hazelnut
- gw *Red Grapes:
Vaccarèse (Brun Argenté)
- gx Scotch whisky. Honey and various herbs.
- gy Palo Cortado
- gz Maceration, or Skin Contact
- ha Cabernet Francs (a.k.a Breton).
- hb Les Forts de Latour
- hc Melchizedek
- hd Port in which 1/3 of White Port is added to the Tawny Port.
- he Calvados du Pays d'Auge AOP
Calvados Domfrontais AOP
- hf Puglia (or Apulia)
- hg Abruzzo
- hh Porto DOC
- hi Pinot Noir x Cinsaut
- hj Menu Pineau
- hk Henri Jayer
- hl Saale-Unstrut
- hm Niederöstrreich
- hn Port made from white grapes.
- ho Rolle (Provence)
- hp Fermentation that converts harsher Malic Acid into milder Lactic Acid.
- hq Minimum 5 years.
- hr Blanc de Noirs
- hs Clos des Goisses
- ht Galets
- hu Trappist
- hv 61
- hw True. Recioto is what people from Veneto call Passito.
- hx Montagny AOP
- hy Rice-Koji
- hz Gutedel (Alsace, Germany)
- ia Trockenberenauslese (TBA)
Eiswein and Berenauslese (BA)
- ib Côte de Sézanne
Côte des Bars
- ic 15 months after Tirage.
- id Calabria
- ie La Rioja
- if Ugni Blanc
(a.k.a. Saint-Emilion in Cognac and in Armagnac)
- ig Single Malt Whisky
- ih Mediterranean
- ii Riesling
- ij 11% ABV
- ik Baden
- il Flazy-Echézeaux
- im Columbia Valley AVA
- in Saint-Amour
Côte de Brouilly
- io Denominação de Origem Controlada (DOC)
Indicação Proveniência Regulmentada (IPR)
Vinho de Mesa
- ip Rehoboam
- iq Campania
- ir Three times in Pot Still
- is True
Vintage Port is bottled without filtration, thus comes with a large amount of sediment. It is thus important to decant it prior to serving.
- it Clos du Mesnil
- iu Ch. d'Yquem
- iv Clos de Vougeot AOP
- iw Finger Lakes AVA
Hudson River Region AVA
Long Island AVA
North Fork of Long Island AVA
Hamptons of Long Island AVA
Lake Erie & Chautauqua AVA
Niagara Escarpment AVA
- ix Albalíssa
- iy Wheat
- iz Marsannay AOP
- ja Michel Gros
- jb A single vineyard. It must be larger than 5ha.
2,658 of them in existence as of 2009.
- jc Merlot (except for Ch. Cheval Blanc, in which the dominant varietal is Cabernet Franc; and for Ch. Figeac in which the dominant varietal is Cabernet Sauvignon)
- jd Bas-Armagnac AOP
Armagnac Ténarèze AOP
- je Clos de la Roche AOP
Clos des Lambrays AOP
Clos de Tart AOP
- jf Württenburg
- jg Marlborough
Canterbury / Waipara
- jh Okanagen Valley
- ji Approximately 100km (60miles)
- jj 4th, St-Julien
- jk Les Gaudichots
Les Beaux Monts
Clos des Réas
- jl Valais
- jm Clos Saint-Jacques
Clos des Varoilles
Clos du Chapître
- jn 18C° (64F°) to 20C° (68F°)
- jo Piccolo
- jp Cabernet Francs a.k.a Breton.
- jq Chenin Blanc, Dessert Wine
- jr Amontillado.
- js 6 months in the barrel,
12 months in the bottle.
Total: 18 months before release.
- jt The amount of organic acid.
Poly-phenol from Barrels
Residual Sugar Level
Concentration of Extract
Free Sulpheric Acid Level
- ju Schwarzriesling (Germany)
- jv Balthazar
- jw Northern Rhône wines tend to be Syrah dominant, blended with either Rousanne & Marsanne or with Viognier (except for Cornas AOP which is 100% Syrah). Southern Rhône wines tend to be blends of many different varietals with some relative importance to Grenache.
- jx North Coast AVA
- jy 6 months in the barrel,
42 months in the bottle.
Total: 48 months before release.
