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640 Matching questions

  1. What is the varietal and aging requirement for Bandol AOP?
  2. What is the bottle format containing 3L (4 bottles) called?
  3. What is the name of the grape permitted in Seyssel AOP?
  4. What is "Vin de Primeur"?
  5. What is the condition of Süß designation in German wine?
  6. What is the AOP that is only allowed to produce Vin Jaune?
  7. Name the Cuvée de Prestige from
    Pol Roger.
  8. What is Amarone?
  9. What is the main ingredient of Rum?
  10. What is the minimum aging requirement for Tokaji Aszú 3 to 6 Puttonyos?
  11. What is the Spanish term for
    Sparkling Wine?
  12. What is the name of the Italian region in which the vineyards are located in the highest attitude in Europe?
    Known for their only DOC.
  13. Of all the 77 villages allowed to produce Côte du Rhône wines, how many of them are allowed to put their village name on the label?
  14. What is the minimum varietal requirement for German wines?
  15. What is the German term for
    Sparkling Wine?
  16. What is the name of the large pebbles found in Châteauneuf-du-Pape AOP vineyards?
  17. Why are Cascade Mountains so important to the viticulture in Pacific Northwest?
  18. Name all four wine producing regions in Austria.
  19. This DOC in Portugal is famous for their powerful and dry red wine, but also known for their light and refreshing white wine. You will also find a statue of sommelier in the city of Nelas. What is the name of this DOC?
  20. Name one of the five "Regions" in South Africa.
  21. What is the name of the style of ale that are produced in eight authorized Belgian monasteries?
  22. What is the method of sparkling wine making in which the secondary fermentation takes place in the bottle?
  23. What is the bottle aging requirement for Millésimé (vintage) champagne?
  24. Name the only two climats in Alsace Grand Cru that are permitted to produce Gentil.
  25. What is the bottle format containing 15L (20 bottles) called?
  26. Name one wine producing region in British Columbia.
  27. Name three AVAs from Napa Valley AVA.
  28. This facility is used for Madeira DOC production. The storage facility that is heated up by the sunlight which keeps the building to an average of 30C° (86F°). It is used to keep the barrels containing higher quality Madeira for extended maturation period. What is the name of the facility?
  29. What is the name for the dry Szamorodni?
  30. Name two Premier Cru vineyards from Chambolle-Musigny.
  31. When did Spain introduce
    their wine laws?
  32. If 2/3 of the guests have finished the appetizer and one of the guests with the empty plate has finished a glass of wine. What is your action?
    1), Automatically pour the same wine to the glass.
    2), Offer to pour more of the same wine.
    3), Collect the empty glass.
    4), Wait for the next course to be served, then offer another type of wine to the host.
  33. What is the aging requirement for white and rosé Gran Reserva in Spain?
  34. Only 6 bottles of Romanée-Conti in Magnum was produced in 1945.
    True or False?
  35. Pacific Northwest wine producing region is divided by what mountain range?
  36. What is the grape permitted for Barbera d'Alba DOC?
  37. What is "Anbaugebiete"?
  38. Name at least two AVAs from Willamette Valley AVA.
  39. What is the name of the yeast used for sake production?
  40. What are the three (or four) levels of wine classification in France?
  41. What is the regional requirement for labeling in Australia?
  42. This DOC in Portugal is known to produce light and fruity white and sparkling wine from traditional method. It is named after their clay soil type too. What is the name of this DOC?
  43. How does an Alsace wine qualify for Gentil on the label?
  44. Name at least one wine producing regions in South Island of New Zealand.
  45. What is the name of the varietal native to Bordeaux, which found a new home in Chile that is not Malbec?
  46. What is the aging requirement for Madeira (no designation).
  47. Chinon AOP is permitted to produce white wine. True or False?
  48. What is the grape permitted for
    Soave DOC?
  49. Name three AVAs that exist on the West of Cascade Mountains, and which exists in Oregon?
  50. What is the grape permitted for
    Barolo DOCG and Barbaresco DOCG?
  51. What is the base of Dranbuie and what is it seasoned with?
  52. What is the aging requirement for Crémant d'Alsace?
  53. What is Limoncello?
  54. What is the aging requirement for red Gran Reserva in Spain?
  55. What is the second most planted red varietal in France?
  56. Name three smaller AVAs from Central Coast AVA.
  57. Name the Cuvée de Prestige from Mumm.
  58. What are the dominant red varietals in Touraine?
  59. What is the name of the wine produced in Greece that is infused with pine resin?
  60. Which Château in St-Emilion Grand Cru Classé was it promoted from Grand Cru Classé to Grand Cru Classé Château B in 1954, and then to Château A in 2012?
  61. What is the bottle format containing 1.5L (2 bottles) called?
  62. What is En Primeur practice?
  63. What is Barolo Chinato?
  64. What is the ideal serving temperature of red Burgundy?
  65. What are the synonyms of Zinfandel?
  66. What is the second most widely planted red varietal in Argentina?
  67. Name two of the eight sub-regions of Chianti.
  68. Name three rivers that flow through Bordeaux region from North to South.
  69. What is the ideal serving temperature of light red wine?
  70. What is Tawny Port?
  71. What is the name of the Anbaugebiete which is located on the banks of the Neckar and its tributaries, and produces the highest volume of red wine in Germany?
  72. In which class and what commune is Ch. Talbot classified?
  73. In which state does Yarra Valley exist?
  74. What is the name of the AOP in Southern Rhône in which
    Vin de Liquer is produced?
  75. What is the name of the Italian region which is the only region in Italy that is not facing the sea? Think of Montefalco Sgrantino DOC.
  76. What is Vermut di Torino?
  77. What is the varietal requirement of Coteaux de Die AOP?
  78. In which years were the prohibition law enforced?
  79. What is the name of the famous wine produced in Northern Hungary called "Blood of the Egrian Bull"?
  80. What is the name of the Italian region which is covered with eroded limestone? The capitol is Potenza. Think of Aglianico del Vulture DOCG
  81. What is Dégorgement
    (Disgorgement in English)?
  82. What is the dominant red varietal in Anjou & Saumur?
  83. What is the name of the Tokaji Aszú made entirely from botrytised grapes? What is the minimum residual sugar level?
  84. Who invented the fortified wine Marsala?
  85. What is the name of the wine making technique in which the red grape is fermented with skin intact, but pressed mid-fermentation to extract lighter coloured juice, then continued the fermentation with the juice alone?
  86. What is the name of the Italian region which is an island South of Corse (Corsica) which is well known for their Vermentino?
  87. What is the French term for effervescent, or lightly sparkling wine?
  88. When was AOC law enacted?
  89. I am a type of Sherry that initially had the blanket of "Flor", but it somehow disappeared in the process but allowed to continue maturing. I taste somewhat in between Fino and Olorosso. What type of Sherry am I?
  90. What is the grape permitted for Lambrusco di Sorbara DOC?
  91. Name two Saint-Émilion Satelite AOPs
  92. Name three of the five regional AVAs in California.
  93. What is the formula for C° to F° conversion?
  94. Which village from Côte Chalonaise that produces simple, acidic white wine made from lesser known white grape varietal very often used for Kir, and what is the name of the varietal?
  95. Name five Alsace Grand Cru AOP's Lieu-Dit.
  96. What is the bottle aging requirement for Non Millésimé (non-vintage) champagne?
  97. When did the French wine legislation reform start and when did the new regulation come into effect?
  98. What is the biggest wine producing region in Chile?
  99. What is the bottle format containing 4.5L (6 bottles) called?
  100. I am a type of Fino Sherry that is aged for an extended period of time. I am amber in colour and I have a nutty flavour. I am required to have a minimum alcohol >15%. What type of Sherry am I?
  101. Name all monopoles owned by Domaine de la Romanée-Conti in Vosne-Romanée.
  102. What are the three main acids naturally occurring in the grapes?
  103. Name three Grand Cru vineyards from the village of Gevrey-Chambertin.
  104. What are the synonyms of
    Sauvignon Blanc?
  105. Name two wine producing regions from South Australia.
  106. What is the ideal serving temperature of red Rhône wine?
  107. In Franken, the wines are sold in what bottle in which colour?
  108. What is the condition of Lieblich in German wine and what colour of seal does it receive?
  109. What is the name of the mountain range that stands on the West of Alsace wine producing region?
  110. What is the varietal requirement of Beaumes-de-Venise AOP?
  111. What is the soil type of right bank Méridional?
  112. What is the varietal requirement of Crémant de Die AOP?
  113. Name the only AOP in Côte de Nuits that is permitted to produce rosé wine.
  114. Define "Monopole" situation in France.
  115. What is the name of the Italian region known for classical agricultural practices? Think of Biferno DOC.
  116. What is the bottle format containing 25L (33.33 bottles) called?
  117. In which state does Hunter Valley exist?
  118. What is the name of the AOP on the right bank in Centre Nivernais district that produces the world-renowned flinty white wine from Sauvignon Blanc?
  119. What are the synonyms of Chasselas?
  120. What is the name of the AOP from Champagne region that produces the red, white, and rosé still wine made from the three champagne varietals?
  121. This AVA in New York state produces around 85% of the entire output of the state. What is the name of the AVA?
  122. Name three Premières Crus of Sauternes and its commune.
  123. Clos de la Barre is a monopole of which Domaine?
  124. How many total classified growth
    are there in Médoc?
  125. What is the name of the Anbaugebiete which is the most Northerly of all Anbaugebieten in Germany and it hardly produces wines above Spätlese? It is located within former East Germany.
  126. What is the name of the wine making technique in which the juice is put in a holding tank at below -7C° (19F°) to concentrate the sugar and flavour component?
  127. What are the synonyms of Malbec?
  128. How is Irish whisky usually distilled?
  129. Name three varietals each from eighteen red and white varietals permitted for producing Châteauneuf-du-Pape AOP. (List revised and published by INAO in 2009.)
  130. What is the name of the Anbaugebiete which is the most Southerly and it has the warmest climate of all Anbaugebieten in Germany?
  131. What is the grape permitted for
    Gavi DOCG?
  132. In which year, who ordered to classify the growth of wines from Médoc according to what?
  133. Name at least three red grape varietals grown in Greece.
  134. What are the synonyms of Savagnin?
  135. What are the three levels of geographical classification in South Africa?
  136. What is the varietal requirement of red and rosé Châtillon-en-Diois AOP?
  137. What is the ideal serving temperature of off-dry rosé?
  138. Which village AOP from
    Côte Chalonaise is only permitted to produce white wine from Chardonnay?
  139. Name three cities in Xérès region of Spain which forms Sherry triangle.
  140. What is Tawny Indication of Age?
  141. What is the ideal humidity level when storing wine?
  142. Name one Cuvée de Prestige from Krug.
  143. What are the main grapes permitted for Soave Superiore DOCG?
  144. What is the legal requirement for calling wine Alsace Grand Cru AOP?
  145. What is the terminology of white to light salmon pink sparkling wine made exclusively from red grapes?
  146. This Weinbauregionen produces 61% of wine by volume in the entire country. It is also famous for their Grüner Veltliner. Main subregions include Wachau and Weinviertel.
  147. What are the grapes permitted for producing Coteaux de Saumur AOP and in which style?
  148. What is Frasueira or Garrafeira?
  149. What are the three varietals explicitly forbidden from being used for producing Châteauneuf-du-Pape AOP?
  150. What is the most well known sub-region of Central Valley?
  151. What is the single most important factor that differentiates Scotch whisky from other types of whisky?
  152. In Burgenland, Chaptilisation is permitted provided a certain condition is met. True or false?
  153. Name one from four wine producing regions in New York state.
  154. When did the Judgement of Paris take place?
  155. Central Otago belongs to what type of climate?
  156. What is the name of the Italian region which produces a high volume of Aglianico? The capitol is Napoli (Naples). Think of Greco di Tufo DOCG
  157. What are the four levels of wine classification in Greece?
  158. What is the aging requirement for white and rosé Reserva in Spain?
  159. Name five châteaux from 3rd growth in Margaux.
  160. What is the main ingredient of Tequilla?
  161. What is the bottle format containing 30L (40 bottles) called?
  162. What are the four levels of wine classification in Italy?
  163. What are the synonyms of Carignan?
  164. What is the most widely planted red varietal in Argentina?
  165. What are the two main acids occurring in botrytised wines?
  166. What is the grape permitted for Gattinara DOCG and Ghemme DOCG?
  167. Name two Premier Cru climats from Chablis.
  168. What is Acidification?
  169. What is the name of the Italian region which is facing Adriatic sea and known for Lambrusco DOC?
  170. Name two Saint-Emilion Premier Grand Cru Classé Chateaux A.
  171. What is the only
    Premier Cru Supérieur
    in Sauternes?
  172. What is the name of the Anbaugebiete which is the most Easterly of all Anbaugebieten in Germany? It is also know to produce a high quality dry white wine with earthy character that are sold in Bocksbeutel bottles?
  173. What are the three most important grape varietals in Cava?
  174. What does IVDP stand for in Portugal?
  175. What is the dominant varietal in Northern Greece OPAPs?
  176. Name three climats from Corton AOP
  177. What is the name of the Italian region with many mountains which is known for their Montepulciano? The capitol is L'Aquila.
