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189 True/False questions

  1. Between red and white, which is usually bottle aged?new world

          

  2. What is removed in wine by using bentonite clay?proteins

          

  3. What other process would be needed to simulate barrel aging when using oak chips?create tiny bubbles for simulating the oxidation effect

          

  4. What is press juice?Juice from the pressing process and may or may not contain the free-run juice

          

  5. What varietal white wine benefits from Malolactic fermentation?Diacetyl

          

  6. Sweet wines are usually about what percent alcohol?7%

          

  7. What do winemakers do to the grapes en-route to the winery?1. American Oak
    2. French Oak

          

  8. What is the term for having the grape skins remaining in contact with the grape juice for weeks?Extended Maceration

          

  9. What style of wine almost never has malolactic fermentation?Rose

          

  10. Which method of Rose wine making is used for making red and rose wines?Direct Press method

          

  11. What is the definition of Lees?bring about

          

  12. What are the 2 main effects of fortification?adding distilled spirits to a wine

          

  13. Which method of Rose wine making is most common in Province, France?Rose

          

  14. What is unique in the process of Orange wine making?white grape seeds spend a significant amount of time during maceration from days to weeks.

          

  15. What are 3 main methods for making Rose wines?1. Vin Gris
    2. Saginee Method
    3. Direct Press Method

          

  16. What are the 3 main products that can be used in Fining?1. gelatin
    2. egg white
    3. bentonite clay

          

  17. Which method of Rose wine making has the grapes crushed and pressed at the same time?Direct Press method

          

  18. What is the famous wine which uses Carbonic Maceration?days to weeks

          

  19. What is the German word for Rose?rosado

          

  20. What are the 3 styles of Clarification?1. raise alcohol of wine
    2. kill yeast

          

  21. What is the range of temperature for fermenting white wines?60 to 70 degrees F

          

  22. Besides sulfur what else could postpone fermentation?using the indigenous yeast

          

  23. Dried Grapes are also used to make a dry, high alcohol wine in what region in Italy?Amarone in Italy

          

  24. What does a crushing-destemming machine do?removes the grapes from the stems without crushing

          

  25. What is another name for delastage?using the indigenous yeast

          

  26. What organic substance is capable of causing a chemical change?enzyme

          

  27. What 2 main products remove tannins in fining?1. gelatin
    2. egg white

          

  28. Between new world and old world, which has fewer regulations?red

          

  29. What style of wine almost never has oak aging?slow oxidation and add complexity

          

  30. Chapitalization and Acidification are part of what process in the wine making?white grape seeds spend a significant amount of time during maceration from days to weeks.

          

  31. What is the Italian word for Rose?rosato

          

  32. Which is faster, fermenting for red wines or fermenting for white wines?50 to 60 degrees

          

  33. A 60 gallon barrel is how many liters?gelatin, eggs or any animal based products

          

  34. What process is after Pre-Fermenation?Fermentation

          

  35. What is chapitalization?adding a specific yeast strain to start the fermentation

          

  36. What can be added to the grapes before fermentation to stop any fermentation?sulfur

          

  37. The freezing style of making sweet wines is most common in which 2 countries?1. Germany
    2. Canada

          

  38. What ester adds a buttery aroma?Diacetyl

          

  39. How long ago was Orange wines first created?add Sulfur Dioxide

          

  40. What could be added to the grape juice which would not change the flavor of the wine, while bringing the wine more into balance?acid or acidification

          

  41. What 2 methods can stop fermentation of sweet wines?1. sterile filter
    2. add sulfur

          

  42. The sweet wines make from freezing in Germany are called?7%

          

  43. Where was the first Orange wines created?adds yeasty aroma and creamy texture

          

  44. Which is more effective in barrel aging, larger or smaller barrels?slow oxidation and add complexity

          

  45. Compared to other red grapes, is maceration for Pinot Noir longer or shorter time?60 to 70 degrees F

          

  46. In some unique cases what is pomace used for?making Marc or Grappa

          

  47. What process is more important for branded wines?slow oxidation and add complexity

          