- jz Ch. Pétrus
Ch. Le Pin
Ch. La Conseillante
- ka It is an unofficial designation in which a given AOP or a vinayard is solely owned by a proprietor, such as Clos du Tart AOP, Château-Grillet AOP, or Savenières-Coulée-de-Serrant AOP. It is also applicable to the Premier Cru AOPs with vineyard designation such as Meursault Clos de la Barre (Appelation Meursault Premier Cru Protégée) by Comte Lafon. Some Grand Cru AOP and village level AOP may carry "Monopole" designation on its etiquette when historical "lieu-dit", or certain "climat" is solely owned by a single proprietor. e.g. Corton Clos des Cortons (Appelation Corton Grand Cru Protégée) by Domaine Faiveley, or Vosne-Romanée Clos du Château (Appelation Vosne-Romanée Protégée) by Domaine du Compte Liger-Belair.
- kb Spanna (Ghemme)
- kc Niagara Peninsula
Lake Erie North Shore
Prince Edward County
- kd Ch. Ferrière
Ch. Malescot Saint-Exupéry
Ch. Marquis d'Alesme-Becker
- ke Finger Lakes AVA
- kf Malbec
- kg Los Carneros AVA 1983-08-18
Howell Mountain AVA 1983-12-30
Wild Horse Valley AVA 1988-11-30
Stags Leap District AVA 1989-01-27
Mt. Veeder AVA 1990-02-20
Atlas Peak AVA 1992-01-22
Spring Mountain District AVA 1993-05-13
Oakville AVA 1993-07-02
Rutherford AVA 1993-07-02
St. Helena AVA 1995-09-11
Chiles Valley AVA 1999-02-17
Yountville AVA 1999-03-19
Diamond Mountain District AVA 2001-06-01
Oak Knoll District of Napa Valley AVA 2004-02-25
Calistoga AVA 2009-12-08
Coombsville AVA 2011-12-14
- kh Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau
- ki Prädikatswein
Qualitätswein bestimmter Anbaugebiete (QbA)
- kj 4th, Saint-Julien
- kk Chenin Blanc
- kl Process of removing the sediment from the neck of the bottle by freezing at very low temperature.
- km Luxembourg
- kn Edes
- ko Vin de Paille is a sweet straw wine in which the grapes are left on the straw mats to dry (the process is called "Passerillage") so the juice is concentrated. It is also made in Jura. Same practice of wine making is also seen in Austria, Greece, and notably in Italy (Vin Santo for example.).
- kp Maule Valley
- kq Trebbiano Romagnolo
- kr Continental
- ks >45g/L residual sugar.
- kt Les Saint-Georges
Rue de Chaux
Clos de la Maréchale
Clos des Argillières
Clos des Grandes Vignes
- ku Coteaux Champnois AOP
- kv Condrieu AOP
- kw Vino Frizzante
- kx Maipo Valley
- ky Terra Rossa
- kz Marche
- la Clairette 100%
- lb Bâtard-Montrchet AOP
- lc Dordogne
- ld Saint-Bris AOP
Similar soil type to Chablis region: alluvial and Kimméridgien, thus producing steely, and minerally Sauvignon Blanc with flavors of sour green apples.
- le Trebbiano Toscano 65%,
Malvasia Bianca 15% minimum
- lf Wormwood is steeped with wine. It is consumed as aperitivo or digestivo.
- lg Domaine du Château de Vosne-Romanée a.k.a. Domaine du Comte Liger-Belair
- lh Vin Mousseux, or Crémant
- li Les Grandes Ruchottes
Les Champs Gain
Abbaye de Morgeot
La Grande Montagne
Bois de Chassagne
- lj Clare Valley
- lk Vinho Verde DOC
- ll Carmenère
- lm Vermentino 100%
- ln Grillo
- lo Sultana
- lp Estufa
- lq Rousanne & Marsanne
- lr Syrah minimum 90%, Rousanne & Marsanne.
- ls Cuvée William Deutz
- lt It must be aged for nine months after Tirage (removal of sediment).