  178. What is an "Einzellage"?
  179. What does R.M. on Champagne seal stand for and what does it mean?
  180. What are the synonyms of Furmint?
  181. What is the general terminology for brandy made out of fruits such as cherries, raspberries, and plums?
  182. What is the range of residual sugar content that is allowed to use the terminology Brut?
  183. Amarone and Aforzato are the same thing. True or false?
  184. In wines produced in AVAs what is the allowable difference in alcohol by volume between the one that is on the label, and the one actually in wine?
  185. Name two Premier Cru vineyards from Vosne-Romanée.
  186. What are the two biggest changes took place in the wine classification law reform of 2006?
  187. What is the maximum capacity of barrels they are allowed to use for the production of Crianza, Reserva, and Gran Reserva?
  188. How is Vosge Mountains beneficial to the viticulture in Alsace wine producing region?
  189. What is the aging requirement for Extra Reserva in Madeira.
  190. What is "Ampelography"?
  191. What is the name of the Italian region which is know for their Negroamaro grapes? The capitol is Bari.
  192. What is the style of wine produced in Bergerac Sec AOP?
  193. What is a "Bereich"?
  194. What is the name of the wine produced in Tokaj region made from grapes affected by Botrytis Cinerea, which means "Syrup-like"?
  195. What is the grape permitted for
    Cinque Terre DOC?
  196. What is the main ingredients of Awamori?
  197. What are the synonyms of Nebbiolo?
  198. What are the two most common types of Scotch?
  199. What is Mutage?
  200. What is the minimum aging requirement for Very Old Rare Sherry (VORS) defignation?
  201. By which villages is Bonnes-Mares AOP divided?
  202. How many Grand Cru monopoles are there in the village of Vosne-Romanée?
  203. What is the varietal requirement of red Vin de Corse AOP?
  204. How is Cognac distilled
    and how is it aged?
  205. What is the bottle format containing 0.1875L (0.25 bottle) called?
  206. What is the name of second wine of
    Ch. Latour?
  207. Name at least two wine producing regions from Chile.
  208. What is the name for the sweet Szamorodni?
  209. Name at least two white grape varietals grown in Greece.
  210. What are the four levels of wine classification in Austria?
  211. What is the varietal requirement in California?
  212. What is the main ingredients of Satsuma-Shochu?
  213. What is the grape permitted for
    Orvieto DOC?
  214. Name two Premier Cru vineyards from Puligny-Montrachet.
  215. What grapes are permitted for producing rosé from Crémant de Loire AOP?
  216. What is the Italian term for
    Sparkling Wine?
  217. What is the soil type of Septentrional?
  218. What is the dominant varietal of
    Vallée de la Marne?
  219. What is the terminology of sparkling wine made exclusively from white grapes? (100% Chardonnay in Champagne AOP)
  220. In which class and what commune is Ch. Cos d'Estournel classified?
  221. What are the synonyms of Mouvèdre?
  222. What are the permitted varietals in Blanquette de Limoux AOP? How long does it have to be aged?
  223. Name all ten Crus of Beaujolais
  224. What is the name of the Anbaugebiete known for the high quality Riesling from vineyards with slate soil situated on steep hills along the Saar and the Ruwer?
  225. Name two red varietals permitted in Provence.
  226. What is the legal requirement for Vintage Port?
  227. What is the minimum residual sugar level for Vendenge Tardive for Riesling and Muscat?
  228. Name two Grand Crus monopoles in the village of Vosne-Romanée that do not belong to
    Domaine de la Romanée-Conti and who do they belong to?
  229. When opening a sparkling wine bottle, the cage must be removed before twisting the bottle/cork. True or false?
  230. Passito and Recioto are the same thing. True or false?
  231. What is the only third growth from Saint-Estèphe?
  232. What is the bottle format containing 0.75L (1 bottle) called?
  233. What is the measurement of sweetness derived from the name of the bucket with the capacity of 26kg used to determine the sweetness of the Tokaji Aszú wine?
  234. What grapes other than Pinot Noir and Gamay are permitted in
    Bourgogne Passe-Tout-Grains AOP?
    What is the maximum allowable percentage of each varietals?
  235. Name two "Districts" within Coastal Region in South Africa.
  236. What is the name of the AVA that exists on the West of Cascade Mountains, and in Washington State?
  237. What is the name of the Anbaugebiete which has vineyards stretching for approximately 130km (80miles) and it is situated where Nahe merges with Rhein (the Rhine)?
  238. What is the name of the wine making technique in which the wine is deliberately not racked after the fermentation is complete, and aged with the sediment to extract more flavour?
  239. I am a type of Sherry that did not take on the blanket of "Flor". I am golden in colour and quite dry. I am required to have a minimum alcohol >17%. What type of Sherry am I?
  240. When serving Alsace Grand Cru AOP wine, it is necessary to name the varietal when presenting the bottle. True or False?
  241. Name three appellations in
    Entre-Deux-Mers district that are allowed to produce botrytised wine.
  242. What is the first AVA recognised?
  243. What is the soil type of left bank Méridional?
  244. This DOC in a Portuguese island is famous for their fortified wine. What is the name of this DOC?
  245. What are the grapes permitted for Marsala DOC?
  246. Name two terminology allowed for Champagne that did not receive any sugar in dosage?
  247. What is the varietal requirement for white Patrimonio AOP?
  248. What is the name of the disease in which the leaves are covered in white powdery residue?
  249. What is the specie of grapes that is generally used for making wine?
  250. What is the official name of Sherry?
  251. How long does an Irish whisky have to be aged in wood before released?
  252. What are the three grape varietals permitted in Champagne AOP?
  253. What is the name of the AOP in Languedoc that produces rosé from Carigan, Grenche, Mouvèdre, and Syrah?
  254. What is the varietal requirement of
    Vin de Paille produced in Hermitage AOP?
  255. What is Strohwein?
  256. Which village in Côte d'Or does it have a Grand Cru vineyard but lacks Premier Cru Vineyard?
  257. What is Vin de Paille?
  258. What is the main soil composition of Côte de Beaune?
  259. How is Scotch whisky usually distilled?
  260. What is the name of the Italian region which boarders Austria, and it is the most Northerly region in Italy? Think of Teroldego Rotaliano DOC.
  261. What is the name of second wine of
    Ch. Mouton-Rothschild?
  262. What is the grape permitted for Vernaccia di Oristano DOC?
  263. What is the name of the Italian region which mostly produces early drinking wine? Think of Est! Est!! Est!!! di Montefiascone DOC
  264. What are the four levels of wine classification in Portugal?
  265. Name three Grand Cru vineyards shared by Pernand-Vergelesses and Aloxe-Corton.
  266. This region produces about 80% of entire output of Canada and known for German style Ice Wine from Riesling and Vidal. Which region is this?
  267. What are the two Provincias producing wine in Centro-Oeste in Argentina?
  268. This DOC in Portugal produces early drinking lightly sparkling wine from Alvarinho. What is the name of this DOC?
  269. What are the famous AOPs in Bretagne and in Normadie that produce apple cider?
  270. What is the predominant varietal in Cahors AOP?
  271. What is the name of the wine producing region in New Zealand coined as "The Capitol of Chardonnay in New Zealand"?
  272. Which villages in Côte de Nuits do they lack Grand Cru vineyards?
  273. What is the ideal serving temperature of Vintage Port?
  274. What is Süßreserve?
  275. Name one wine producing region in Switzerland.
  276. Name two Grand Cru vineyards from Morey-Saint-Denis.
  277. Napa Valley AVA and Sonoma Valley AVA belong to what larger AVA?
  278. Hermitage is permitted to produce rosé wine. True or false?
  279. What are the notable legal requirements of Vin Jaune?
  280. What does N.M. on Champagne seal stand for and what does it mean?
  281. Name all three sub-regions of Champagne AOP that have Cru 100% (Grand Cru) villages.
  282. What is the dominant varietal of
    Côte des Blancs?
  283. In order to qualify for "Añejo" deisgnation, how long does Tequila have to be aged in the barrel?
  284. What are the three main acids occurring as a result of fermentation?
  285. What is the dominant white varietal in Anjou & Saumur?
  286. What is Frangelico flavoured with?
  287. What is the varietal requirement in Oregon?
  288. What is the name of the AVA that is known the world over for their
    Pinot Noir?
  289. Relative to Bordeaux, in which direction is Cognac located?
  290. Name the only 4th growth from Pauillac.
  291. Name two white grape varietals permitted in Rioja DOC
  292. What is the dominant varietal of
    Pays Nantais?
  293. What is the French term for Sparkling Wine?
  294. What is the unofficial designation of high quality Sélection de Grains Nobles wine in Alsace that far exceeds the legal requirement for Sélection de Grains Nobles, regarded as equivalent or higher in quality to German Trockenbeerenauslese or Hungarian Tokaji Eszencia?
  295. What is the name of this Spanish wine region which is only permitted to produce white wine using mostly Albariño?
  296. What is the name of the cult vignéron from Burgundy who is credited for macération-à-froid (cold soaking) technique and revolutionlised many aspects of viticulture and wine making in 1960's, and who passed away in 2006?
  297. What is the most widely planted grape in Canada?
  298. This Spanish wine region is known for introducing the drip irrigation system in the 1980 by two legendary wine makers René Barbier and Álvaro Palacios. It is known to produce mostly red wine from the blend of Garnacha with international varietals such as Cariñena, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Merlot. What is the name of this region?
  299. Name two from all the AVAs in New York state.
  300. What is the ideal annual average temperature for growing vitis vinifera?
  301. Define Chaptilisation.
  302. What is the name of the Swiss wine producing region with half of the entire outputs in the country?
  303. What are the synonyms of Cinsaut?
  304. How do you convert Öchsle to residual sugar (percentage)?
  305. What is the name of second wine of
    Ch. Margaux?
  306. What is the range of maximum yield in white village appellation in Burgundy?
  307. What is the maximum yield in Mosel?
  308. What is the most widely grown white varietal in Italy?
  309. Name all six levels of Prädikatswein from highest to lowest in Öchsle level.
  310. Name the only Grand Cru vineyard from Vougeot.
  311. Vidal is a cross hybrid of what two varietals?
  312. Clos de Tart AOP is a monopole of which Domaine?
  313. What is the bottle format containing 6L (8 bottles) called?
  314. What are the synonyms of
    Folle Blanche?
  315. What is the second most widely planted white varietal in Argentina?
  316. What does VQA stand for in Canada?
  317. What is the aging requirement for Reserva in Madeira DOC.
  318. What is the river mouth estuary in which three great rivers of Bordeaux converge near the vineyards of Graves and flows by Médoc towards the Atlantic?
  319. What is the minimum residual sugar level for Vendenge Tardive for Gewurtztraminer and Pinot Gris?
  320. What is the method of sparkling wine making in which the secondary fermentation and soutillage (racking) takes place in a large air-tight fermentation tank?
  321. What are the synonyms of Vermentino?
  322. Name three AOPs in Graves permitted to produce botrytised wines.
  323. What is the third most widely planted white varietal in Argentina?
  324. What are the synonyms of Pinot Gris?
  325. Name the Cuvée de Prestige from Perrier-Jouët.
  326. What are the dominant varietal in wines produced in Libournais?
  327. What are the permitted varietals in Crémant de Limoux?
  328. What are the two AOPs in Provence that gained the AOP status in 2005?
  329. What is the climate of Septentrional?
  330. What are the grapes permitted for
    Est! Est!! Est!!! di Montefiascone DOC?
  331. What is the condition of Halbtrocken in German wine and what colour of seal does it receive?
  332. What is "Première Taille" in
    Champagne AOP?
  333. What are the three Provincias producing wine in Noroeste in Argentina?
  334. What is the aging requirement for white and rosé Crianza?
  335. What is the name of the Italian region in which the half of it is a flat and the other half is mountains and foothills? It is know for Soave DOCG, Bardolino DOCG, and Valpolicella DOC.
  336. What are the main stylistic differences between Northern Rhône wines and Southern Rhône wines?
  337. What is the terminology used for late harvest Chenin Blanc in Vouvray?
  338. Name two Premier Cru vineyards from Gevrey-Chambertin.
  339. What is the name of the AOP in Corsica that produces Vin Doux Nturel?
  340. How is Campari seasoned?
  341. Name one of the varietals permitted to produce wine in Savoie wine region.
  342. Define Malolactic Fermentation.
  343. I am a type of Sherry lighter in colour and quite dry. My flavour is fragile and I am meant to be drunk within a couple of days after being opened. I was covered by "Flor" during production. Jerez de la Frontera and El Puerto de Santa Maria are mainly where we come from. I am required to have >15% ABV. What type of Sherry am I?
  344. Name two Cru 100% (Grand Cru) Villages from Côte des Blancs.
  345. What are the synonyms of Syrah?
  346. What is the aging requirement for red Reserva in Spain?
  347. What are the grape permitted for Franciacorta DOCG?
  348. What is the third most planted white varietal in California?
  349. What is the AOP in Southern Rhône that gained the AOP status in 2006?
  350. Which AOP of Mâconais are permitted to produce white, red, and rosé wine?
  351. What is the main soil composition of Chablis from Jurassic Period?
  352. What is the soil type in Saint-Émilion?
  353. Name all six red varietals and three white varietals permitted to grow in Bordeaux.
  354. What is the permitted alcohol percentage range of Madeira DOC?
  355. What is the name of the Anbaugebiete in which the wine is said to have the floral characteristic of Mosel and elegance of Rheingau?
