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  1. Around what temperature does Bud Break usually occur?
  2. What soil conditions do not promote Phylloxera?
  3. What are the best condition for flowering?
  4. What does the abbreviation for IMP mean?
  5. What is the benefit of having a vineyard near water?
  6. How are old world vine varieties saved from Phylloxera?
  7. What level of Climate occurs at the regional level?
  8. What metabolic process moves sugars from the leaf to the grape?
  9. What bio fumigant can reduce nematodes?
  10. Berry Set take about how long?
  11. Most grapes vines are propagated how?
  12. What is the most common method to spread viral diseases in vineyards?
  13. What is KMW measuring?
  14. What happens to grapevine grown in very fertile soil?
  15. What is the term for abnormal fruit caused by bad weather?
  16. Most grape vines are trimmed having 2 what?
  17. What signals the grape vine to go into the dormant state?
  18. Harvest occurs how long after verasian?
  19. The amount of photosynthesis changes under 2 main conditions.
  20. Name the 5 main physical geographical features important to a location of a vineyard?
  21. What are the 3 most common white grapes that benefit from noble rot?
  22. What are the summer conditions of a Mediterranean climate?
  23. What human process can cause grapevines to have shallow roots?
  24. What type organism causes Pierce's disease?
  25. Most grape vines that have grapes for wine making grow best between what latitudes?
  26. What climate has hotter summer, colder winters and may have less precipitation?
  27. Photosynthesis slows as temperatures become greater than?
  28. How does noble rot affect the grape?
  29. What is the canopy?
  30. In order from youngest to oldest, what are the 3 terms used to describe and arm of a grape vine as it grows older?
  31. What level of Climate occurs at the vineyard level?
  32. Describe the humidity in a Mediterranean climate?
  33. List 4 steps on how a grape vine is cloned?
  34. What is Klosterneuburger Mostwaage?
  35. What are the 4 particle sizes of soils found in vineyards?
  36. What type of pruning is done with Cordon training?
  37. Grape vines have lived over how many years?
  38. What is the term for pruning vine leaves during the growing season?
  39. What are the 5 ideal conditions for photosynthesis?
  40. Is fog good or bad?
  41. Define Weather.
  42. What units does France measure sugar in a grape?
  43. If the density of the grape must is 1.068, what is the Oechlse?
  44. What is left on a grapevine after Spur Pruning?
  45. What weather condition is both good and bad for wine making but is good for Botrytis?
  46. Where are the sugars for the grapevine stored for later use?
  47. How are grape vine flowers pollinated?
  48. What is the term used for the branch of agriculture that specifically deals with the intentional cultivation of grapevines?
  49. What percent alcohol will 68 Oechle grapes be fermented dry?
  50. What is the other term for Powdery Mildew?
  51. What 5 conditions will promote maximum ripeness?
  52. What occurs about 3 months after bud break?
  53. What is the tool to measure Brix?
  54. Humidity promotes what 2 main disease categories?
  55. What are the winter conditions of a Mediterranean climate?
  56. When sugar is not available to the grapevine, what does the plant use to metabolize for energy?
  57. What happens to the berries if it rains during harvest?
  58. The best vineyards have an aspect that slopes how?
  59. What is the annual average precipitation that is best for wine grapes?
  60. What weather condition can both reduce humidity and pests but also cause plant stress?
  61. What was the pest that nearly destroyed all old world grapevines?
  62. Nematodes are more of a problem when the grapevine has?
  63. What is the main difference of Integrated Pest Management compared to non-IPM?
  64. What type organism causes noble rot?
  65. The term "old vines" is not regulated but many times means how many years old?
  66. The physiological change of the berry is called?
  67. How much alcohol will 24 Brix grapes fermented dry be?
  68. What type of diseases are Powery Mildew and Downy Mildew?
  69. What are the ideal conditions for noble rot?
  70. Which Sustainable viticulture organization is nicknamed Napa Green?
  71. What major department runs the NOP in the US?
  72. Lodi Rules are associated with which Sustainable viticulture organization?
  73. What are 5 categories that make up climate and weather?
  74. Photosynthesis occurs best above what temperature?
  75. What benefit is cloning over propagating from seeds?
  76. What was the Latin name for the pest that nearly destroyed all old world grapevines?
  77. What continent generally prohibits irrigation of vineyards?
  78. What is unique about Pergola Training systems?
  79. What vineyard practice has metaphysical elements and a few mandated practices?
  80. What disadvantage does a hillside have for a vineyard?
  81. What 3 US organizations are involved with Sustainable Viticulture?
  82. How much alcohol will 12 Baume grapes were fermented dry be?
  83. Photosynthesis is best between what temperatures?
  84. What is the term for the grapevine metabolic process that converts Carbon dioxide and water to sugar?
  85. What is the French term for Noble Rot?
  86. What is the climate term for a vineyard that has such cool temperatures or such a short summer growing season that grapes are just barely able to achieve enough ripeness for harvesting before autumn frosts arrive?