- lu 16C° (61F°) to 20C° (68F°)
- lv Sicillia (Sicily in English)
- lw Shiraz
- lx Willamette Valley AVA
-Dundee Hills AVA
-Yamhill-Carlton District AVA
-Ribbon Ridge AVA
-Eola-Amity Hills AVA
-Chehalem Mountains AVA
Umpqua Valley AVA
-Red Hill Douglas County AVA
Rogue Valley AVA
Applegate Valley AVA
Southern Oregon AVA
- ly Crio-Extraction
- lz Vidal
- ma Bouchard Père et Fils
- mb Sand and Sandstone covered by large pebbles.
- mc de Villaine family
- md Aidani
- me Margaret River
- mf South
- mg Steven Spurrier
the chair and president of
l'Academie du Vin
- mh Sauvignon Blanc a.k.a. Blanc Fumé
- mi Méthode Traditionelle, or
Traditional Method in English
("Méthode Champenoise" is now outlawed in EU)
- mj Luján de Cuyo
- mk Vino Espumosso
- ml Vin Pétillant
- mm Puget Sound AVA
- mn Cadillac AOP
- mo Melon d'Arbois (Jura)
- mp Douro DOC
- mq Beverage made from steeping cinchona bark with old Barolo wine.
- mr Macedonia & Thrace
Espiros & Ionian Islands
- ms Clairette 55% minimum, Aligoté 10% minimum, and Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains
- mt Pouilly Fumé AOP a.k.a.
Blanc Fumé de Pouilly AOP
- mu Vin Santo made from red grapes in Italy.
- mv A liquid consisting of base wine and sucrose (sugar) used for dosage. It can sometimes include flavouring and preservatives that are trade secret.
- mw Syrah minimum 85%
with Rousanne and Marsanne.
- mx Yarra Valley
- my Quality Wines Produced in Specified Regions (QWpsr) or Vin de Qualité Produits dans une Région Déterminé (VQPRD) and Table Wine (TW) or Vins de Table
- mz False. Chaptilisation is prohibited in Austria.
- na Mainly Grechetto
- nb Louise
- nc 1855, Napoléon Bonaparte ordered to classify the growth of wines from Médoc based on the then-current price list from majour négociants around the city of Bordeaux.
- nd Spanna (a.k.a. Nebbiolo)
- ne Bâtard-Montrachet AOP
Le Montrachet AOP
- nf Xinomavro
- ng The grape juice obtained from the harvest is kept without going through fermentation. In order to achieve the desired residual sugar level, it is permitted to be added to the wine up to the 25% of the volume of resulting wine. It must come from the same locality as the wine in which it is added.
- nh Perrières
Les Gouttes d'Or
Les Santenots Blancs
- ni 85%
- nj Mendoza
- nk Trebbiano Toscano
- nl Vosge Mountains
- nm Gamay minimum 75%,
Pinot Noir and Syrah.
Must be picked by hand.
- nn Cuvée Laetitia
- no Quintessence de Grains Nobles (Domaine Weinbach)
Trie Spéciale (Domaine Zind-Humbrecht)
- np Ambonnay
- nq Limestone, gravel, and clay.
- nr 45hl/ha to 68hl/ha
- ns Vino de Aguja
- nt True (unless it is Gentil from Altenberg de Bergheim or from Kaefferpopf)
Majority of wines from Alsace are varietal instead of blends (except for Edelzwicker, Gentil or Crémant) and each AOP does not automatically denote the varietal so it is necessary to intrduce the varietal when presenting the bottle to the customer.
- nu Niagara Peninsula
- nv Liguria
- nw Limestone, Clay
- nx Rousanne and Marsanne.
- ny Œil de Pedrix
- nz False (Prohibited in California)
- oa Gisbourne
- ob Lussac-Saint-Émilion AOP
- oc Ch. Climens (Sauternes)
Ch. Coutet (Barsac)
Ch. Guiraud (Barsac)
Ch. Rieussec (Sauternes)
Ch. Suduiraut (Fargues)
Ch. La Tour Blanche (Perignac)
Ch. Rabaud-Promis (Bommes)
Ch. Sigalas Rabaud (Bommes)
Ch. Rayne-Vigneau (Bommes)
Ch. Clos Haut-Peyraguey (Bommes)
Ch. Lafaurie-Peyraguay (Bommes)
- od Cabernet Sauvignon
- oe 16C° (61F°) to 18C° (64F°)
- of Syrah minimum 80%, and Viognier.