  356. What is the name of the Anbaugebiete near the French boarder which is the second largest Anbaugebieten in Germany that benefits from warmer climate?
  357. Name the only AOP in Burgundy that is permitted to produce wine from Sauvignon Blanc. Upgraded to AOC in 2003.
  358. What is the name for the levels of barrels that are above the "solera" barrels?
  359. Which Grand Cru vineyard in
    Côte de Nuits is it permitted to produce white wine?
  360. What is the name of the AOP in Languedoc that produces exclusively rosé wine?
  361. What is the benefit of Solera system?
  362. What is the grape permitted for Vino Nobile di Montalcino DOCG?
  363. What is the main ingredients of
    Iki-Shochu?
  364. In which year, which château was upgraded from which growth to which growth?
  365. What are "Passito" grapes?
  366. What is the ideal serving temperature of dry rosé?
  367. What is the range of maximum yield in white regional appellation in Burgundy?
  368. Name one each from red and white grape varietals permitted in Jura?
  369. Which wines each from red and white won the first place in Paris tasting?
  370. Name two sub-regions of Champagne AOP that don't have
    Cru 100% (Grand Cru) villages.
  371. What is the name of the Italian region which has many lakes that softens the Continental climate? This region is known for sparkling wine made from traditional method such as Franciacorta DOCG.
  372. Name the Cuvée de Prestige from Pommery
  373. What are the common ingredients of Vodka?
  374. This region in Australia is known for their superior Pinot Noir. What region is this?
  375. What is the maximum yield in Franken?
  376. Name at least three chateaux from Saint-Emilion Premier Grand Cru Classé Chateaux B.
  377. What are the synonyms of Arbois?
  378. In order to qualify for VQA with the name of the vineyard in Canada, how much grape has to come from the said vineyard?
  379. Gigondas AOP is allowed to produce rosé wine. True or false?
  380. What is the range of maximum yield in white Premier Cru Burgundy?
  381. Name all six commues of Médoc from North to South
  382. What are the four noble varietals and four other varietals permitted in Alsace wine producing region?
  383. Name one château from 5th growth in Haut-Médoc.
  384. What are the grapes permitted for Valpolicella DOC?
  385. What is the method of sparkling wine making in which the wine that has gone through the secondary fermentation is transferred to the pressurized tank, then cooled, and racked before bottled?
  386. What is the name of the AOPs enclaved in Anjou AOP known for their botrytised Chenin Blanc and what are the two communal AOPs that are known to produce some of the best examples of the botrytised Chenin Blanc in the world?
  387. In which class and what commune is Ch. Léoville-Barton classified?
  388. Which country in the world consumes the most wine per capita?
  389. What are the three sub-appellations of Armagnac AOP?
  390. What grapes are permitted for producing rosé from Touraine AOP?
  391. What are the five classification of Sake and how much surface weight (in percentage) need to be polished off to qualify them?
  392. What is the bottle format containing 0.375L (0.5 bottle) called?
  393. Madiran AOP is know for producing red wine from predominantly what varietal?
  394. What are the three sub-regions of
    Rioja DOC?
  395. Which village does the vineyard "Criots-Bâtard-Montrachet" exist?
  396. What is the formula for F° to C° conversion?
  397. Name three Premier Cru vineyards from Chassagne-Montrachet.
  398. What is the second most planted white varietal in France?
  399. What are the four levels of wine classification in Germany?
  400. Name three most notable white grape varietals in Portugal.
  401. How long does the Alsace wine producing region stretch from North to South?
  402. This DOC in Portugal produces world famous fortified wine from mainly Touriga Nacional. What is the name of this DOC?
  403. What is the most Southerly AVA in Oregon?
  404. Which style of wine is produced by which grapes in Bourgueil?
  405. What is the name of the Anbaugebiete which is the largest of all Anbaugebiten in Germany? Wine is known to be soft, delicate, and fruity.
  406. What is the main soil composition of Côte de Nuits?
  407. Name two 2nd growth from Pauillac.
  408. What are the synonyms of Temperanillo?
  409. Name one châteaux from classed growth in Graves that are only classified for their white wines.
  410. What is Liqueur d'Expedition?
  411. What is the name of the Italian region in which it produces the best examples of Nebbiolo grapes such as
    Barolo DOCG, and Barbaresco DOCG?
  412. Name the Cuvée de Prestige from Nicolas Feuillatte.
  413. La Romanée AOP is a monopole of which domaine?
  414. This AOP in Northern Rhône is a monopole, and it is known for their Viognier wine. What is the name of the AOP?
  415. What is the minimum residual sugar level for Sélection de Grains Nobles for Riesling and Muscat?
  416. Name the Cuvée de Prestige from Henri Boillot.
  417. What is
    Muscat-de-Beaumes-de-Venise AOP?
  418. What is the ideal latitude for growing vitis vinifera in Northern Hemisphere?
  419. Name the Cuvée de Prestige from Taittinger.
  420. What is the most widely planted white varietal in Argentina?
  421. What is the specie of grapes that is regarded as table grapes and when made into wine impart a "foxy flavor" profile?
  422. What is the grape permitted for
    Colli Orientali del Friuli Piccolit DOCG?
  423. What is the name of the Tokaji Aszú equivalent to 7 to 8 Puttonyos? What is the minimum residual sugar level? What is the aging requirement?
  424. What is the name of the soil type in Sherry?
  425. What are the varietals permitted for producing red Anjou AOP?
  426. What is the name of the wine region that produces the second biggest volume in New Zealand?
  427. What is the style of wine produced in Monbazillac AOP?
  428. Which villages in Côte de Beaune lacks Premier Cru Vineyards?
  429. This Spanish wine region produces around 90% of all the Cava produced. What is the name of this region?
  430. What are the seven levels of wine classification in Spain?
  431. What is the legal requirement for Late Bottled Vintage Port (LBV)?
  432. What is the name of the Anbaugebiete in which the vineyards stretch from Lorchhusen to Assmannhausen, then to Wiesbaden? The wine from this Anbaugebiete is known to be elegant, yet fruity, while attaining sophisticated aroma and power.
  433. What is Vin Santo in Italy?
  434. What is the maximum yield in Rheingau?
  435. What is the only DO recognised in La Rioja region in Argentina?
  436. In which year was Wine Institute in the United States established? It is also the year in which UC Davis opened the faculty of Viticulture and Oenology.
  437. What is the range of maximum yield in red regional appellation in Burgundy?
  438. Who regulates and enforces the AOC (prior to 2012) or AOP (after 2012) law?
  439. Name two Vin de Liqueur.
  440. What is the varietal permitted for producing Retsina?
  441. What is Sélection de Grains Nobles in Alsace wine?
  442. Name three Premier Cru Vineyrards from Meursault.
  443. What is the name of this Spanish wine region which is located at the heart of Castillia Léon and it produces wine from at least 75% Tinto Fino (a.k.a.Tempranillo)?
  444. What is the Spanish term for effervescent, or lightly sparkling wine?
  445. What is the bottle format containing 9L (12 bottles) called?
  446. Name all Grand Cru
    Montrachet vineyards.
  447. What is the climate of Méridional?
  448. What is the varietal requirement of Côte Rôtie AOP?
  449. What is the name of the wine in Switzerland that is made from vinifying at least 51% of Pinot Noir and Gamay together?
  450. Which AOP from Mâconnais are permitted to produce white wine only?
  451. What is the bottle format containing 27L (36 bottles) called?
  452. What are the main ingredients of Bourbon and what is the legal requirement to qualify for being called a Bourbon?
  453. What is the system in which Sherry is aged? It is the system that the new wine is added from the top of the stack of barrels, then that barrel tops off the next level of barrels below and so on.
  454. Name at least three châteaux from Pomerol AOP
  455. What is the name of the Italian region which is stylistically similar to Greek wine due to the influences by Greek seafarers who originally brought wine making to this region? Think of Cirò DOC.
  456. What are the synonyms of Rousette?
  457. What is the designation in Austria that exists in between BA and TBA with minimum 27° KMW?
  458. What is the varietal requirement of Cornas AOP?
  459. What is Grappa?
  460. In which vintages was Romanée-Conti AOP not produced?
  461. In which state does
    Adelaide Hills exist?
  462. Cornas AOP produces a small amount of white wine made out of Rousanne & Marsanne. True or false?
  463. What is the name for noble rot in Germany?
  464. Which mountain ranges stands in between Napa County and Sonoma County?
  465. In which class and what commune is Ch. Branaire-Ducru classified?
  466. Is Bordeaux AOP permitted to produce white wine?
  467. What is a "Großlage"?
  468. What are the synonyms of Maccabeu?
  469. Name all seven (or eight) Grand Cru Vineyards of Chablis from North-West to South-East.
  470. Name two AVAs that exist on the East of Cascade Mountains, and in Washington State?
  471. What is the name of the Vin de Liquer AOP produced in Jura?
  472. In which class and what commune is Ch. Clerc-Milon classified?
  473. What is Rancio?
  474. What is the second most widely grown red varietal in Italy?
  475. What is the name of the wine produced in Tokaj region made from grapes unaffected by Botrytis Cinerea, which means "Au Naturel"?
  476. Name two Grand Cru vineyards shared by Pernand-Vergelesses, Aloxe-Corton, and Ladoix.
  477. Name three Cru 100% (Grand Cru) Villages from Montagne de Reims.
  478. Name three most notable red grape varietals in Portugal.
  479. What grapes are permitted for producing Vouvray AOP?
  480. This facility is used for producing Madeira DOC. It is a man made heating machine in which the wine is heated in large stainless steel vats which heats the wine to 35C° (95C°) to 50C° (120F°) for minimum three months, then cooled down for three to four weeks before transferred to a large barrel called Cuba. What is the name of the facility?
  481. What is the German term for effervescent, or lightly sparkling wine?
  482. Name three Premier Cru vineyards from Nuits-Saint-Georges.
  483. Which Château in St-Emilion Grand Cru Classé was it promoted from Grand Cru Classé to Grand Cru Classé Château B in 1996, and then to Château A in 2012?
  484. What are the synonyms of Cabernet Franc?
  485. What is White Port?
  486. What is the Italian term for effervescent, or lightly sparkling wine?
  487. What is the third most planted red varietal in California?
  488. Which commune has the largest number of classified growth in Médoc?
  489. What is the name of grape brandy AOP from Burgundy that is made from fermenting the pips and skins?
  490. What does DVA stand for in Canada?
  491. Who organized the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976?
  492. What is the range of maximum yield in white Grand Cru Burgundy?
  493. Which Grand Cru vineyards of Montrachet are shared by the villages of both Puligny-Montrachet
    and Chassagne-Montrachet?
  494. What are the six (or seven)
    sub-appellations of Cognac AOP?
  495. What is the legal requirement for Crémant de Jura?
  496. What are the two levels of EU wine classification according to the 1962 Treaty of Rome?
  497. What is the ideal serving temperature for dry white wine?
  498. What is the name for the pre-fermentation sugar rich soup that is used to make beer?
  499. What is the varietal requirement of white Châtillon-en-Diois AOP?
  500. Name one of the Cuvée de Prestige from Laurent Perrier.
  501. What is the ideal serving temperature of red Bordeaux wine?
  502. In AVAs, what percentage of wine does it have to come from the vintage in order to put the said vintage on the label?
  503. Name two AVAs that exist on the East of Cascade Mountains, and are shared by both Washington State and Oregon?
  504. What is the name of the famous Benedictine monk credited for improving the quality of then-still wine of the Champagne Region?
  505. What is the name of the river that flows on the East of Alsace wine producing region that serves as a natural boarder between France and Germany?
  506. What is the formula of alcoholic fermentation?
  507. Jurançon AOP is known to produce what style of wine from predominantly which varietals?
  508. What are the three tiers in traditional wine classification of Wachau.
  509. Name the Cuvée de Prestige from Billecart-Salmon.
  510. What is the name of the disease in which the whole plant gets covered in white mold, and it causes leaves, flowers, and fruits to fall off?
  511. Name one white varietals permitted in Provence.
  512. What is the range of maximum yield in red Premier Cru Burgundy?
  513. What is the varietal requirement for red Patrimonio AOP?
  514. What is the name of the tiny insects that suck out the sup of the vine especially the root that causes vines to die?
  515. What is the range of maximum yield in red Grand Cru Burgundy?
  516. What is the name of the AOP in Languedoc that produces red from minimum 50% Merlot and rosé from 50% Cabernet Franc in which it gained AOP status in 2007?
  517. Clos des Cortons is a monopole of which Domain?
  518. What does AVA stand for?
  519. What are the synonyms of
    Chenin Blanc?
