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  • Medoc Wine Regions North to South

    1. St Estephe
    2. Pauillac
    3. St Julien
    4. Listrac
    5. Moulis
    6. Margaux

    Right Bank Regions North to South

    1. Pomerol
    2. Lalande-de-Pomerol
    3. Canon-Fronsac
    4. Fronsac
    5. Cotes de Bourg
    6. Cotes de Blaye

    Date of Left Bank Classification

    1855: divided into Growth system

    Date of Right Bank Classification

    1954: 2 levels

    Burgundy Regions North to South

    1. Chablis
    2. Cote de Nuits
    3. Cotes de Beaune
    4. Cotes de Chalonnaise
    5. Maconnaise
    6. Beaujolais

    Defines different climates: Macro, Meso and Micro

    1. Macro-Climate: Wine Growing Region
    2. Meso-Climate: Vineyard
    3. Micro-Climate: Area Surrounding the Canopy of the Vine

    What is Chablis known for?

    The purest expression of Chardonnay. VERY little use of oak.

    Grand Crus of Chablis North to South.
    100% Chardonnay grapes, aka Beaunois

    1. Les Clos
    2. Valmur
    3. Vaudesir
    4. Bourgros
    5. Blanchots
    6. Le Preuses
    7. Grenouilles

    Villages of Cote d'Nuits

    1. Gevrey-Chambertin
    2. Morey St Denis
    3. Vougeot
    4. Flagey-Echezeaux
    5. Vosne-Romanee
    6. Nuits-St Georges
    7. Premeuaux-Prissey

    Villages of Cote de Beaune

    1. Meursault
    2. Beaune
    3. Puligny-Montrachet
    4. Chassagne-Montrachet
    5. Aloxe-Corton
    6. Sauvigny-les-Beaune
    7. Pommard
    8. Volnay
    9. St Aubin
    10. Santenay
    11. Maranges

    Villages of Cote Chalonnaise -- (Red Beans Make Great Mondays)

    1. Rully
    2. Bouzeron
    3. Mercurey
    4. Givry
    5. Montagny

    Villages of Maconnaise

    1. Puilly-Fuisse
    2. St Veran
    3. Macon AC, Superior AC, -Villages AC,

    Know the Cru Beaujolais

    1. St Amour
    2. Julienas
    3. Chenas
    4. Moulin-a-Vent
    5. Fleurie
    6. Chiroubles
    7. Morgon
    8. Regnie
    9. Brouilly
    10. Cote de Brouilly

    Steps for Method Champenoise, Creating the Sparkle

    1. Still Wine
    2. Liqueur de Tirage
    3. Tirage
    4. Riddling or Remuage
    5. Disgorgement
    6. Dosage or Liqueur d'Expedition
    7. Bottling

    Major districts of Champagne

    1. Montagne de Reims
    2. Vallée de la Marne
    3. Cotes de Blanc (p103)

    Non-Vintage Champagne

    Known as the "House Style" of a Champagne House or Producer

    Classifications of Champagne - Driest to Sweetest

    1. Extra Brut
    2. Brut
    3. Extra Dry
    4. Sec
    5. Demi-Sec
    6. Doux

    Various names for sparkling wines made in the classic Champagne Method:

    1. Methode Champenoise
    2. Metonde Tradionnelle
    3. Classic Method
    4. Metodo Classico
    5. Cap Classique
    6. Cava
    7. Traditional Method
    8. Cremant

    Various names for sparkling wines made in the Tank Method:

    Cuve Close
    Tank Method

    Grapes of Cava

    Pinot Noir

    German Sparkling

    Known as Sekt


    French wines made outside of Champagne, in the traditional Method

    Important Appleations in France making Cremant

    1. Alsace
    2. d'Die
    3. Bourgogne . Burgundy
    4. Loire
    5. Limoux
    6. Bordeaux

    Sizes of Champange needed for Test - Smallest to Largest

    1. Split .18L
    2. Demi .375L
    3. Bottle .75L
    4. Magnum 1.5L
    5. Jeroboam 3L

    The Loire Valley - Left to Right, West to East

    1. Nantes
    2. Anjou & Saumur
    3. Touraine
    4. Central France, Upper Loire

    Wines of Nantes

    Muscadet AC
    grape: Melon de Bourgogne, aka Melon Blanc

    Wines of Anjou

    Mostly 100% Chenin Blanc // Savennières , famous dry Chenin Blanc

    Wines and Sub-Regions of Touraine

    1. Chinon - Cabernet Franc
    2. Bourgueil - Cabernet Franc
    3. St Nicholas-de-Bourgueil
    4. Vouvray:Chenin Blanc for Dry to very sweet wines, moelleux
    5. Montlouis - Chenin Blanc aka Pineau de la Loire

    Wines of Upper Loire - Vins du Centre

    1. Sancerre
    2. Pouilly-Fume
    3. Quincy
    4. Reuilly
    5. Menetou-Salon

    Grapes of Vins du Centre

    Mainly: Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Noir // A little Pinot Gris in Reuilly , Red and Rose

    Alsace Geography: what surrounds Alsace

    East: Rhein River and the West: Vosges Mountains

    What is Edelzwicker?