- og Musigny AOP
- oh Mittelrhein
- oi Minimum 90% (Exceptions are: Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Malbec, Carmenère, Petit Syrah, Mouvèdre, Grenache, Marsanne, Rousanne, Sangiovese, Syrah, Tannat, Tempranillo, and Zinfandel which are minimum 75%)
- oj Ch. Angélus
- ok Macvin du Jura AOP
Clairette du Languedoc AOP
Muscat de Frontignan AOP
Vin de Frontignan AOP
Pineau des Charentes AOP
Floc de Gascogne AOP
- ol Egri Bikavér
- om Central Otago
- on Vitis Labrusca
- oo Morey-Saint-Denis and
- op Syrah 100%
- oq 2,050L of juice from 4,000kg of grapes.
- or It literally translates to Yellow Wine. It is wine that is made from Savagnin (Naturé) grapes. The wine is not filled to the brim of the barrel so that it allows for the growth of yeast film called Fleur du Vin developing on the surface of the wine protecting it from excessive oxidation. Gradually the wine turns yellow and starts to develop a flavour profile called Goût de Jaune (Yellow Taste) which are often described as walnuts, roasted almond, and hazelnut. A few strict rules are imposed on producing this wine.
- os Mayacamas Mountains
- ot No1, La Romanée AOP 0.8ha (Monopole of Domaine du Château de Vosne-Romanée a.k.a. Domaine du Comte Liger-Belair)
No2, Criots-Bâtard-Montrachet AOP 1.57ha
No3, La Grande-Rue AOP 1.7ha (Monopole of Domaine François Lamarche)
No4, Romanée-Conti AOP 1.8ha (Monopole of Domaine de la Romanée-Conti)
No5, Château-Grillet 3.4ha AOP (Monopole of Château Grillet)
- ou Cariñena (Spain)
- ov A mixture of sweet reserve wine and yeast added to the bottle to start the secondary fermentation in the bottle.
- ow In 1973, Ch. Mouton-Rothschild was upgraded from Second Growth to First Growth.
- ox 30°-50° North
- oy Piccolit
- oz Rias Baixas DOC
- pa Domaine Faiveley
- pb Vernaccia
- pc Addition of acids to the wine (acidification) to make the wine more acidic, most commonly in warm climate regions where grapes are often harvested at advanced stages of ripeness with high levels of sugars, but very low levels of acid.
- pd Chassagne-Montrachet
- pe Madeira DOC
- pf Mutage is a process for making Vins Doux Naturels and Vins de Liqueur in which the fermentation is halted or prevented by the addition of brandy, making the resulting wine high in alcohol and high in residual sugar.
- pg Sweet Potato
- ph Macabeu (France)
- pi Méthode par Transversage, or
Transfer Method in English
- pj Lowland
The Islands (Arran, Jura, Mull, Orkney and Skye)
- pk Rosé des Riceys AOP
- pl 5.5% ABV
- pm True. Production of rosé is also permitted.
- pn Onomasia Proelefsis Anoteras Piotitas (OPAP)
Onomasia Proelefsis Elechomeni (OPE)
- po Alcohol and Glycerol Level
- pp Száraz
- pq Les Bressandes
Le Clos du Roi
La Tappe au Vert
Île des Vergelesses
- pr 1933
- ps Rasteau AOP
Muscat Beaumes de Venise AOP
- pt Grapes that went through Passito process are pressed and fermented dry. Resulting in high alcohol, dry wine with intense flavour.
- pu Clairette
Rolle (a.k.a. Vermentino or Malvoisie de Corse)
- pv *It has to be a single vintage Tawny opted for long maturation period.
*It has to display the vintage and bottled year on the label.
*The application to declare vintage must be submitted to IVDP in the third year from the vintage between July and the end of the year.
*It is only permitted to be bottled after seven years of maturation in wood.
- pw Additional 500L of juice from 4000kg of grapes after La Cuvée is extracted.