  87. What type of wine is processed from grapes which have noble rot?
  88. In the best vineyards, what are the winter like?
  89. What primary method is used to avoid viral diseases in a vineyard?
  90. In the best vineyards, what are the summers like?
  91. For a new planting, what year does a new vine first produce grapes?
  92. What 3 factors make up terror?
  93. What is the term for growing grape specifically for making wine?
  94. What are 3 disadvantages of growing grape vines from seeds?
  95. What method of propagation is used for most grape vines under cultivation?
  96. For each 10 degree F increase what happens to a grapevine?
  97. Grape vines can produce more excellent wines after how many years?
  98. What are the 2 types of Guyot training systems?
  99. What are the 2 ideal conditions for fungal disease?
  100. What will start lowering the acid level in a grape?
  101. Berry Set is also called?
  102. The glassy-winged sharpshooter transmits what disease?
  103. Why are longer days important in developing grapes?
  104. What advantage does a vineyard usually have at higher elevations?
  105. What underground animal can spread virus diseases from plant to plant in a vineyard?
  106. What is left on a grapevine after Cane Pruning?
  107. What vineyard practice notes phases of the moon?
  108. What is the German term for Noble Rot?
  109. Pierce's disease causes what condition in a grapevine?
  110. The 3rd year of a grape vine is sometime called?
  111. Poor sugar-acid balance can be caused by?
  112. What advantage does a hillside have for a vineyard?
  113. What is the other term for Downy Mildew?
  114. What are the 4 metabolic processes in grapes vines?
  115. What units does Austria measure sugar for wine making?
  116. What 5 types of soils are most commonly found in vineyards?
  117. What process breaks down sugar for energy?
  118. What do new world species grapevines do to protect from Phylloxera?
  119. What are the 4 type of vine training systems?
  120. How many years free of chemicals before a vineyard can be classified as organic?
  121. What international organization certifies a vineyard as Biodynamic Viticulture?
  122. What units does US measure sugar in grapes?
  123. What is the Scion?
  124. What climate has high rainfall and mild temperatures overall?
  125. What level of Climate occurs at the plant level?
  126. What is VSP?
  127. What does the abbreviation NOP mean as a part of the USDA?
  128. The term for the small holes in the underside of the leaf where water evaporates is?
  129. About how many day is it from bud break to harvest for a typical grape vine?
  130. Are grapes considered part of the canopy?
  131. What is the order of the annual growth cycle of a grapevine: bud break, flowering, berry set, verasian, ripening, harvest?
  132. Sugar is stored in the berry in what stage of the annual growth cycle?
  133. Flowering occurs how many days after bud break?
  134. What changes about the berry during the ripening stage of the annual growth cycle?
  135. What is the term for poor fruit set?
  136. For a new planting, what year does a new vine produce grapes good enough for wine making?
  137. What 2 things happen when a grape vine is entering the dormant state?
  138. Define Climate.
  139. What is the Latin name for the organism causes Noble Rot?
  140. What part of the grapevine, creates sugars?
  141. What units does Germany measures sugar in a grape must?
  142. What are the 3 main climates for vineyards?
  143. What part of the grapevine did Phylloxera attack Vitis vinifera?
  144. What type of pruning is done with Guyot Training?
  145. What vineyard practice is noted for leaving the land for the next generation in better condition?
  146. What is the difference between single Guyot and double Guyot training systems?
  147. What is the best aspect?
  148. What is oechlse measuring?
  149. What 4 components make up Terroir in the old world?
  150. Attaching a new cane onto a trunk is called?
  151. What time of the year is best for pruning vines?
  1. a Coulure
  2. b Macro-climate
  3. c Vertical Shoot Positioning
  4. d the roots
  5. e 1. clay
    2. chalk
    3. sand
    4. gravel
    5. limestone
  6. f Biodynamic Vitculture
  7. g 1. Cut a short cane
    2. Place cane in water
    3. Root will grow
    4. Plant in soil
  8. h Verasian
  9. i the leaf
  10. j 3rd year
  11. k Pierce's disease
  12. l high winds
  13. m Integrated Pest Management
  14. n by propagating infected vine cuttings
  15. o National Organic Program
  16. p not adding new vines.