  520. What is the ideal cellar temperature for storage of wine?
  521. What is the most widely planted red varietal in New Zealand.
  522. Grèves Vigne de l'Enfant Jésus is a monopole of which Domaine?
  523. Domaine de la Romanée-Conti is under a co-ownership of which families?
  524. Which AVA is shared by Napa Valley AVA and Sonoma Valley AVA?
  525. Name two wine producing regions of Greece.
  526. Name the only Grand Cru vineyard in Côte de Beaune which is permitted to produce red wine.
  527. What is the dominant varietal of Sauternes AOP?
  528. What is the third most widely grown white varietal in Italy?
  529. What is a "Flor"?
  530. What are the famous AOPs in Normandie that produces apple brandy?
  531. How did the Champagne wine come to be associated with celebration?
  532. This Alsace Grand Cru is the only climat that is permitted to produce Sylvaner instead of Muscat. What is the name of this climat?
  533. What is Liquer de Tirage?
  534. What is the method of sparkling wine making in which the wine going through the fermentation is bottled and the remaining fermentation takes place in the bottle?
  535. What is the varietal requirement of red Hermitage AOP?
  536. What is the third most widely planted red varietal in Australia?
  537. In which year was Phylloxera discovered in Sonoma?
  538. What is the second most widely grown white varietal in Italy?
  539. What are the varietals permitted for Rasteau AOP,
    and Rasteau Rancio AOP?
  540. What are the main grape varietals in Sherry?
  541. What is the legal requirement for Colheita?
  542. What is Occhio di Pernice?
  543. What are the synonyms of
    Müller-Thurgau?
  544. Name the Cuvée de Prestige from Ruinart.
  545. What is Young Tawny?
  546. What is the varietal requirement of Saint-Péray AOP?
  547. What is the name for the Southern Rhône region in French?
  548. What is the name of second wine of
    Ch. Haut-Brion?
  549. What is Remuage?
  550. This DOC in Portugal produces still wine from the same area as Porto DOC. What is the name of this DOC?
  551. What is the main ingredients of
    Kuma-Shochu?
  552. Lirac AOP is allowed to produce red, white, and rosé. True or false?
  553. What is the legal requirement of
    Vin de Paille made in Hermitage AOP?
  554. Name the Cuvée de Prestige from Philipponnat.
  555. What is Vin Jaune and how is it made?
  556. What is the minimum aging requirement for Very Old Sherry (VOS) defignation?
  557. What is the name of the wine making technique in which the skin is immersed in the juice prior to fermentation?
  558. What does "Jambes", "Larmes", or "Legs", "Tears" indicate?
  559. What is the name of the Italian region that is a thin and long stretch of hills descending from Alps to Mediterranean?
    Think of Cinque Terre DOC.
  560. What is Ruby Port?
  561. What are the synonyms of Chardonnay?
  562. In which class and what commune is Ch. Palmer classified?
  563. This grape, found in South Africa, is a cross hybrid of two varietals. What is the name of the parent varietals and the resulting varietal?
  564. What are the synonyms of
    Pinot Menier?
  565. What are the five smallest AOPs in France?
  566. What is the range of residual sugar content that is allowed to use the terminology Demi Sec?
  567. What are the synonyms of
    Sangiovese Grosso?
  568. What are the conditions for upgrading DOC to DOCG?
  569. Name two grapes permitted for Madeira DOC.
  570. This region in Australia has similar climate to Pomerol or Saint-Emillion and well known for their Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. Which region is this?
  571. What are Vins Doux Naturels?
  572. Brick tinge to the rim of wine indicates the age of the wine. True or false?
  573. What grapes are permitted for producing Rosé d'Anjou AOP?
  574. Clos des Réas in Vosne-Romanée AOP is a monopole of which Domaine?
  575. What soil type is Coonawarra known for?
  576. What are the synonyms of Sangiovese Piccolo (not Sangiovese Grosso)?
  577. What is the name of the Italian region which is mostly clay soil with the capitol of Ancona? Think of Verdicchio dei Castelli.
  578. What are the two AOPs in Northern Rhône known for their wines made out of Viognier?
  579. What is the aging requirement for red Crianza in Spain?
  580. What are the names of Scotch producing regions?
  581. In the United States, Chaptilisation is prohibited. True or false?
  582. What are the synonyms of Ugni Blanc?
  583. Name three smaller AVAs from
    North Coast AVA.
  584. What is the name of the twin enclaves in Savennières AOP that is not
    Coulée-de-Serrant AOP?
  585. What is the name of the AOP situated on the left bank directly across from
    Pouilly-Fumé AOP?
  586. What is the most ideal environment for storing wine?
  587. What is the minimum alcohol percentage in Champagne AOP?
  588. What is the varietal requirement of red Saint-Joseph AOP?
  589. Name all Grand Cru Vineyards from Vosne-Romanée.
  590. Name the Cuvée de Prestige from Deutz.
  591. When serving Vintage Port, it is necessary to decant. True or False?
  592. Who discovered the effect of fermentation by yeast?
  593. What is the most planted white varietal in France?
  594. With what varietal is Clare Valley known for?
  595. Name one wine producing region in Ontario.
  596. What is the ideal annual sunlight hours for growing vitis vinifera?
  597. What is the varietal permitted in Tokaji?
  598. This AVA in Pacific Northwest produces about 98% of grapes used for wine in Washington State. What is the name of the AVA?
  599. What is the minimum alcohol level allowed for BA and TBA in Germany?
  600. What is the ideal temperature for complex white wine?
  601. What is the most widely grown red varietal in Italy?
  602. What does "La Cuvée"
    (a.k.a. Tête de Cuvée) in
    Champagne AOP consist of?
  603. What is the name of the Italian region which is an island which is known for Marsala DOC?
  604. What is the name of the Anbaugebiete in which vineyards are located North of Heiderberg, East of Rhein (the Rhine), and the West of Odenwald mostly producing Spätburgunder?
  605. What is the varietal requirement of Clairette de Die AOP?
  606. White wine turns from darker colour to lighter colour as it matures. True or false?
  607. Which Grand Cru vineyards from Gevrey-Chambertin are they allowed to interchange their names?
  608. What primary ingredient is added to the beer for flavouring?
  609. Name at least two wine producing regions in North Island of New Zealand.
  610. What is the dominant varietal in Barossa Valley?
  611. When is Beaujolais Nouveau AOP released each year?
  612. What is the name of the Anbaugebiete which produces the smallest volume of wine in Germany? It is also the most Easterly Anbaugebiete in Germany.
  613. Relative to Bordeaux, in which direction is Armagnac located?
  614. What is the name of the rosé wine made with 100% Pinot Noir in Neuchâtel?
  615. What are the factors that determines the speed of maturation in wine?
  616. Who administrates AVAs?
  617. Name the only two Grand Cru vineyrds from Chambolle-Musigny
  618. What is the name of the insects that transmit Pierce's Disease?
  619. Which village in Côte de Nuits does it lack Premier Cru or Grand Cru vineyards?
  620. What are the synonyms of Riesling?
  621. Name the Cuvée de Prestige from Veuve Cliquot.
  622. What is the dominant varietal of left bank Bordeaux?
  623. This wine region in New Zealand is well known for their Pinot Noir. Which region is this?
  624. What is the second most widely planted white varietal in Australia?
  625. Which one of the following AOP is not permitted to produce wine from Chenin Blanc?
    1), Jasnières AOP
    2), Cour-Cheverny AOP
    3), Quincy AOP
    4), Chinon AOP
  626. What is Tavel AOP famous for?
  627. What is the name of the Italian region which is known for their world renowned Chianti DOCG, Chianti Classico DOCG, and Brunello di Montalcino DOCG?
  628. What is the name of the Italian region in which it has the most rain fall in Italy that is known for their sweet white wine? Think of Collio DOC
  629. What is the second second planted red varietal in California?
  630. What is the bottle format containing 20L (26.66 bottles) called?
  631. What are the five châteaux of Première Grand Cru Classé of Médoc and in which commune are they located?
  632. In which state does Great Southern ecist?
  633. Name one wine producing region in Hungary besides Tokaj-Hegyalija.
  634. What are the dominant white varietals in Centre Nivernais?
  635. What are the synonyms of Pinot Blanc?
  636. What is Amaretto flavoured with?
  637. What is the aging requirement for Special Reserva, or Old Reserva in Madeira.
  638. What are the two DOs in Mendoza?
  639. What is the name of the AOP from Champagne region that produces the rosé still wine made exclusively from Pinot Noir?
  640. Name the Cuvée de Prestige from Gosset?
  1. a North
  2. b Chenin Blanc a.k.a Pineau de la Loire.
  3. c Rice
  4. d Kimméridgien - Layers of fossilised oyster shells.
  5. e Ribera del Duoro DOC
  6. f False
  7. g Weisser Riesling (Germany)
    White Riesling (US)
    Johannisberg Riesling (US)
    Rheinriesling (Germany)
  8. h Brunello (Brunello di Montalcino), Prugnolo Gentile (Vino Nobile di Montepulciano)
  9. i Saint-Estèphe
    Pauillac
    Saint-Julien
    Listrac-Médoc
    Moulis
    Margaux
  10. j Sir Winston Churchill
  11. k 70% to 75%
  12. l Brut Zéro
    Brut 100%
    Brut non-Dosé
    Ultra Brut
    Brut de Brut
    Brut Sauvage
  13. m Cabernet Sauvignon
  14. n Dôle
  15. o At least 50% of the cépage is from noble grapes.
  16. p 1873
  17. q Cornouaille AOP
    Pays d'Auge AOP
  18. r 12 months in the barrel,
    24 months in the bottle.
    Total: 36 months before release.
  19. s Tokaji Aszúeszencia
    180g/L
    5 years before release.
  20. t 12C° (54F°) to 14C° (57F°)
  21. u Sancerre AOP
  22. v Hessische Bergstraße
  23. w Bourgros
    Les Presuses
    Vaudésir
    Grounouilles
    Valmur
    Les Clos
    Blanchots
    La Moutone is also permitted on the label but not recognized by INAO as a Grand Cru vineyard.
  24. x Blue Agave
  25. y Solomon
  26. z South Australia
  27. aa Grand Champagne
    Petit Champagne
    (Fine Champagne)
    Borderies
    Fins Bois
    Bons Bois
    Bois Ordinaire
  28. ab Augusta, Missouri
  29. ac Sugar Cane
  30. ad Ch. Duhart-Milon Rothschild
  31. ae Rivaner (Luxembourg, Slovenia)
  32. af Prädikatswein
    Qualitätswein
    Landwein
    Tafelwein
  33. ag Veneto
  34. ah Yakima Valley AVA
    Red Mountains AVA
    Horse Heaven Hills AVA
    Wahluke Slope AVA
    Rattlesnake HIlls AVA
  35. ai Turning of bottles to bring the yeast sediment to the neck of the bottles.
    It is also called Riddling in English.
  36. aj Victoria
  37. ak Minimum 85%
  38. al Sweet White Wine
  39. am Celebri
  40. an 1935
  41. ao Minervois la Livinière AOP
    from total of at least 60% of Syrah, Mourvèdre, and Grenache.
    Must be matured until 1 November following the year of the harvest.
  42. ap 1), Renaming of Appellation d'Origine Controlée (AOC) to Appellation d'Origine Protégée (AOP)
    2), Abolishment of Appellation d'Origine de Vin de Qualité Supérieur (AOVDQS)
  43. aq En Primeur is the the practice of merchants and trade organizations are invited to taste the barrel sample of wines that are entering the maturing phase. It is then sold before bottling at a significantly lower price than after being bottled. Though it is often seen as a gamble since the wine price can appreciate or depreciate depending on many factors such as overall quality, age-worthiness, or the economy.
  44. ar Jerez-Xérès-Sherry
    y Manzanilla de Barrameda DOC.
  45. as Négociant-Manipulant - It is used to identify that the wine comes from a large négociant that mainly purchases grapes from the growers to make their wine. Majority of Champagne productions including most major Maison fall into this category.
  46. at Full bodied rosé produced from the blend of predominantly Grenache, with Cinsault, Mouvèdre, and Syrah.
  47. au Wines made out of late harvested grapes which is largely affected by Botrytis Cinerea.
  48. av Corton AOP
    Corton-Charlemagne AOP
    Charlemagne AOP
  49. aw La Grande Rue - Domaine François Lamarche
    La Romanée - Domaine du Château de Vosne-Romanée (a.k.a. Domaine du Comte Liger-Belair)
  50. ax Vintners Quality Alliance
  51. ay Aconcagua Valley
    Casablance Valley
    San Antonio Valley
    Maipo Valley
    Rapel Valley
    Curicó Valley
    Maule Valley
    Itata Valley
    Bio Bio Valley
    Malleco Valley
  52. az Ull de Llebre (Cataluña)
    Ojo de Lliebre (Cataluña)
    Cencibel (La Mancha)
    Tinto Fino (Castilla Léon)
    Tinto del Pais (Castilla Léon)
    Tinta de Toro (Spain)
    Tinto de Madrid (Madrid)
    Tinta Roriz (Portugal)
    Aragonez (Portugal)
  53. ba Furmint
    Hárslevelü
    Sarga Muskotály (a.k.a. Muscat Blancs à Petits Grains)
  54. bb Colombard
  55. bc 2), In the interest of service excellence.