- px Methuselah
- py Bocksbeutel
- pz Retsina
- qa Saignée
- qb Chambertin AOP
Chambertin-Clos de Bèze AOP (May also be labeled as Chambertin AOP)
Charmes-Chambertin AOP (May also be labeled as Mzoyères-Chambertin AOP)
Mzoyères-Chambertin AOP (May also be labeled as Charmes-Chambertin AOP)
- qc 13 legally defined wine producing regions of Germany.
- qd Twice in Pot Still
- qe Pinot Bianco
- qf Rousette (Altese)
- qg Arroyo Grande Valley AVA
Arroyo Seco AVA
Carmel Valley AVA
Chalone AVA, Cienega Valley AVA
Edna Valley AVA
Hames Valley AVA
Lime Kiln Valley AVA
Livermore Valley AVA
Monterey AVA, Mt.
Pacheco Pass AVA
Paso Robles AVA
San Antonio Valley AVA
San Benito AVA
San Bernabe AVA
San Francisco Bay AVA
San Lucas AVA
San Ysidro District AVA
Santa Clara Valley AVA
Santa Cruz Mountains AVA
Santa Lucia Highlands AVA
Santa Maria Valley AVA
Santa Ynez Valley AVA
Sta. Rita Hills AVA
York Mountain AVA
- qh Blanc de Blancs
- qi Moscatel de Alejandria
- qj Junmai Daiginjo (50%)
Junmai Ginjo (40%)
- qk 6 months in the barrel,
18 months in the bottle.
Total: 24 months before release.
- ql Montagnes de Reims
Vallée de la Marne
Côte des Blancs
- qm Port made from red grapes.
- qn *It
has to be produced from the four noble varietals - Riesling,
Gewurtztraminer, Pinot Gris, and Muscat. (Except for Zolzenberg where
Sylvaner is permitted instead of Muscat.)
*It has to be produced from one of the fifty one "Lieux-Dits" (noted sites).
*It has to satisfy the minimum sugar level (or potential alcohol), vine density, and maximukm yield.
*Principally, it has to be a varietal wine. (Except for Altenberg de Bergheim, and Kaefferkopf where the blends are also permitted.)
*Grapes must be harvested by hand.
- qo Ch. Ausone
Ch. Cheval Blanc
Ch. Angélus (Upgraded in 2012)
Ch. Pavie (Upgraded in 2012)
- qp Stag's Leap Wine Cellars Cabernet Sauvignon 1973
Chateau Montelena CHardonnay 1973
- qq Twice in Pot Still, in 300L Barrique.
- qr Mosel
- qs Flor is a film of yeast that protects Sherry wine from excessive oxidation, allowing it to take on numerous flavors as it matures in barrel. It is a result of barrels not filled to the brim. Similar practices are seen in Vin Jaune of Jura (Fleur du Vin) or in Marsala.
- qt Umbria
- qu 35hl/ha to 37hl/ha
- qv Columbia Gorge AVA
Columbia Valley AVA
Walla Walla Valley AVA
- qw Chardonnay
- qx 17%~22% AVB
- qy Rioja Alta
- qz Vendange Tardive
- ra Because the Cathedral of Reims was a venue for coronation of the King of France and the still wine of Champagne region was served at the banquet.
- rb Bonarda
- rc Chaptalization is the process of adding sugar to unfermented grape must in order to increase the alcohol content in the resulting wine.
- rd Bouzeron,
- re Naturé (Jura)
- rf Los Carneros AVA
- rg Comtes de Champagne
- rh Côt (France)
- ri 10C° (50F°) to 14C° (57F°)
- rj Ch. Laville-Haut-Brion
- rk Cortese
- rl *It has to be a DOC for at least 5 years.
*It has to plant more vines per hector.
*It has to reduce the yield.
*It has to be traded in vessels less than 5L.
*It has to pass the quality test after the fermentations, and before bottling.
*Pruning must meet the prescribed criteria.
*Vilification method must meet the prescribed criteria.
*The wine must be aged longer.
*It has to be sealed with the government issued DOCG seal.