  48. Which method of Rose wine making is known for limited contact with skins?barrel

          

  49. What are 2 main differences between American and French oak barrels?1. faster
    2. more phenols from skins

          

  50. What is an alternative to barrel aging that could give similar results?adding oak chips or planks to tank

          

  51. When was Vin Biologique created?August 2012

          

  52. What are Pips?seeds

          

  53. Name 8 chemical by-products of fermentation?innoculate with a specific strain of lactic bacteria

          

  54. What is MLF?Malolactic Fermentation

          

  55. As long as the leaves are green, what is happening to the berries?over 5000 years ago

          

  56. What type of aging has slow oxidation?centrifuge

          

  57. Between making red or white wine, which has pressing before fermentation?White

          

  58. Name an ester by-product of Malolactic Fermentation?innoculate with a specific strain of lactic bacteria

          

  59. Between the new world and old world, which uses natural fermentation more often?red

          

  60. Beside stainless steel tanks, what else can be used for storing grape juice during the fermentation process?skins and seeds

          

  61. What is the risk of adding sweetness to a sweet wine after fermentation has completed?Must Adjustment

          

  62. In the making of red wine, how long is maceration?days to weeks

          

  63. How long is fermentation of white wine?remove solids

          

  64. What is the typical acid used in acidification?Tartaric Acid

          

  65. What is the visual difference about an Orange wine?has a coppery or orange hue

          

  66. What aroma is unique in Beaujolais Noveau?centrifuge

          

  67. What is natural fermentation?CO2 pushes solids to the top

          

  68. Pre-fermentation steps are also called?drain the bottom of the juice and pump over the cap

          

  69. Between racking, fining and filtering styles of clarification, which has more Lees contact?yeast

          

  70. What is the chemical formula for Sulfur Dioxide?bring about

          

  71. What style of wine almost never has lees stirring?Rose

          

  72. What is the term for creating tiny bubbles in the alternative process to barrel aging?micro-oxygenation

          

  73. What is debourbage?Juice settling

          

  74. What is considered to be the highest quality of juice?rack and return

          

  75. Dry wines are usually about what percent alcohol?7%

          

  76. What aromas does Botrytis add to sweet wines made in the Loire Valley?cool climates

          

  77. What is the term for tannin molecules combined together?polymerized tannins

          

  78. What is the French word for barrel?adds yeasty aroma and creamy texture

          

  79. How long are grapes dried in the Dried Grape method for making sweet wines?2 to 6 weeks

          

  80. At what temperature does yeast start to die?Diacetyl

          

  81. Compared to other red wines, is maceration longer or shorter if the wine is meant to be consumed upon release?Vin Biologique

          

  82. What is the ideal temperature for fermenting strong Cabernet Sauvignon?1. Botrytis
    2. Late harvest
    3. dried grapes
    4. freezing

          

  83. What are the 3 main must adjustments?1. Racking
    2. Fining
    3. Filtering

          

  84. What is the Spanish word for Rose?rosado

          

  85. What is the term for winemakers who fly from North America to South America and back each year?Flying winemakers

          

  86. Define Mevushal?drain the bottom of the juice and pump over the cap

          

  87. Would chapitalization be more likely used in hot years or cool years?cool

          

  88. What process is unique to Kosher wines?gelatin, eggs or any animal based products

          

  89. What is the problem with leaving a cap alone?Acetobactor grow on the cap

          

  90. Between red, white and rose, which is more common to use Oak aging?white grape seeds spend a significant amount of time during maceration from days to weeks.