  56. bd Pavillon Rouge
  57. be Charmes-Chambertin AOP and Mazoyères-Chambertin AOP
  58. bf 20 years
  59. bg Smaragd 18.2°KMW
    Federspiel 17~18.2°KMW
    Steinfeder 15~17°KMW
  60. bh Carignan, Marsanne, and Viognier.
  61. bi Auxerrois (a.k.a. Côt and Malbec)
  62. bj Garganega
  63. bk 1976
  64. bl Grapes that went through Passito process are pressed and fermented sweet, then put in the barrel partially full with yeast film allowed to develop on the surface. Produced mainly in Toscana from white grapes. If it is produced from red grapes, it is allowed to be labeled as "Occhio di Pernice".
  65. bm Brandy made out of fermenting pips and skins of grapes. Same as Marc in France. Most Grappa does not see wood but if it is aged, takes on amber colour.
  66. bn La Tâche AOP
    Romanée-Conti AOP
  67. bo Grand Cru
  68. bp Institut National des Appellations d'Origine (prior to 1 January 2007) - INAO
    Institut National de l'Origine et de la Qualité (Still called INAO despite the new name's acronym being INOQ)
  69. bq Stone of apricot
    (for the flavour of almond).
  70. br Les Amoureuses
    Les Charmes
    Les Cras
    Les Plantes
    Les Fuées
    Aux Combottes
  71. bs Grande Cuvée
  72. bt *It has to be made exclusively from grapes that are harvested in the inferior-declared vintage.
    *It has to display the vintage on the label.
    *The application to declare vintage must be submitted to IVDP in the fourth year from the vintage between March and September.
    *It has to be bottled in between July of the second year from the harvest to the end of the sixth year from the harvest.
  73. bu 3rd, Margaux
  74. bv They are fortified wines in which the fermentation is halted by the addition of brandy. Leaving the resulted wine sweet and high in alcohol.
  75. bw Touriga Nacional
    Touriga Francesa
    Tinta Roriz (a.k.a. Aragones, Tempranillo)
    Tinta Barroca
    Tinta Cão
    Tinta Pinheira
    Baga
    Tinta Negro Mole
  76. bx Corvina Veronese
    Rondinella
    Molinara
  77. by Cabernet Francs
    Cabernet Sauvignon
  78. bz Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac
  79. ca Vins Doux Naturels made out of Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains.
  80. cb Ausbruch
  81. cc Minimum 95%
  82. cd Marsannay
  83. ce Ch. Bahans Haut Brion
  84. cf La Grande Rue AOP
    Richebourg AOP
    La Romanée AOP
    Romanée-Conti AOP
    Romanée-Saint-Vivant AOP
    La Tâche AOP
    Echézeux AOP
    Grand-Echézeux AOP
  85. cg Third Thursday of November following the harvest.
  86. ch Eau-de-Vie
  87. ci 40hl/ha to 64hl/ha
  88. cj Montepulciano
  89. ck It homogenizes the quality and flavor of the wine while allowing it to mature for an extended period of time.
  90. cl *Red Grapes
    Poussard
    Trousseau
    Pinot Noir (Gros Noirien)
    *White Grapes
    Savagnin (Naturé)
    Chardonnay (Melon d'Arbois)
  91. cm Sémillon
  92. cn Niellucio minimum 90%
  93. co Finger Lakes AVA
    Hudson River AVA
    Long Island AVA
    Lake Erie AVA
  94. cp 36 months after Tirage.
  95. cq Minimum 10 years.
  96. cr North Coast AVA
    Central Coast AVA
    Sierra Foothills AVA
    Central Valley AVA
    South Coast AVA
  97. cs Vino Spumante
  98. ct Grande Dame
  99. cu Muscat du Cap Corse AOP
  100. cv Palomino (Dry)
    Pedro Ximénez (Sweet)
  101. cw Marsannay
    Fixin
    Nuits-Saint-Georges
  102. cx False. No large format of Romanée-Conti was produced in 1945.
  103. cy Vale d'Aosta
  104. cz Penedès DOC
  105. da Toscana (Tuscany in English)
  106. db Cataratto Bianco Comune
  107. dc 8C° (46F°) to 10C° (50F°)
  108. dd It started in 2006 and came into effect in 2012.
  109. de Hermitage (South Africa)
  110. df Standard or Full Bottle
  111. dg Mondeuse
    Chasselas
    Rousette (Altese)
  112. dh Niederöstrreich
    Wien
    Burgenland
    Steinmark
  113. di Viula (a.k.a. Macabeo)
    Garnacha Blanca
    Malvasia
    Chardonnay
    Sauvignon Blanc
    Berdejo
    Maturana Blanca
    Tempranillo Blanco
    Torrontes
  114. dj 50hl/ha to 69hl/ha
  115. dk 5th, Pauillac
  116. dl Sauvignon Blanc
  117. dm 1934
  118. dn Avize
    Chouilly
    Cramant
    Mesnil-sur-Oger
    Oger
    Oiry
  119. do Primat or Goliath
  120. dp Méthode Charmat, or Méthode de la Cuvée Close
  121. dq Ch. Calon-Ségur
  122. dr Pinot Noir
  123. ds True
  124. dt Agiorgitiko
    Liatiko
    Limnio
    Mavrodaphne
    Moschophilero
    Xinomavro
  125. du Gros Plant (Loire, Cognac, Armangac)
  126. dv False. Cornas is only permitted to produce red wine exclusively from Syrah.
  127. dw Château-Chalon AOP
  128. dx Corton AOP (including all 32 climats)
  129. dy Pedro Gimenez (completely unrelated to Pedro Ximénez in Spain)
  130. dz Magnum
  131. ea Colli Arteri
    Colli Florentini
    Colline Pisane
    Colli Senesi
    Montalbano
    Montespertoli (since 1996)
    Rùfina
    Classico
  132. eb Chorey-lès-Beaune
    Saint-Romain
  133. ec Domaine des Comtes Lafon
  134. ed Ch. Belair
    Ch. Figeac
    Ch. Beau-Séjour-Bécot
    Ch. Canon
    etc...
  135. ee False. Hermitage is only permitted to produce white and red wines.
  136. ef Rogue Valley AVA
  137. eg Priorat DOC
  138. eh Nielluccio (Corsica)
  139. ei Succinic Acid, Acetic Acid, and Lactic Acid.
  140. ej Altesse (Jura)
  141. ek Grenache Noir
    Grenache Gris
    Grenache Blanc
  142. el Wort
  143. em Chardonnay
  144. en Corton AOP
    Corton-Charlemagne AOP
  145. eo 2nd, Saint-Estèphe
  146. ep Demi or Half Bottle
  147. eq Merlot
  148. er 2nd, Saint-Julien
  149. es Le Petit Mouton
  150. et Canteiro
  151. eu Pineau de la Loire (Loire)
    Steen (South Africa)
  152. ev Ch. Lafite Rothschild (Pauillac)
    Ch. Latour (Pauillac)
    Ch. Mouton-Rothschild (Pauillac)
    Ch. Margaux (Margaux)
    Ch. Haut-Brion (Péssac-Léognan) -*Not in Médoc but in Graves.
  153. ew Cabarnet Franc
    Cabernet Sauvignon
    Gamay
  154. ex American Viticultural Area
  155. ey Château-Grillet AOP
  156. ez Sardignia
  157. fa Grolleau
  158. fb At least 51% of ingredients has to be corn, and aged in new charred American oak barrel.
  159. fc Rheinhessen
  160. fd Sandstone mixed with small pebbles and sand.
  161. fe 45hl/ha to 75hl/ha
  162. ff Macvin de Jura AOP
  163. fg Fleur de Champagne
  164. fh Sovereign
  165. fi Koji
  166. fj A collection of vineyards within a district.
    167 of them in existence as of 2009.
  167. fk 6C° (43F°) to 8C° (46F°)
  168. fl Solera System
  169. fm Monastrell (Spain)
    Mataro (Australia, US)
  170. fn Cascade Mountains
  171. fo Tannat
  172. fp Riesling
    Gewurztraminer
    Pinot Gris
    Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains
    Pinot Blanc (Klevner)
    Sylvaner
    Chasselas (Gutedel)
    Pinot Noir
  173. fq Mâcon AOP
    Mâcon-Supérieur AOP
    Mâcon+Commune (eg. Mâcon-Solutré AOP, Mâcon-Vinzelles AOP, Mâcon-Loché AOP)
  174. fr Pinot-Chardonnay-Mâcon AOP
    Mâcon-Villages AOP
    Saint-Véran AOP
    Pouilly-Fuissé AOP
    Pouilly-Loché AOP
    Pouilly-Vinzelles AOP
    Viré-Clessé AOP
  175. fs Bairrada DOC
  176. ft 0g/L to 15g/L.
  177. fu Hawkes Bay
  178. fv With the peel of bitter orange.
  179. fw Limestone
  180. fx Dom Pérignon
  181. fy Bosco
  182. fz True. Mainly from Grenache and Clairette.
  183. ga Barbera
  184. gb Muscadet a.k.a. Melon de Bourgogne
  185. gc Western Australia
  186. gd Friuli-Venezia-Giulia
  187. ge Minimum 3 years.
  188. gf 6C° (43F°) to 12C° (54F°)
  189. gg Franken
  190. gh Jerez de la Frontera
    El Puerto de Santa Maria
    Sanlúcar de Barrameda
  191. gi Macabeo (a.k.a. Viula)
    Parellada
    Xarel-lo
    also permitted are:
    Malvasia
    Chardonnay
    Monastrel
    Garnacha
    Trepat
    Pinot Noir
  192. gj Mont de Milleu
    Montée de Tonnerre
    Fourchaume
    Vaillons
    Montmais
    Mélinots
    Côte de Léchet
    Beauroy
    Vaucoupain
    Vosgros
    Les Fourneux
    etc...
  193. gk Aszú
  194. gl 125hL/ha
    (except for Elbling: 150hL/ha)
  195. gm Jeroboam
  196. gn Four
  197. go Sangiovese (Grosso)
  198. gp Aged Ruby Port.
  199. gq No
  200. gr 2), Cour-Cheverny AOP.
    Produced exclusively from Romarantin.
  201. gs Loureiro
    Arinto
    Alvarinho (Alvariño in Spain)
    Encruzado
    Sercial
    Verdelho
    Boal
    Malvasia
    Terrantes
  202. gt 55hl/ha to 75hl/ha
  203. gu C° = (F°-32) x 5/9
  204. gv Hazelnut
  205. gw *Red Grapes:
    Cinsaut
    Counoise
    Grenache Noir
    Mourvèdre
    Muscardin
    Piquepoul Noir
    Syrah
    Terret Noir
    Vaccarèse (Brun Argenté)
    *White Grapes
    Bourboulenc
    Clairette Blanche
    Clairette Rose
    Grenache Blanc
    Grenache Gris
    Picardan
    Piquepoul Blanc
    Piquepoul Gris
    Roussanne
  206. gx Scotch whisky. Honey and various herbs.
  207. gy Palo Cortado
  208. gz Maceration, or Skin Contact
  209. ha Cabernet Francs (a.k.a Breton).
  210. hb Les Forts de Latour
  211. hc Melchizedek
  212. hd Port in which 1/3 of White Port is added to the Tawny Port.
  213. he Calvados du Pays d'Auge AOP
    Calvados Domfrontais AOP
    Calvados AOP
  214. hf Puglia (or Apulia)
  215. hg Abruzzo
  216. hh Porto DOC
  217. hi Pinot Noir x Cinsaut
    Pinotage
  218. hj Menu Pineau
  219. hk Henri Jayer
  220. hl Saale-Unstrut
  221. hm Niederöstrreich
  222. hn Port made from white grapes.
  223. ho Rolle (Provence)
  224. hp Fermentation that converts harsher Malic Acid into milder Lactic Acid.
  225. hq Minimum 5 years.
  226. hr Blanc de Noirs
  227. hs Clos des Goisses
  228. ht Galets
  229. hu Trappist
  230. hv 61
  231. hw True. Recioto is what people from Veneto call Passito.
  232. hx Montagny AOP
  233. hy Rice-Koji
  234. hz Gutedel (Alsace, Germany)
  235. ia Trockenberenauslese (TBA)
    Eiswein and Berenauslese (BA)
    Auslese
    Spätlese
    Kabinett
  236. ib Côte de Sézanne
    Côte des Bars
  237. ic 15 months after Tirage.
  238. id Calabria
  239. ie La Rioja
    Catamarca
    Salta
  240. if Ugni Blanc
    (a.k.a. Saint-Emilion in Cognac and in Armagnac)
  241. ig Single Malt Whisky
    Blended Whisky
  242. ih Mediterranean
  243. ii Riesling
  244. ij 11% ABV
  245. ik Baden
  246. il Flazy-Echézeaux
  247. im Columbia Valley AVA
  248. in Saint-Amour
    Juliénas
    Chénas
    Moulin-à-Vent
    Fleurie
    Chiroubles
    Morgon
    Régnié
    Brouilly
    Côte de Brouilly
  249. io Denominação de Origem Controlada (DOC)
    Indicação Proveniência Regulmentada (IPR)
    Vinho Regional
    Vinho de Mesa
  250. ip Rehoboam
  251. iq Campania
  252. ir Three times in Pot Still
  253. is True
    Vintage Port is bottled without filtration, thus comes with a large amount of sediment. It is thus important to decant it prior to serving.