- rm Tokaji Natúreszencia / Tokaji Eszencia
- rn Lambrusco
- ro Northern Transdanubia
The Great Plain
- rp One Year
- rq Margaux (21)
- rr Sciacarello minimum 40%
- rs Olorosso
- rt Edelfaule
- ru 40hl/ha to 45hl/ha
- rv Hop
- rw Sachsen
- rx Denominación de Origen Vino de Pago (VP)
Denominación de Origen Calificada (DOC)
Denominación de Origen (DO)
Vino de Calidad con Indicación Geográfica (VCIG)
Vinñedos de España
Vino de la Tierra
Vino de Mesa
- ry Tartaric Acid,
and Citric Acid.
- rz Granite and schist.
- sa Cabernet Franc
- sb Chadonnay
- sc Lombardia
- sd True. Aforzato is what people from Lombardia call Amarone.
- se Nahe
- sf Vitis Vinifera
- sg 10C° to 16C° (50F° to 61F°)
- sh Zinfandel
- si Mildiou, or Mildew.
It was found in Europe around 1878-1880.
- sj Instituto dos Vinhos do Douro e Porto
- sk Schaumwein
It is a blanket term encompassing all types of sparkling wine whether the gas naturally occurs as a result of fermentation or otherwise.
- sl Sercial
Tinta Negra Mole
- sm Bonnes-Mares AOP
- sn Savenières-Roches-aux-Moins AOP
- so Maximum ±1.5%
- sp Côte de Provence Sainte-Victoire AOP
Côte de Provence Fréjus AOP
- sq Fitou AOP
- sr Grenache
- ss *It has to be produced exclusively from Savagnin (Naturé).
*Ouillage (Topping-up) and Soutirage (Racking) are prohibited.
*Minimum six years maturation in the wood. (Longest legal requirement for maturation for French wine.)
*It must be sold in a 620ml bottle called Clavelin.
- st Liqueur made from lemon peel.
- su Öchsle / 4 - 2 = residual sugar (percentage)
- sv Vosge Mountains provide the rain curtain to the Alsace wine producing region from the wet Altlantic winds coming from the West. As a result, Alsace wine producing region is the driest region in France with 500~600mm of annual rain fall. It is classified as Semi-Continental climate.
- sw Sipon (Slovenia)
- sx Szamorodni
- sy 18 months in the barrel,
42 month in the bottle.
Total: 60 months before release.
- sz Palme d'Or
- ta Emiglia-Romagna
- tb 276g/L
- tc 12C° or 56F°
- td Piemonte (Piedmont in English)
- te Northland
Waikato / Bay of Plenty
- tf 1300 to 1500 hours per year.
- tg Ch. Belgrave
- th Sharpshooter
- ti Rheingau
- tj Basilicata
- tk Sur Lie
- tl Breton (Loire)
- tm <18g/L residual sugar.
It is allowed without condition if it is <12g/L sugar.
If it is 12g/L~18g/L sugar, sugar minus total acidity must be equal to or less than 10g/L.
- tn Grande Siècle
- to Potatoes, wheat, and oats.
- tp 257g/L
- tq Ugni Blanc x Seibel4986
- tr It has to be dried in straw mats for the minimum of 45 days. It has to be aged for 18 months before release.
- ts Minimum 75%
- tt Phylloxera
- tu Pinot Menier
- tv Puttonyos
- tw Zolzenburg
- tx 100hL/ha
- ty Minimum 15 years.
- tz Ampelography (ἄμπελος, "vine" + γράφος, 'writing') is the field of botany concerned with the identification and classification of grapevines.
- ua 16
- ub Gluconic Acid, and Galacturonic Acid.
- uc Three years
- ud It
is blended Tawny Port from various vintages in which the wine is
matured for a defined period of time: 10, 20, 30, 40, 40+ years.
It has to be approved by IVDP.
It is bottled after filtration.
It must have the maturation period and bottled year on the label.
- ue Eastern Switzerland
Genève (Genf, Ginevra, Genèva, Geneva)
- uf Prugnolo Gentile (a.k.a. Sangiovese)
- ug 33g/L to 50g/L.
- uh Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains 75% minimum and the rest is Clairette.
- ui John Woodhouse
While travelling in Sicily, he realized that the wine made in Marsala tasted similar to Port, Sherry, and Madeira.He then decided to recreate the fortified wine there with maturation process similar to solera syetem in Sherry production.