    Blend of Noble Grapes: Any Combination of Riesling, Gewurztraminer, Muscat, Pinot Gris, Zwicker: Non- Noble Blend Grapes: Pinot Blanc, Auxerrois, Sylvaner and Chasselas aka Fendant

    What are the 5 grapes allowed in Alsace Grand Cru

    1. Riesling
    2. Muscat
    3. Pinot Gris
    4. Gewurztraminer
    5. Sylvaner

    Which is harvested 1st? Vendage Tardive VT & Selection de Grains Nobles SGN.

    Selection de Grains Nobles SGN-- Harvest 1st due to Nobel Rot.
    Grapes clusters with Botrytis are selected on the first pass through to ensure the best is picked for SGN.

    Major Regions of Northern Rhone: North to South

    1. Cote Rotie
    2. Condrieu --only W Viognier
    3. Chateau Grillet --only W Viognier
    4. St Joseph
    5. Hermitage
    6. Crozes-Hermitage
    7. Cornas --only R Syrah
    8. St Peray -- only W Marsanne, Roussane
    Northern Rhône reds are often identified by their signature aromas of green olive and smoky bacon.

    Major Regions of Southern Rhone

    1. Gigondas
    2. Beaumes-de-Venise
    3. Vacqueyras
    4. Chateauneuf-de-Pape


    Galets stones // Chaptalization is illegal // Vin de Garde 13 permitted grapes. 8 red & 5 white

    Famous Southern France Rose's

    1. Lirac: Known for great roses, but now shifting to red to white
    2. Tavel: Considered one of the best Rose Appleations. Roses must be made directly from red wine by prefermination or Saignage (bleeding off). Tavel must be rose.

    Southwestern France Areas to Know: Bergerac

    Because of its proximity to Bordeaux
    - Red, Roses: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc
    - Whites: Sauvignon Blanc and Semillon

    Southwestern France Areas to Know: Montbazillac

    Sweet Wines from Semillon and Sauvignon Blanc

    Southwestern France Areas to Know: Cahors.Black Wines **VERY IMPORTANT

    Cahors AC requires 70% Malbec aka locally as cot

    Southwestern France Areas to Know: Madiran

    Red Wine only , Tannat + Bordeaux Varieties, Tannat big in Uruguay as well

    What are the principal products of fermentation?

    Alcohol, Heat, Carbon Dioxide CO2

    What is C6H12O6?

    Grape sugar, a carbohydrate

    What would be the approximate alcoholic content of a dry wine made from grapes harvested at 22-degrees Brix?

    12.2% , 55% Brix,( p43)

    Why is SO2 Sodium Dioxide added to grape must?

    To inhibit wild yeast, and prevent spoilage and oxidation.

    When making white wine, what is the most typical order of the following events?

    Aging, Bottling, Clarification, Crushing, Fermentation, Pressing, Racking.

    Crushing, Pressing, Fermentation, Racking,Clarification, Aging, Bottling.

    What might happen in the bottle if a wine is not cold stabilized?

    Tartaric crystals may form in the bottle, when exposed to cold temperatures.

    What causes malolactic fermentation, MLF?

    Bacteria. It converts malic acid into lactic acid. (p46)

    What is fining?

    A clarification technique used to removed fine dissolved sediment in the fermented solution.

    Fining agents bind to particles in the wine and settle out of solution via gravity. These bond particles are then removed through racking. (p47)

    What is the purpose of chaptalization?

    Raise sugar levels of the must for fermentation (p46)

    How does maceration affect a finished wine's flavor and texture?

    [Extended Maceration] Astringency increases as more and more tannin and pigment is extracted. (p48)

    What is the typical range of temperatures for red wine fermentation?

    60 to 95-degrees (p48)

    What is carbonic maceration?

    aka, "Whole-Berry Fermentation" in an anaerobic, oxygen-free, environment where grape sugars create alcohol without yeast.
    This is an enzymatic fermentation, that runs hot at 85 to 95-degree and long, up to 3 weeks. (p49)

    What is cold stabilization?

    Tartaric acid precipitates out of solution as tartrate crystals when wine is chilled. To prevent what looks like 'glass shards' in the bottle, wines are chilled to 25-degrees to 27-degrees for 2-4 weeks in the cask.

    What is heat stabilization?

    Proteins turn into a white haze when exposed to heat. Fining agents remove proteins to prevent this.

    For sparkling wine production, what are the desired levels high, medium, or low of acidity and sugar at harvest?

    High Acid, Moderate Sugar (p50)

    Why are the grapes used for sparkling wine production normally Pressed rather than Crushed?

    Minimal pigment contamination or bitterness (p50).

    When making sparkling wine in the traditional method, what is the order of the following events?