  254. it Clos du Mesnil
    Clos d'Ambonnay
  255. iu Ch. d'Yquem
  256. iv Clos de Vougeot AOP
  257. iw Finger Lakes AVA
    Hudson River Region AVA
    Long Island AVA
    North Fork of Long Island AVA
    Hamptons of Long Island AVA
    Lake Erie & Chautauqua AVA
    Niagara Escarpment AVA
  258. ix Albalíssa
  259. iy Wheat
  260. iz Marsannay AOP
  261. ja Michel Gros
  262. jb A single vineyard. It must be larger than 5ha.
    2,658 of them in existence as of 2009.
  263. jc Merlot (except for Ch. Cheval Blanc, in which the dominant varietal is Cabernet Franc; and for Ch. Figeac in which the dominant varietal is Cabernet Sauvignon)
  264. jd Bas-Armagnac AOP
    Armagnac Ténarèze AOP
    Haut-Armagnac AOP
  265. je Clos de la Roche AOP
    Clos-Saint-Denis AOP
    Clos des Lambrays AOP
    Clos de Tart AOP
    Bonnes-Mares AOP
  266. jf Württenburg
  267. jg Marlborough
    Nelson
    Canterbury / Waipara
    Central Otago
  268. jh Okanagen Valley
    Simikameen Valley
    Fraser Valley
    Vancouver Island
  269. ji Approximately 100km (60miles)
  270. jj 4th, St-Julien
  271. jk Les Gaudichots
    Aux Malconsorts
    Les Beaux Monts
    Les Suchots
    Clos des Réas
    Les Chaumes
  272. jl Valais
  273. jm Clos Saint-Jacques
    Clos des Varoilles
    La Perrière
    Aux Combottes
    Bel Air
    Clos du Chapître
    Les Cazetiers
    Champeaux
  274. jn 18C° (64F°) to 20C° (68F°)
  275. jo Piccolo
  276. jp Cabernet Francs a.k.a Breton.
    Gamay
  277. jq Chenin Blanc, Dessert Wine
  278. jr Amontillado.
  279. js 6 months in the barrel,
    12 months in the bottle.
    Total: 18 months before release.
  280. jt The amount of organic acid.
    Poly-phenol Level
    Poly-phenol from Barrels
    Residual Sugar Level
    Alcohol Content
    Concentration of Extract
    Free Sulpheric Acid Level
  281. ju Schwarzriesling (Germany)
    Müllerrebe (Germany)
  282. jv Balthazar
  283. jw Northern Rhône wines tend to be Syrah dominant, blended with either Rousanne & Marsanne or with Viognier (except for Cornas AOP which is 100% Syrah). Southern Rhône wines tend to be blends of many different varietals with some relative importance to Grenache.
  284. jx North Coast AVA
  285. jy 6 months in the barrel,
    42 months in the bottle.
    Total: 48 months before release.
  286. jz Ch. Pétrus
    Ch. l'Evangile
    Ch. Lafleur
    Ch. Le Pin
    Ch. La Conseillante
    Ch. Gazin
    etc...
  287. ka It is an unofficial designation in which a given AOP or a vinayard is solely owned by a proprietor, such as Clos du Tart AOP, Château-Grillet AOP, or Savenières-Coulée-de-Serrant AOP. It is also applicable to the Premier Cru AOPs with vineyard designation such as Meursault Clos de la Barre (Appelation Meursault Premier Cru Protégée) by Comte Lafon. Some Grand Cru AOP and village level AOP may carry "Monopole" designation on its etiquette when historical "lieu-dit", or certain "climat" is solely owned by a single proprietor. e.g. Corton Clos des Cortons (Appelation Corton Grand Cru Protégée) by Domaine Faiveley, or Vosne-Romanée Clos du Château (Appelation Vosne-Romanée Protégée) by Domaine du Compte Liger-Belair.
  288. kb Spanna (Ghemme)
    Chiavennasca (Valttelina)
  289. kc Niagara Peninsula
    Lake Erie North Shore
    Pelee Island
    Prince Edward County
  290. kd Ch. Ferrière
    Ch. Malescot Saint-Exupéry
    Ch. Marquis d'Alesme-Becker
    Ch. Boyd-Cantenac
    Ch. Cantenac-Brown
    Ch. Desmitail
    Ch. d'Issan
    Ch. Kirwan
    Ch. Palmer
  291. ke Finger Lakes AVA
  292. kf Malbec
  293. kg Los Carneros AVA 1983-08-18
    Howell Mountain AVA 1983-12-30
    Wild Horse Valley AVA 1988-11-30
    Stags Leap District AVA 1989-01-27
    Mt. Veeder AVA 1990-02-20
    Atlas Peak AVA 1992-01-22
    Spring Mountain District AVA 1993-05-13
    Oakville AVA 1993-07-02
    Rutherford AVA 1993-07-02
    St. Helena AVA 1995-09-11
    Chiles Valley AVA 1999-02-17
    Yountville AVA 1999-03-19
    Diamond Mountain District AVA 2001-06-01
    Oak Knoll District of Napa Valley AVA 2004-02-25
    Calistoga AVA 2009-12-08
    Coombsville AVA 2011-12-14
  294. kh Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau
  295. ki Prädikatswein
    Qualitätswein bestimmter Anbaugebiete (QbA)
    Landwein
    Tafelwein
  296. kj 4th, Saint-Julien
  297. kk Chenin Blanc
  298. kl Process of removing the sediment from the neck of the bottle by freezing at very low temperature.
  299. km Luxembourg
  300. kn Edes
  301. ko Vin de Paille is a sweet straw wine in which the grapes are left on the straw mats to dry (the process is called "Passerillage") so the juice is concentrated. It is also made in Jura. Same practice of wine making is also seen in Austria, Greece, and notably in Italy (Vin Santo for example.).
  302. kp Maule Valley
  303. kq Trebbiano Romagnolo
  304. kr Continental
  305. ks >45g/L residual sugar.
  306. kt Les Saint-Georges
    Les Vaucrains
    Les Cailles
    Aux Boudot
    Les Pruliers
    La Richemone
    Les Porrets
    Rue de Chaux
    Aux Cras
    Aux Thorey
    Clos de la Maréchale
    Clos des Argillières
    Clos des Grandes Vignes
    Aux Pedrix
  307. ku Coteaux Champnois AOP
  308. kv Condrieu AOP
    Château-Grillet AOP
  309. kw Vino Frizzante
  310. kx Maipo Valley
  311. ky Terra Rossa
  312. kz Marche
  313. la Clairette 100%
  314. lb Bâtard-Montrchet AOP
    Montrachet AOP
  315. lc Dordogne
    Garonne
    Ciron
  316. ld Saint-Bris AOP
    Similar soil type to Chablis region: alluvial and Kimméridgien, thus producing steely, and minerally Sauvignon Blanc with flavors of sour green apples.
  317. le Trebbiano Toscano 65%,
    Malvasia Bianca 15% minimum
  318. lf Wormwood is steeped with wine. It is consumed as aperitivo or digestivo.
  319. lg Domaine du Château de Vosne-Romanée a.k.a. Domaine du Comte Liger-Belair
  320. lh Vin Mousseux, or Crémant
  321. li Les Grandes Ruchottes
    Les Champs Gain
    Abbaye de Morgeot
    La Grande Montagne
    Morgeot
    Cailleret
    Clos Saint-Jean
    Bois de Chassagne
    La Maltroie
  322. lj Clare Valley
    Barossa Valley
    Eden Valley
    Adelaide Hills
    McLaren Vale
    Kangaroo Island
    Robe
    Pathaway
    Coonawarra
  323. lk Vinho Verde DOC
  324. ll Carmenère
  325. lm Vermentino 100%
  326. ln Grillo
    Cataratto
    Inzollia
    Perricone
    Calabrese
  327. lo Sultana
  328. lp Estufa
  329. lq Rousanne & Marsanne
  330. lr Syrah minimum 90%, Rousanne & Marsanne.
  331. ls Cuvée William Deutz
  332. lt It must be aged for nine months after Tirage (removal of sediment).
  333. lu 16C° (61F°) to 20C° (68F°)
  334. lv Sicillia (Sicily in English)
  335. lw Shiraz
  336. lx Willamette Valley AVA
    -Dundee Hills AVA
    -Yamhill-Carlton District AVA
    -McMinnville AVA
    -Ribbon Ridge AVA
    -Eola-Amity Hills AVA
    -Chehalem Mountains AVA
    Umpqua Valley AVA
    -Red Hill Douglas County AVA
    Rogue Valley AVA
    Applegate Valley AVA
    Southern Oregon AVA
  337. ly Crio-Extraction
  338. lz Vidal
  339. ma Bouchard Père et Fils
  340. mb Sand and Sandstone covered by large pebbles.
  341. mc de Villaine family
    Leroy family
  342. md Aidani
    Athiri
    Muscat Savatiano
  343. me Margaret River
  344. mf South
  345. mg Steven Spurrier
    the chair and president of
    l'Academie du Vin
  346. mh Sauvignon Blanc a.k.a. Blanc Fumé
    Chasselas
  347. mi Méthode Traditionelle, or
    Traditional Method in English
    ("Méthode Champenoise" is now outlawed in EU)
  348. mj Luján de Cuyo
    San Rafael
  349. mk Vino Espumosso
  350. ml Vin Pétillant
  351. mm Puget Sound AVA
  352. mn Cadillac AOP
    Loupillac AOP
    Saint-Croix-du-Mont AOP
  353. mo Melon d'Arbois (Jura)
    Beaunois (Burgundy)
  354. mp Douro DOC
  355. mq Beverage made from steeping cinchona bark with old Barolo wine.
  356. mr Macedonia & Thrace
    Espiros & Ionian Islands
    Thessaly
    Centreal Greece
    Peloponnese
    Aegian Islands
  357. ms Clairette 55% minimum, Aligoté 10% minimum, and Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains
  358. mt Pouilly Fumé AOP a.k.a.
    Blanc Fumé de Pouilly AOP
  359. mu Vin Santo made from red grapes in Italy.
  360. mv A liquid consisting of base wine and sucrose (sugar) used for dosage. It can sometimes include flavouring and preservatives that are trade secret.
  361. mw Syrah minimum 85%
    with Rousanne and Marsanne.
  362. mx Yarra Valley
  363. my Quality Wines Produced in Specified Regions (QWpsr) or Vin de Qualité Produits dans une Région Déterminé (VQPRD) and Table Wine (TW) or Vins de Table
  364. mz False. Chaptilisation is prohibited in Austria.
  365. na Mainly Grechetto
  366. nb Louise
  367. nc 1855, Napoléon Bonaparte ordered to classify the growth of wines from Médoc based on the then-current price list from majour négociants around the city of Bordeaux.
  368. nd Spanna (a.k.a. Nebbiolo)
  369. ne Bâtard-Montrachet AOP
    Bienvenue-Bâtard-Montrachet AOP
    Chevalier-Montrachet AOP
    Criots-Bâtard-Montrachet AOP
    Le Montrachet AOP
  370. nf Xinomavro
  371. ng The grape juice obtained from the harvest is kept without going through fermentation. In order to achieve the desired residual sugar level, it is permitted to be added to the wine up to the 25% of the volume of resulting wine. It must come from the same locality as the wine in which it is added.
  372. nh Perrières
    Charmes
    Genevrières
    Poursot
    Les Gouttes d'Or
    Les Bouchères
    Les Santenots Blancs
  373. ni 85%
  374. nj Mendoza
    San Juan
  375. nk Trebbiano Toscano
  376. nl Vosge Mountains
  377. nm Gamay minimum 75%,
    Pinot Noir and Syrah.
    Must be picked by hand.
  378. nn Cuvée Laetitia
  379. no Quintessence de Grains Nobles (Domaine Weinbach)
    Trie Spéciale (Domaine Zind-Humbrecht)
  380. np Ambonnay
    Beaumont-sur-Vesle
    Bouzy
    Louvois
    Mailly
    Pusieulx
    Sillery
    Verzenay
    Verzy
  381. nq Limestone, gravel, and clay.
  382. nr 45hl/ha to 68hl/ha
  383. ns Vino de Aguja
  384. nt True (unless it is Gentil from Altenberg de Bergheim or from Kaefferpopf)
    Majority of wines from Alsace are varietal instead of blends (except for Edelzwicker, Gentil or Crémant) and each AOP does not automatically denote the varietal so it is necessary to intrduce the varietal when presenting the bottle to the customer.
  385. nu Niagara Peninsula
  386. nv Liguria
  387. nw Limestone, Clay
  388. nx Rousanne and Marsanne.