          

  91. A new barrel is usually less than how many years?4 years

          

  92. Between new world and old world, which has few restrictions on must adjustments?New World

          

  93. What 3 things does the breakdown of sugar produce?adds yeasty aroma and creamy texture

          

  94. Is there pressure applied to the crushing process?leaves, stems, debris, underripe grape bunches, damaged fruit

          

  95. How must the grapes be handled before bottling for Kosher wines?gelatin, eggs or any animal based products

          

  96. Between red and white, which has a need for Cap Management?red

          

  97. What is the main benefit of sterile filtering?removes bacteria that may cause spoilage

          

  98. What is the difference between crushing and pressing?Crushing is first (if at all) and pressing uses pressure

          

  99. What cannot be added to Kosher wines?gelatin, eggs or any animal based products

          

  100. What is the main organization to certify organic wines in Europe?Vin Biologique

          

  101. What is removed at the sorting table?using the indigenous yeast

          

  102. What 2 white varietal wines benefit from oak aging?adds yeasty aroma and creamy texture

          

  103. What is not a true fermentation but is actually a conversion process?Malolactic Fermentation

          

  104. Between making red, white, or rose wine, which can have pressing before or pressing after depending on the wine maker?Red

          

  105. What are the 2 benefits of bladder presses compared to other presses?removes bacteria that may cause spoilage

          

  106. What are the 2 main white grapes used in making late harvest sweet wines?1. Chenin Blanc
    2. Riesling

          

  107. What does the term catalyzed mean?Any solid particles at the bottom

          

  108. Would acidification be more likely used in hot years or cool years?whole-berry fermentation

          

  109. After fermenting, what is cold stabilization used for?remove tartaric crystals also called white diamonds

          

  110. Between new world and old world, where is terrior more important?Old World

          

  111. What is fortification?adding distilled spirits to a wine

          

  112. What are 4 main advantages of stainless steel tanks in fermentation?1. inert
    2. airtight
    3. easy to clean
    4. easy to control temperature

          

  113. What are the English words for "sur lie aging"rosato

          

  114. What cannot be added to an organic wine?gelatin, eggs or any animal based products

          

  115. When berries gain sugars they usually loose what?acids

          

  116. Which method of Rose wine making is called the common method?Rose

          

  117. How can you stop Malolactic Fermentation?innoculate with a specific strain of lactic bacteria

          

  118. What process may be needed after Carbonic Maceration?Malolatic Fermentation

          

  119. What is the term for the alternative fermentation which uses whole berries?1. Sulfur
    2. refrigeration

          

  120. What is the usual length of time for Cold Stabilization?removes bacteria that may cause spoilage

          

  121. What is "sur lie aging"?adding sugar before fermentation

          

  122. What is phenol is usually lower in Carbonic Maceration compared to normal fermentation?Tannins

          

  123. How can you start Malolactic Fermentation?add Sulfur Dioxide

          

  124. Malolactic Fermentation is part of what process in wine making?Post Fermentation

          

  125. Post Fermentation pressing is needed to?2 to 6 weeks

          

  126. What is the first thing that happens in Carbonic Maceration?The bottom grapes break and start to ferment

          

  127. What is the temperature used for Cold Stabilization?minus 4 degrees F

          

  128. What does Blush mean in a Rose wine?Weissberbst

          

  129. Beside stopping fermentation what else does adding sulfur do?prevents juice from oxidizing and turning brown

          

  130. Gravity is used for which style of clarification?racking

          

  131. In the Saignee method of wine making, which is used for Rose wines, the early juice or late juice?White

          

  132. What style of filtering removes solids?centrifuge

          

  133. What are the 4 types of Cap Management?1. Punching down
    2. Pumping over
    3. Delestage
    4. Rotofermentation

          

  134. What type of fermentation uses unbroken grapes in the absence of oxygen?barrel

          

  135. Between red and white, which uses less Clarification?red

          

  136. What aging process is used after barrel aging?Bottle Aging

          

  137. What type of wine making has a low impact on the environment but can have sulfur added?Direct Press method

          

  138. What is the purpose of barrel aging?slow oxidation and add complexity

          

  139. In the making of white wine, how long is normal maceration?The bottom grapes break and start to ferment

          

  140. What percent of grapes must be certified to make organic wine?sulfur

          

  141. Can grape sorting be partially mechanized?Yes

          

  142. In most vineyards what is pomace used for?rosato

          

  143. What is macerate?skins remain in contact with juice

          