  17. q Maritime Climate
  18. r 100 years
  19. s 1. Maritime
    2. Continental
    3. Mediterranean
  20. t about 1 and 1/2 months
  21. u 1. single Guyot
    2. double Guyot
  22. v KMW
  23. w cloning
  24. x less frost
  25. y Sustainable Viticulture
  26. z 1. warm days
    2. long days
    3. clear days
    4. minimal shading
    5. southern aspect or northern aspect
  27. aa third leaf
  28. ab 1. Head training or bush training
    2. Guyot
    3. Cordon
    4. Pergola
  29. ac refractometer or old fashioned hydrometer
  30. ad premature leaf fall
  31. ae Brix
  32. af 140 to 160 days
  33. ag Fog
  34. ah produces more sugar in grapes
  35. ai Ripening
  36. aj 1. Climate
    2. Soil
    3. Sunlight
    4. Water
  37. ak 95 F
  38. al KMW unit of measure for sugar in Austria
  39. am Drip irrigation
  40. an softens and enlarges
  41. ao Malic Acid
  42. ap millerange
  43. aq cold nights
  44. ar 24 * 5/9 = 13.3 % alcohol
  45. as morning fog and afternoon sun
  46. at Edelfaule
  47. au Lodi Winegrape Commission
  48. av about 1 and a half months
  49. aw Oechlse
  50. ax Translocation
  51. ay 1. Latitude
    2. Elevation
    3. Topography
    4. Aspect
    5. Proximity to bodies of water
  52. az Nematode
  53. ba single Guyot has 1 canes per vine trained along one wire.
    double Guyot has 2 canes per vine each trained along a different wire.
  54. bb Marginal Climate
  55. bc sweet wines
  56. bd Wind or self pollinated
  57. be Fungus
  58. bf Canopy Management
  59. bg Phylloxera
  60. bh Stomatas
  61. bi 68 Oechle is roughtly 9% alcohol
  62. bj First or second year
  63. bk less temperature fluctuation
  64. bl historical average weather
  65. bm warm and dry
  66. bn warm dry weather
  67. bo 50 degree F
  68. bp Baume
  69. bq Photosynthesis
  70. br uses filaments into the grape to extract water
  71. bs Demeter International
  72. bt rich sandy soils
  73. bu warm to hot days
  74. bv more sunlight
  75. bw Biodynamic Viticulture
  76. bx they swell
  77. by 50 degrees F
  78. bz the sugar density of the grape must
  79. ca 20 to 30 inches per year
  80. cb short, cold to cold days
  81. cc 1. mold
    2. fungus
  82. cd 40 to 80 days
  83. ce both. Fog is good for botrytis
  84. cf high temperatures
  85. cg harder for workers
  86. ch by cloning
  87. ci Oidium
  88. cj Pourriture noble
  89. ck 1. bud break
    2. flowering
    3. berry set
    4. verasian
    5. ripening
    6. harvest
  90. cl actual meteorological conditions experienced in an area.
  91. cm towards the sun
  92. cn The vines can be overhead
  93. co 70 F to 85 F
  94. cp Botrytis cinerea
  95. cq Cordons
  96. cr a tiny louse
  97. cs 1. warm
    2. humid
  98. ct form galls under the leaves
  99. cu Viticulture
  100. cv metabolizing Malic Acid
  101. cw Wine making
  102. cx Pernonospore
  103. cy IMP control pests without chemicals
  104. cz 1. leaves drop
    2. sap is withdrawn from branches to the trunk and roots
  105. da 1. Spurs
    2. Canes
    3. Cordons
  106. db 1. Lodi Winegrape Commission
    2. Napa Valley Vintners
    3. New York State Vine Balance
  107. dc 1. Semillon
    2. Riesling
    3. Chenin Blanc
  108. dd 20 years
  109. de The entire top of the grape vine
  110. df meso-climate
  111. dg 3 years
  112. dh 1. Climate
    2. Soil
    3. Physical Geography
  113. di yes
  114. dj There are more leaves than grapes.
  115. dk 68 Oechlse
  116. dl 50 years
  117. dm mild and wet
  118. dn Fruit set
  119. do Slope of hill facing sun
  120. dp micro-climate
  121. dq 1. Photosynthesis
    2. Respiration
    3. Transpiration
    4. Translocation
  122. dr Napa Valley Vintners
  123. ds 1 or 2 canes, each with 6 to 10 nodes
  124. dt cane pruning
  125. du 12% alcohol
  126. dv The grape vine above the root.
  127. dw bacteria
  128. dx graft old world vines onto new world rootstock
  129. dy Europe
  130. dz spur pruning
  131. ea The exact sugar content of the grape must
  132. eb 1. Temperature
    2. Precipitation
    3. Humidity
    4. Fog
    5. Wind
  133. ec 1. warm (not hot and not cold)
    2. long days
    3. clear days
    4. minimal shading
    5. Aspect
  134. ed 1. takes a long time
    2. high failure rate
    3. unpredictable traits
  135. ee USDA
  136. ef winter
  137. eg Fungal
  138. eh Mustard Plant
  139. ei 1. Clay
    2. Silt
    3. Sand
    4. rocks and stone
  140. ej The respiration doubles.
  141. ek several canes on a few inches long, with 1 or 2 nodes on each cane
  142. el shallow roots
  143. em low
  144. en 30 N to 50 N
    30 S to 50 S
  145. eo Offspring a genetically identical
  146. ep Respiration
  147. eq grafting
  148. er 1. Sunshine
    2. Temperature
  149. es Continental Climate
  150. et the grape
  151. eu berry set also called fruit set