  389. ny Œil de Pedrix
  390. nz False (Prohibited in California)
  391. oa Gisbourne
  392. ob Lussac-Saint-Émilion AOP
    Montagne-Saint-Émilion AOP
    Puisseguin-Saint-Émilion AOP
    Saint-Georges-Saint-Émilion AOP
  393. oc Ch. Climens (Sauternes)
    Ch. Coutet (Barsac)
    Ch. Guiraud (Barsac)
    Ch. Rieussec (Sauternes)
    Ch. Suduiraut (Fargues)
    Ch. La Tour Blanche (Perignac)
    Ch. Rabaud-Promis (Bommes)
    Ch. Sigalas Rabaud (Bommes)
    Ch. Rayne-Vigneau (Bommes)
    Ch. Clos Haut-Peyraguey (Bommes)
    Ch. Lafaurie-Peyraguay (Bommes)
  394. od Cabernet Sauvignon
    Cabernet Franc
    Merlot
    Malbec
    Petit Verdot
    Carmenère
    Sémillon
    Sauvignon Blanc
    Muscadelle
  395. oe 16C° (61F°) to 18C° (64F°)
  396. of Syrah minimum 80%, and Viognier.
  397. og Musigny AOP
  398. oh Mittelrhein
  399. oi Minimum 90% (Exceptions are: Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Malbec, Carmenère, Petit Syrah, Mouvèdre, Grenache, Marsanne, Rousanne, Sangiovese, Syrah, Tannat, Tempranillo, and Zinfandel which are minimum 75%)
  400. oj Ch. Angélus
  401. ok Macvin du Jura AOP
    Clairette du Languedoc AOP
    Frontignan AOP
    Muscat de Frontignan AOP
    Vin de Frontignan AOP
    Pineau des Charentes AOP
    Floc de Gascogne AOP
  402. ol Egri Bikavér
  403. om Central Otago
  404. on Vitis Labrusca
  405. oo Morey-Saint-Denis and
    Chambolle-Musigny
  406. op Syrah 100%
  407. oq 2,050L of juice from 4,000kg of grapes.
  408. or It literally translates to Yellow Wine. It is wine that is made from Savagnin (Naturé) grapes. The wine is not filled to the brim of the barrel so that it allows for the growth of yeast film called Fleur du Vin developing on the surface of the wine protecting it from excessive oxidation. Gradually the wine turns yellow and starts to develop a flavour profile called Goût de Jaune (Yellow Taste) which are often described as walnuts, roasted almond, and hazelnut. A few strict rules are imposed on producing this wine.
  409. os Mayacamas Mountains
  410. ot No1, La Romanée AOP 0.8ha (Monopole of Domaine du Château de Vosne-Romanée a.k.a. Domaine du Comte Liger-Belair)
    No2, Criots-Bâtard-Montrachet AOP 1.57ha
    No3, La Grande-Rue AOP 1.7ha (Monopole of Domaine François Lamarche)
    No4, Romanée-Conti AOP 1.8ha (Monopole of Domaine de la Romanée-Conti)
    No5, Château-Grillet 3.4ha AOP (Monopole of Château Grillet)
  411. ou Cariñena (Spain)
    Mazuelo (Rioja)
  412. ov A mixture of sweet reserve wine and yeast added to the bottle to start the secondary fermentation in the bottle.
  413. ow In 1973, Ch. Mouton-Rothschild was upgraded from Second Growth to First Growth.
  414. ox 30°-50° North
  415. oy Piccolit
  416. oz Rias Baixas DOC
  417. pa Domaine Faiveley
  418. pb Vernaccia
  419. pc Addition of acids to the wine (acidification) to make the wine more acidic, most commonly in warm climate regions where grapes are often harvested at advanced stages of ripeness with high levels of sugars, but very low levels of acid.
  420. pd Chassagne-Montrachet
  421. pe Madeira DOC
  422. pf Mutage is a process for making Vins Doux Naturels and Vins de Liqueur in which the fermentation is halted or prevented by the addition of brandy, making the resulting wine high in alcohol and high in residual sugar.
  423. pg Sweet Potato
  424. ph Macabeu (France)
    Macabeo (Spain)
    Viura (Rioja)
  425. pi Méthode par Transversage, or
    Transfer Method in English
  426. pj Lowland
    Speyside
    Highland
    Islay
    Campbeltown
    The Islands (Arran, Jura, Mull, Orkney and Skye)
  427. pk Rosé des Riceys AOP
  428. pl 5.5% ABV
  429. pm True. Production of rosé is also permitted.
  430. pn Onomasia Proelefsis Anoteras Piotitas (OPAP)
    Onomasia Proelefsis Elechomeni (OPE)
    Topikos Oinos
    Epitrapezios Oinos
  431. po Alcohol and Glycerol Level
  432. pp Száraz
  433. pq Les Bressandes
    Le Corton
    Les Pougets
    Les Renardes
    Le Clos du Roi
    La Tappe au Vert
    Île des Vergelesses
    Le Fichots
    etc...
  434. pr 1933
  435. ps Rasteau AOP
    Muscat Beaumes de Venise AOP
  436. pt Grapes that went through Passito process are pressed and fermented dry. Resulting in high alcohol, dry wine with intense flavour.
  437. pu Clairette
    Ugni Blanc
    Sémillon
    Rolle (a.k.a. Vermentino or Malvoisie de Corse)
  438. pv *It has to be a single vintage Tawny opted for long maturation period.
    *It has to display the vintage and bottled year on the label.
    *The application to declare vintage must be submitted to IVDP in the third year from the vintage between July and the end of the year.
    *It is only permitted to be bottled after seven years of maturation in wood.
  439. pw Additional 500L of juice from 4000kg of grapes after La Cuvée is extracted.
  440. px Methuselah
  441. py Bocksbeutel
    Green
  442. pz Retsina
  443. qa Saignée
  444. qb Chambertin AOP
    Chambertin-Clos de Bèze AOP (May also be labeled as Chambertin AOP)
    Chapelle-Chambertin AOP
    Griotte-Chambertin AOP
    Charmes-Chambertin AOP (May also be labeled as Mzoyères-Chambertin AOP)
    Mzoyères-Chambertin AOP (May also be labeled as Charmes-Chambertin AOP)
    Latrichières-Chmabertin AOP
    Ruchottes-Chambertin AOP
  445. qc 13 legally defined wine producing regions of Germany.
  446. qd Twice in Pot Still
  447. qe Pinot Bianco
    Pinot Nero
    Chardonnay
  448. qf Rousette (Altese)
  449. qg Arroyo Grande Valley AVA
    Arroyo Seco AVA
    Carmel Valley AVA
    Chalone AVA, Cienega Valley AVA
    Edna Valley AVA
    Hames Valley AVA
    Lime Kiln Valley AVA
    Livermore Valley AVA
    Monterey AVA, Mt.
    Harlan AVA
    Pacheco Pass AVA
    Paicines AVA
    Paso Robles AVA
    San Antonio Valley AVA
    San Benito AVA
    San Bernabe AVA
    San Francisco Bay AVA
    San Lucas AVA
    San Ysidro District AVA
    Santa Clara Valley AVA
    Santa Cruz Mountains AVA
    Santa Lucia Highlands AVA
    Santa Maria Valley AVA
    Santa Ynez Valley AVA
    Sta. Rita Hills AVA
    York Mountain AVA
  450. qh Blanc de Blancs
  451. qi Moscatel de Alejandria
  452. qj Junmai Daiginjo (50%)
    Daiginjo (40%)
    Junmai Ginjo (40%)
    Ginjo (40%)
    Honjozo (30%)
  453. qk 6 months in the barrel,
    18 months in the bottle.
    Total: 24 months before release.
  454. ql Montagnes de Reims
    Vallée de la Marne
    Côte des Blancs
  455. qm Port made from red grapes.
  456. qn *It has to be produced from the four noble varietals - Riesling, Gewurtztraminer, Pinot Gris, and Muscat. (Except for Zolzenberg where Sylvaner is permitted instead of Muscat.)
    *It has to be produced from one of the fifty one "Lieux-Dits" (noted sites).
    *It has to satisfy the minimum sugar level (or potential alcohol), vine density, and maximukm yield.
    *Principally, it has to be a varietal wine. (Except for Altenberg de Bergheim, and Kaefferkopf where the blends are also permitted.)
    *Grapes must be harvested by hand.
  457. qo Ch. Ausone
    Ch. Cheval Blanc
    Ch. Angélus (Upgraded in 2012)
    Ch. Pavie (Upgraded in 2012)
  458. qp Stag's Leap Wine Cellars Cabernet Sauvignon 1973
    Chateau Montelena CHardonnay 1973
  459. qq Twice in Pot Still, in 300L Barrique.
  460. qr Mosel
  461. qs Flor is a film of yeast that protects Sherry wine from excessive oxidation, allowing it to take on numerous flavors as it matures in barrel. It is a result of barrels not filled to the brim. Similar practices are seen in Vin Jaune of Jura (Fleur du Vin) or in Marsala.
  462. qt Umbria
  463. qu 35hl/ha to 37hl/ha
  464. qv Columbia Gorge AVA
    Columbia Valley AVA
    Walla Walla Valley AVA
  465. qw Chardonnay
    Pinot Blanc
    Pinot Gris
    15% each
  466. qx 17%~22% AVB
  467. qy Rioja Alta
    Rioja Alavesa
    Rioja Baja
  468. qz Vendange Tardive
  469. ra Because the Cathedral of Reims was a venue for coronation of the King of France and the still wine of Champagne region was served at the banquet.
  470. rb Bonarda
  471. rc Chaptalization is the process of adding sugar to unfermented grape must in order to increase the alcohol content in the resulting wine.
  472. rd Bouzeron,
    Aligoté
  473. re Naturé (Jura)
  474. rf Los Carneros AVA
  475. rg Comtes de Champagne
  476. rh Côt (France)
    Auxerrois (Cahors)
  477. ri 10C° (50F°) to 14C° (57F°)
  478. rj Ch. Laville-Haut-Brion
    Ch. Couhins
    Ch. Couhins-Lurton
  479. rk Cortese
  480. rl *It has to be a DOC for at least 5 years.
    *It has to plant more vines per hector.
    *It has to reduce the yield.
    *It has to be traded in vessels less than 5L.
    *It has to pass the quality test after the fermentations, and before bottling.
    *Pruning must meet the prescribed criteria.
    *Vilification method must meet the prescribed criteria.
    *The wine must be aged longer.
    *It has to be sealed with the government issued DOCG seal.
  481. rm Tokaji Natúreszencia / Tokaji Eszencia
    250g/L
  482. rn Lambrusco
  483. ro Northern Transdanubia
    Northern Hungary
    Southern Transdanubia
    The Great Plain
  484. rp One Year
  485. rq Margaux (21)
  486. rr Sciacarello minimum 40%
  487. rs Olorosso
  488. rt Edelfaule
  489. ru 40hl/ha to 45hl/ha
  490. rv Hop
  491. rw Sachsen
  492. rx Denominación de Origen Vino de Pago (VP)
    Denominación de Origen Calificada (DOC)
    Denominación de Origen (DO)
    Vino de Calidad con Indicación Geográfica (VCIG)
    Vinñedos de España
    Vino de la Tierra
    Vino de Mesa
  493. ry Tartaric Acid,
    Malic Acid,
    and Citric Acid.
  494. rz Granite and schist.
  495. sa Cabernet Franc
    Cabernet Sauvignon
  496. sb Chadonnay
  497. sc Lombardia
  498. sd True. Aforzato is what people from Lombardia call Amarone.
  499. se Nahe
  500. sf Vitis Vinifera
  501. sg 10C° to 16C° (50F° to 61F°)
  502. sh Zinfandel
  503. si Mildiou, or Mildew.
    It was found in Europe around 1878-1880.
  504. sj Instituto dos Vinhos do Douro e Porto
  505. sk Schaumwein
    It is a blanket term encompassing all types of sparkling wine whether the gas naturally occurs as a result of fermentation or otherwise.
  506. sl Sercial
    Verdelho
    Boal
    Malvasia
    Tinta Negra Mole
    Terrantes
    Bastardo
  507. sm Bonnes-Mares AOP
    Musigny AOP
  508. sn Savenières-Roches-aux-Moins AOP
  509. so Maximum ±1.5%
  510. sp Côte de Provence Sainte-Victoire AOP
    Côte de Provence Fréjus AOP
  511. sq Fitou AOP
  512. sr Grenache
  513. ss *It has to be produced exclusively from Savagnin (Naturé).
    *Ouillage (Topping-up) and Soutirage (Racking) are prohibited.
    *Minimum six years maturation in the wood. (Longest legal requirement for maturation for French wine.)
    *It must be sold in a 620ml bottle called Clavelin.
  514. st Liqueur made from lemon peel.
  515. su Öchsle / 4 - 2 = residual sugar (percentage)
  516. sv Vosge Mountains provide the rain curtain to the Alsace wine producing region from the wet Altlantic winds coming from the West. As a result, Alsace wine producing region is the driest region in France with 500~600mm of annual rain fall. It is classified as Semi-Continental climate.
  517. sw Sipon (Slovenia)
  518. sx Szamorodni
  519. sy 18 months in the barrel,
    42 month in the bottle.
    Total: 60 months before release.
  520. sz Palme d'Or
  521. ta Emiglia-Romagna
  522. tb 276g/L
  523. tc 12C° or 56F°
  524. td Piemonte (Piedmont in English)
  525. te Northland
    Auckland
    Waikato / Bay of Plenty
    Gisborne
    Hawkes Bay
    Wellington
  526. tf 1300 to 1500 hours per year.