  144. To make white wine, what is limited as compared to red?zero to less than 24 hours

          

  145. What is the pre-process step used instead of crushing?whole-berry fermentation

          

  146. What is the same effect as waiting until the grapes freezes on the vine?storing late harvest grapes in a freezer

          

  147. What is the ideal temperature for fermenting Pinot Noir?60 to 70 degrees F

          

  148. What is the scientific name for the yeast used in most wine fermentation processes?Saccharomyces cerevisiae

          

  149. Compared to other red grapes, is maceration for Syrah and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes more or less time?The top grapes are blanketed with CO2 from the fermentation of the bottom grapes. The enzymes will break sugars into alcohol

          

  150. What are the 2 common methods to stop fermentation after it has started?1. gelatin
    2. egg white
    3. bentonite clay

          

  151. Between red and white, which is Malolactic Fermentation more common?red

          

  152. What is the next step, after sorting in the pre-fermentation process especially for red and rose wines?Crushing and destemming

          

  153. The Crush begins when?Juice settling

          

  154. In the making of white wine, how long is maceration using aromatic grapes?longer than 24 hours

          

  155. What is batonnage?Juice settling

          

  156. What are 2 advantages of fermenting at higher temperatures?1. faster
    2. more phenols from skins

          

  157. Who can handle a Kosher wine after bottling and have the wine remain Kosher?anyone

          

  158. How does a bladder press work?CO2 pushes solids to the top

          

  159. The first stop at the grape reception area in a winery is?sorting table

          

  160. In the making of red wine, what do you need if maceration is before fermentation?Cold Soak

          

  161. Fermentation involved what type of living biological agent?The Crush

          

  162. What is Pomace?the cake of dry compressed seeds and skins after juice is released

          

  163. What is free-run juice?The first juice from the grape during crushing and before pressing

          

  164. What changes the flavor of wine from green apple to creamy?Weissberbst

          

  165. How can you speed up fermentation?increase the temperature

          

  166. What is the generic term, if the grape juice destined for fermentation is altered?Must Adjustment

          

  167. What 2 types of trees are used for most barrels?rosado

          

  168. what type of aging adds complexity to the wine?barrel

          

  169. What is inoculation?adding sugar before fermentation

          

  170. Which viticulture area of Bordeaux is known for making sweet wines?Sauternes

          

  171. What is the benefit of batonnage?Any solid particles at the bottom

          

  172. What are the 2 main grapes used for making sweet wines in the Loire Valley?1. Semillon
    2. Chenin Blanc

          

  173. Between making red or white wine, which has pressing after fermentation?Red

          

  174. Late harvest sweet wines are best in which climate?cool climates

          

  175. Sulfur is added after fermentation for 2 main reasons?using the indigenous yeast

          

  176. What type of aging adds flavors to the wine?barrel

          

  177. Why would sulfur be added to grapes before fermentation?using the indigenous yeast

          

  178. What is the next step after crushing-destemming?Pressing

          

  179. What are the 4 methods for making sweet wines?1. Botrytis
    2. Late harvest
    3. dried grapes
    4. freezing

          

  180. Besides the juice, what else is left after crushing and destemming?skins and seeds

          

  181. How is a cap formed?CO2 pushes solids to the top

          

  182. What is delestage?drain the bottom of the juice and pump over the cap

          

  183. Which process of cap management uses rotating paddles?leaves, stems, debris, underripe grape bunches, damaged fruit

          

  184. Between red and white, which usually need Post Fermentation pressing?Cooling or Cold Soak

          

  185. What happens to the top grapes in Carbonic Maceration?The top grapes are blanketed with CO2 from the fermentation of the bottom grapes. The enzymes will break sugars into alcohol

          

  186. Between red, white and rose, which 2 are usually fermented at the same temperatures?white and rose

          

  187. Between red and white, which is usually fermented at lower temperatures?white and rose

          

  188. What process would be used for not optimally ripened grapes before fermentation?Malolatic Fermentation

          

  189. Temperature and timing is very important for this style of making sweet wines?Freezing or Eiswein