- uj False. The wire must be thoroughly loosen but the cage must not be removed when opening.
- uk 18C° (64F°) to 20C° (68F°)
Higher for high-end wines.
- ul It is a wine making practice in Austria, where the grapes were laid on straw mats in the shades, allowed to dry. It is then pressed and vinified to make sweet wine. This wine making is also practiced in Rhône and Jura (Vin de Paille), and in Italy (Passito or Recioto)
- um Vin de Primeur is wine that are permitted by INAO to be sold in the same year as the harvest. There are 55 AOCs permitted to produce Vin de Primeur. Beaujolais Nouveau AOP is evidently the most famous Vin de Primeur in which it is released on the third Thursday of November following the harvest.
- un Sérine (Rhône)
Shiraz (Australia, South Africa, US)
- uo Vinsobres AOP. Grenache 50% minimum. Red wine only.
- up It is a Madeira made from single vintage and single varietal.
Also known as Vintage Madeira.
It is required to be matured in wood for minimum 20 years.
It must be made exclusively from the labeled varietal.
- uq Ruländer (Germany)
Pinot Grigio (Italy)
- ur Trentino-Alto-Adige
- us Temperature: 12C° or 56F°
Laid down on the side with the label facing up.
- ut Ch. Pavie
- uu Sekt (secondary fermentation must occur in the bottle), Perlwein (CO2 can be added.)
- uv Denominazione di Origine Controlata e Garantita (DOCG)
Denominazione di Origine Controlata (DOC)
Vino da Tavola Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT)
Vino da Tavola
- uw Dry White Wine
- ux Appellation d'Origine Protégée (AOP) - Also known as AOC until 2012
<Appellation d'Origine Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure (AOVDQS) - Abolished in 2012>
Vin de Pays
Vin de Table
- uy Mommessin
- uz Gironde
- va Savatiano
- vb Secondary fermentation must take place in the bottle.
It must be aged for 9 months after Tirage (removal of sediment).
It must be aged for one year before the release.
- vc Rancio is a production method of Vins Doux Naturels and Vins de Liqueur in which the wine is left under the sun either in the barrels or in the bottles for an extended period of time which maderises the wine. Similar to Madeira poduction.
- vd Mauzac
9 months after tirage.
- ve Cérons AOP
- vf Blanc Fumé (Loire)
Fumé Blanc (US)
- vg Sugar + Yeast = Alcohol + Carbon Dioxide
(C6H12O6 -> 2C2H5OH + 2CO2)
- vh Designated Viticultural Areas
- vi Because it works as a rain curtain. The West of the Mountains is classified as Maritime Climate, receiving more rain while the East side is classified as Continental Climate and it is more dry.
- vj Oidium, or Powdery Mildew.
It arrived in Europe around 1855-1856.
- vk Saint-Emillion (Cognac, Amagnac)
- vl 3 years before release.
- vm Récoltant-Manipulant - It is used to identify that the the winery grew their own grapes to make wine. Most small producers fall into this category.
- vn Garganega
Trebbiano di Soave
- vo Willamette Valley AVA
- vp Criadera(s)
- vq 1947 to 1952.
- vr Coastal Region
Breede River Valley
- vs Valles de Famatina
- vt 100%
- vu Malepère AOP
- vv 90hL/ha
- vw Chardonnay
12 months after tirage and 15 months before release.
- vx New South Wales
- vy Nebbiolo
- vz Red and Rosé
- wa Klevner (Alsace)
Pinot Bianco (Italy)
- wb Molise
- wc Le Rhin (in French), Der Rhein (in German), or the Rhine in English
- wd Marc de Bourgogne AOP
- we Coteaux du Layon AOP - Regional Appellation
Quarts de Chaume AOP and Bonnezeau AOP - Communal Appellation
- wf 235g/L
- wg <45g/L residual sugar.
- wh <330L
- wi Peat is used for fire to dry malted barley, resulting in smoky flavour often referred to as "peatiness".
- wj Dundee Hills AVA
Yamhill-Carlton District AVA
Ribbon Ridge AVA
Eola-Amity Hills AVA
Chehalem Mountains AVA
- wk Chardonnay
- wl Primitivo (Italy)
- wm 6 months in the barrel (12 months for Rioja and Ribera del Duero),
18 months in the bottle. (for Rioja and Ribera del Duero)
Total: 24 months (30 for Rioja and Ribera del Duero) before release.