  527. tg Ch. Belgrave
    Ch. Camensac
    Ch. Cantemerle
  528. th Sharpshooter
  529. ti Rheingau
  530. tj Basilicata
  531. tk Sur Lie
  532. tl Breton (Loire)
    Bouchet (Bordeaux)
  533. tm <18g/L residual sugar.
    It is allowed without condition if it is <12g/L sugar.
    If it is 12g/L~18g/L sugar, sugar minus total acidity must be equal to or less than 10g/L.
    Light Green
  534. tn Grande Siècle
    Salon
  535. to Potatoes, wheat, and oats.
  536. tp 257g/L
  537. tq Ugni Blanc x Seibel4986
  538. tr It has to be dried in straw mats for the minimum of 45 days. It has to be aged for 18 months before release.
  539. ts Minimum 75%
  540. tt Phylloxera
  541. tu Pinot Menier
  542. tv Puttonyos
  543. tw Zolzenburg
  544. tx 100hL/ha
  545. ty Minimum 15 years.
  546. tz Ampelography (ἄμπελος, "vine" + γράφος, 'writing') is the field of botany concerned with the identification and classification of grapevines.
  547. ua 16
  548. ub Gluconic Acid, and Galacturonic Acid.
  549. uc Three years
  550. ud It is blended Tawny Port from various vintages in which the wine is matured for a defined period of time: 10, 20, 30, 40, 40+ years.
    It has to be approved by IVDP.
    It is bottled after filtration.
    It must have the maturation period and bottled year on the label.
  551. ue Eastern Switzerland
    Neuchâtel
    Vaud
    Genève (Genf, Ginevra, Genèva, Geneva)
    Valais
    Ticino
  552. uf Prugnolo Gentile (a.k.a. Sangiovese)
  553. ug 33g/L to 50g/L.
  554. uh Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains 75% minimum and the rest is Clairette.
  555. ui John Woodhouse
    While travelling in Sicily, he realized that the wine made in Marsala tasted similar to Port, Sherry, and Madeira.He then decided to recreate the fortified wine there with maturation process similar to solera syetem in Sherry production.
  556. uj False. The wire must be thoroughly loosen but the cage must not be removed when opening.
  557. uk 18C° (64F°) to 20C° (68F°)
    Higher for high-end wines.
  558. ul It is a wine making practice in Austria, where the grapes were laid on straw mats in the shades, allowed to dry. It is then pressed and vinified to make sweet wine. This wine making is also practiced in Rhône and Jura (Vin de Paille), and in Italy (Passito or Recioto)
  559. um Vin de Primeur is wine that are permitted by INAO to be sold in the same year as the harvest. There are 55 AOCs permitted to produce Vin de Primeur. Beaujolais Nouveau AOP is evidently the most famous Vin de Primeur in which it is released on the third Thursday of November following the harvest.
  560. un Sérine (Rhône)
    Shiraz (Australia, South Africa, US)
  561. uo Vinsobres AOP. Grenache 50% minimum. Red wine only.
  562. up It is a Madeira made from single vintage and single varietal.
    Also known as Vintage Madeira.
    It is required to be matured in wood for minimum 20 years.
    It must be made exclusively from the labeled varietal.
  563. uq Ruländer (Germany)
    Pinot Grigio (Italy)
    Szürkebarát (Hungary)
    Grauburgunder (Germany)
  564. ur Trentino-Alto-Adige
  565. us Temperature: 12C° or 56F°
    Humidity: 70%~75%
    Dark
    No Vibration
    No Smell
    Laid down on the side with the label facing up.
  566. ut Ch. Pavie
  567. uu Sekt (secondary fermentation must occur in the bottle), Perlwein (CO2 can be added.)
  568. uv Denominazione di Origine Controlata e Garantita (DOCG)
    Denominazione di Origine Controlata (DOC)
    Vino da Tavola Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT)
    Vino da Tavola
  569. uw Dry White Wine
  570. ux Appellation d'Origine Protégée (AOP) - Also known as AOC until 2012
    <Appellation d'Origine Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure (AOVDQS) - Abolished in 2012>
    Vin de Pays
    Vin de Table
  571. uy Mommessin
  572. uz Gironde
  573. va Savatiano
  574. vb Secondary fermentation must take place in the bottle.
    It must be aged for 9 months after Tirage (removal of sediment).
    It must be aged for one year before the release.
  575. vc Rancio is a production method of Vins Doux Naturels and Vins de Liqueur in which the wine is left under the sun either in the barrels or in the bottles for an extended period of time which maderises the wine. Similar to Madeira poduction.
  576. vd Mauzac
    Chardonnay
    Chenin Blanc
    9 months after tirage.
  577. ve Cérons AOP
    Barsac AOP
    Sauternes AOP
  578. vf Blanc Fumé (Loire)
    Fumé Blanc (US)
  579. vg Sugar + Yeast = Alcohol + Carbon Dioxide
    (C6H12O6 -> 2C2H5OH + 2CO2)
  580. vh Designated Viticultural Areas
  581. vi Because it works as a rain curtain. The West of the Mountains is classified as Maritime Climate, receiving more rain while the East side is classified as Continental Climate and it is more dry.
  582. vj Oidium, or Powdery Mildew.
    It arrived in Europe around 1855-1856.
  583. vk Saint-Emillion (Cognac, Amagnac)
  584. vl 3 years before release.
  585. vm Récoltant-Manipulant - It is used to identify that the the winery grew their own grapes to make wine. Most small producers fall into this category.
  586. vn Garganega
    Trebbiano di Soave
  587. vo Willamette Valley AVA
  588. vp Criadera(s)
  589. vq 1947 to 1952.
  590. vr Coastal Region
    Breede River Valley
    Olifants River
    Klein Karoo
    Others
  591. vs Valles de Famatina
  592. vt 100%
  593. vu Malepère AOP
  594. vv 90hL/ha
  595. vw Chardonnay
    Chenin Blanc
    12 months after tirage and 15 months before release.
  596. vx New South Wales
  597. vy Nebbiolo
  598. vz Red and Rosé
    Cabernet Francs
  599. wa Klevner (Alsace)
    Weissburgunder (Germany)
    Pinot Bianco (Italy)
  600. wb Molise
  601. wc Le Rhin (in French), Der Rhein (in German), or the Rhine in English
  602. wd Marc de Bourgogne AOP
  603. we Coteaux du Layon AOP - Regional Appellation
    Quarts de Chaume AOP and Bonnezeau AOP - Communal Appellation
  604. wf 235g/L
  605. wg <45g/L residual sugar.
    Red
  606. wh <330L
  607. wi Peat is used for fire to dry malted barley, resulting in smoky flavour often referred to as "peatiness".
  608. wj Dundee Hills AVA
    Yamhill-Carlton District AVA
    McMinnville AVA
    Ribbon Ridge AVA
    Eola-Amity Hills AVA
    Chehalem Mountains AVA
  609. wk Chardonnay
    Pinot Noir
    Pinot Menier
  610. wl Primitivo (Italy)
  611. wm 6 months in the barrel (12 months for Rioja and Ribera del Duero),
    18 months in the bottle. (for Rioja and Ribera del Duero)
    Total: 24 months (30 for Rioja and Ribera del Duero) before release.
  612. wn *Declared ion 20 November 1975
    Schlossberg (Kientzheim)
    *Declared on 23 November 1983
    Altenberg (Bergbieten)
    Altenberg (Bergheim)
    Brand (Turckheim)
    Eichberg (Eguisheim)
    Geisberg (Ribeauvillé)
    Gloeckelberg (Rodern et Saint-Hippolyte)
    Goldert (Gueberschwihr)
    Hatschbourg (Hattstatt et Vœgtlinshoffen)
    Hengst (Wintzenheim)
    Kanzlerberg (Bergheim)
    Kastelberg (Andlau)
    Kessler (Guebwiller)
    Kirchberg (Barr)
    Kirchberg (Ribeauvillé)
    Kitterlé (Guebwiller)
    Moenchberg (Andlau et Eichhoffen)
    Ollwiller (Wuenheim)
    Rangen (Thann et Vieux-Thann)
    Rosacker (Hunawihr)
    Saering (Guebwiller)
    Sommerberg (Niedermorschwihr et Katzenthal)
    Sonnenglanz (Beblenheim)
    Spiegel (Bergholtz et Guebwiller)
    Wiebelsberg (Andlau)
    *Declared on 17 December 1992
    Altenberg (Wolxheim)
    Bruderthal (Molsheim)
    Engelberg (Dahlenheim et Scharrachbergheim)
    Florimont (Ingersheim et Katzenthal)
    Frankstein (Dambach-la-Ville)
    Froehn (Zellenberg)
    Furstentum (Kientzheim et Sigolsheim)
    Mambourg (Sigolsheim)
    Mandelberg (Mittelwihr et Beblenheim)
    Marckrain (Bennwihr et Sigolsheim)
    Muenchberg (Nothalten)
    Osterberg (Ribeauvillé)
    Pfersigberg (Eguisheim et Wettolsheim)
    Pfingstberg (Orschwihr)
    Praelatenberg (Kintzheim)
    Schœnenbourg (Riquewihr et Zellenberg)
    Sporen (Riquewihr)
    Steinert (Pfaffenheim et Westhalten)
    Steingrubler (Wettolsheim)
    Steinklotz (Marlenheim)
    Vorbourg (Rouffach et Westhalten)
    Wineck-Schlossberg (Katzenthal et Ammerschwihr)
    Winzenberg (Blienschwiller)
    Zinnkoepflé (Soultzmatt et Westhalten)
    Zotzenberg (Mittelbergheim)
    *Declared on 12 January 2007
    Kaefferkopf (Ammerschwihr)
  613. wo Les Combettes
    Les Pucelles
    Les Chalumaux
    Cailleret
    Les Folatières
    Clavillon (or Clavoillon)
    Champ Canet
  614. wp Dom Ruinart
  615. wq Aligoté and Chardonnay.
    Must be picked by hand.
  616. wr 30 years
  617. ws Stellenbosch
    Paarl
    Darling
    Swartland
    Tygerberg
    Cape Point
    Tulbach
  618. wt 1920 to 1933
  619. wu Mordechai or Salmanazar
  620. wv Fino
  621. ww Pfalz
  622. wx Ch. Pichon-Longueville Baron
    Ch. Pichon-Longueville Comtesse de Lalande
  623. wy Méthode Rurale, or Rural Method in English
  624. wz F° = 9/5 x C° + 32
  625. xa *It has to be harvested and vilified in the years in which the superior-vintage was declared by IVDP.
    *The application to declare vintage must be submitted to IVDP in the second year from the vintage between January and September.
    *It has to be bottled in between July of the second year from the harvest to June of the third year from the harvest without filtration.
    *It has to be made from the single vintage.
    *It has to display the vintage on the label.
  626. xb Region
    District
    Ward
  627. xc Lazio
  628. xd A district within Anbaugebieten.
  629. xe Maybe
    Some grapes such a Sangiovese can exhibit brick colour at youth too especially in high-yield.
  630. xf Grapes left in the shade to dry out, concentrating the flavour components and sugar. Similar wine making methods are observed in Rhône, Jura, and in Austria.
  631. xg Altenberg de Bergheim
    Kaefferkopf
  632. xh It has to be minimum 50% Mouvèdre and it has to be aged in wood for 18 months.
  633. xi Continental Climate - It is the only region is New Zealand to be classified as true Continental Climate.
  634. xj Sweet White Wine from
    Petit Manseng and Gros Manseng.
  635. xk Grenache 50% minimum,
    and Syrah 25% minimum.
    Red wine only.
  636. xl Torrontes Riojano
  637. xm Méridional
  638. xn Alexander Valley AVA
    Anderson Valley AVA
    Atlas Peak AVA
    Benmore Valley AVA
    Bennett Valley AVA
    Chalk Hill AVA
    Chiles Valley AVA
    Clear Lake AVA
    Cole Ranch AVA
    Coombsville AVA
    Covelo AVA
    Diamond Mountain District AVA
    Dos Rios AVA
    Dry Creek Valley AVA
    Fort Ross-Seaview AVA
    Green Valley of Russian River Valley AVA
    Guenoc Valley AVA
    High Valley AVA
    Howell Mountain AVA
    Knights Valley AVA
    Los Carneros AVA
    McDowell Valley AVA
    Mendocino AVA
    Mendocino Ridge AVA
    Mt. Veeder AVA
    Napa Valley AVA
    Northern Sonoma AVA
    Oak Knoll District of Napa Valley AVA
    Oakville AVA
    Potter Valley AVA
    Red Hills Lake County AVA
    Redwood Valley AVA
    Rockpile AVA
    Russian River Valley AVA
    Rutherford AVA
    Solano County Green Valley AVA
    Sonoma Coast AVA
    Sonoma Mountain AVA
    Sonoma Valley AVA
    Spring Mountain District AVA
    St. Helena AVA
    Stags Leap District AVA
    Suisun Valley AVA
    Wild Horse Valley AVA
    Yorkville Highlands AVA
    Yountville AVA
  639. xo Dão DOC
  640. xp Grenache
    Cinsault
    Mouvèdre
    Carignan
    Syrah
    Tibouren