- wn *Declared ion 20 November 1975
*Declared on 23 November 1983
Gloeckelberg (Rodern et Saint-Hippolyte)
Hatschbourg (Hattstatt et Vœgtlinshoffen)
Moenchberg (Andlau et Eichhoffen)
Rangen (Thann et Vieux-Thann)
Sommerberg (Niedermorschwihr et Katzenthal)
Spiegel (Bergholtz et Guebwiller)
*Declared on 17 December 1992
Engelberg (Dahlenheim et Scharrachbergheim)
Florimont (Ingersheim et Katzenthal)
Furstentum (Kientzheim et Sigolsheim)
Mandelberg (Mittelwihr et Beblenheim)
Marckrain (Bennwihr et Sigolsheim)
Pfersigberg (Eguisheim et Wettolsheim)
Schœnenbourg (Riquewihr et Zellenberg)
Steinert (Pfaffenheim et Westhalten)
Vorbourg (Rouffach et Westhalten)
Wineck-Schlossberg (Katzenthal et Ammerschwihr)
Zinnkoepflé (Soultzmatt et Westhalten)
*Declared on 12 January 2007
- wo Les Combettes
Clavillon (or Clavoillon)
- wp Dom Ruinart
- wq Aligoté and Chardonnay.
Must be picked by hand.
- wr 30 years
- ws Stellenbosch
- wt 1920 to 1933
- wu Mordechai or Salmanazar
- wv Fino
- ww Pfalz
- wx Ch. Pichon-Longueville Baron
Ch. Pichon-Longueville Comtesse de Lalande
- wy Méthode Rurale, or Rural Method in English
- wz F° = 9/5 x C° + 32
- xa *It has to be harvested and vilified in the years in which the superior-vintage was declared by IVDP.
*The application to declare vintage must be submitted to IVDP in the second year from the vintage between January and September.
*It has to be bottled in between July of the second year from the harvest to June of the third year from the harvest without filtration.
*It has to be made from the single vintage.
*It has to display the vintage on the label.
- xb Region
- xc Lazio
- xd A district within Anbaugebieten.
- xe Maybe
Some grapes such a Sangiovese can exhibit brick colour at youth too especially in high-yield.
- xf Grapes left in the shade to dry out, concentrating the flavour components and sugar. Similar wine making methods are observed in Rhône, Jura, and in Austria.
- xg Altenberg de Bergheim
- xh It has to be minimum 50% Mouvèdre and it has to be aged in wood for 18 months.
- xi Continental Climate - It is the only region is New Zealand to be classified as true Continental Climate.
- xj Sweet White Wine from
Petit Manseng and Gros Manseng.
- xk Grenache 50% minimum,
and Syrah 25% minimum.
Red wine only.
- xl Torrontes Riojano
- xm Méridional
- xn Alexander Valley AVA
Anderson Valley AVA
Atlas Peak AVA
Benmore Valley AVA
Bennett Valley AVA
Chalk Hill AVA
Chiles Valley AVA
Clear Lake AVA
Cole Ranch AVA
Diamond Mountain District AVA
Dos Rios AVA
Dry Creek Valley AVA
Fort Ross-Seaview AVA
Green Valley of Russian River Valley AVA
Guenoc Valley AVA
High Valley AVA
Howell Mountain AVA
Knights Valley AVA
Los Carneros AVA
McDowell Valley AVA
Mendocino Ridge AVA
Mt. Veeder AVA
Napa Valley AVA
Northern Sonoma AVA
Oak Knoll District of Napa Valley AVA
Potter Valley AVA
Red Hills Lake County AVA
Redwood Valley AVA
Russian River Valley AVA
Solano County Green Valley AVA
Sonoma Coast AVA
Sonoma Mountain AVA
Sonoma Valley AVA
Spring Mountain District AVA
St. Helena AVA
Stags Leap District AVA
Suisun Valley AVA
Wild Horse Valley AVA
Yorkville Highlands AVA
- xo Dão DOC
- xp Grenache