    Assemblage, Base Wine Fermentation, Disgorging, Liquor de Triage, Liqueur d' Expedition, Pressing, Remuage/Riddling, Second Fermentation

    Pressing, Base Wine Fermentation, Assemblage, Liquor de Triage, Second Fermentation, Remuage/Riddling, Disgorging, Liqueur d' Expedition (p 50-52).

    What is a gyropalette?

    Mechanized Riddling

    How much pressure is inside a typical bottle of sparkling wine?

    4.9-6 Atmospheres

    Place the following in order from driest to sweetest:

    Brut, Demi-Sec, Doux, Extra-Brut, Extra Dry, Sec

    Extra-Brut, Brut, Extra Dry, Sec, Demi-Sec, Doux (p52-53)

    How much wine is contained in a Magnum, Jeroboam and Balthazar?

    Magnum = 2 bottles, 1.5L
    Jeroboam = 4 bottles, 3L
    Balthazar =16 bottles,12L
    (p53 - table of bottle sizes)

    What is the name of the sparkling wine method in which the second fermentation is accomplished in a tank rather than a bottle?

    Charmat aka, Cuvee Close or Tank Method (p53)

    What is the primary production step that is avoided in the transfer method?

    Riddling (p53)

    In Sparkling wine, the bubbles are comprised of what gas?

    CO2, Carbon Dioxide

    What is the English translation of Debourage?

    Juice Settling (p51).

    This is a wine-making technique whereby must is allowed to rest before fermentation begins in order for the gross particulate matter to fall out of the solution.

    What are the two definitions of Cuvee?

    1) A first cut, free run & light press juice.
    2) Blended base wine.

    What is Ausbruch?

    An Austrian wine made by co-fermenting the must of late harvest, non-botrysized grapes with a must that has been affected by botrytis from the same vineyard (p82).

    What is the most widely planted grape variety in Austria?

    Grüner Veltliner is 1/30 grapes sanctioned for wine-making in Austria, more than a third of the acreage under vine is planted to this varietal. (p78)

    What is the significance of the Heurige culture in Austria?

    In German, this means "this year's" and refers both to new wine and the vintner-owned inns/taverns/wine bars that serve food and proprietary wines in Vienna (p81).

    Describe the cause and effect of the Austrian wine scandal of 1985.

    Some winemakers were found to be adulterating their wines with diethylene glycol to them more body. This resulted in some of the toughest laws in the world being instituted in Austria, now considered to be one of the most modern, dynamic, and active wine producing countries in the world (p78).

    White or Red? Blauer Zweigelt

    Blauer Zweigelt = Red (78-79)


    In Austria, aka Chardonnay


    An Austrian wine made by fermenting the must of late harvest, non-botrysized grapes with a must that has been affected by botrytis.

    Which Austrian wine region has its own classification system? Describe the three tiers.

    1) Steinfeder- light body/dry up to 11% alcohol,
    2) Federspiel - medium body/dry under 12.5%,
    3) Smaragd - full-bodied/dry over 12.5%.


    Niederösterreich is one of four wine growing regions in Austria. It is divided further into eight districts:
    Carnuntum, Donauland, Kamptal, Kremstal, Thermenregion, Traisental, Wachau and the Weinviertel.


    A wine district in Niederösterreich known for its Riesling and Grüner Veltliner. The area has it's own wine classification system.

    What is the significance of Lake Neusiedl?

    Lake Neusiedl is Central Europe's only steppe lake.

    What is Sturm?

    Sturm - Grape must served in Südsteiermark, Austria during harvest.

    What is Schilcher?

    Schilcher - A tart herbal rosé made from the Blauer Wildbacher grape in Weststeiermark, Austria.

    What is Uhudler?

    Uhudler - A specialty wine of Südburgenland made from a nearly extinct Vitis lambrusca variety.


    Grape must served in Südsteiermark, Austria during harvest


    A tart herbal rosé made from the Blauer Wildbacher grape in Weststeiermark, Austria.


    A specialty wine of Südburgenland made from a nearly extinct Vitis lambrusca variety.

    Where does Kabinett fall in the Austrian wine quality pyramid?

    Qualitatswein, 2nd tier in Austria. In Germany, 1st tier QmP. (p82)"

    True or False: It is illegal to add Süssreserve to Prädikat wines in Austria.

    True (p82)

    Name three wine regions (districts?) within Niederösterreich.

    Niederösterreich Lower Austria ,
    Wine Regions:
    Carnintum, Kamptal, Kremstal, Thermenregion, Traisental, Wachau, Wagram, Weinveiertel (p79-80).

    What is Austria's largest wine district?

    Weinviertel (p80 c2) district, in Niederösterreich region.

    Red or White? Portugieser

    Portugieser = Red (78-79)

    Red or White? Zierfandler

    Zierfandler = White (78-79)

    Red or White? Morillon

    Morillon = White , aka Chardonnay (78-79)

    Red or White? St. Laurent

    St Laurent = Red (78-79)

    Red or White? Rotgipfler

    Rotgipfler = White (78-79)

    Red or White? Blauer Wildbacher

    Blauer Wildbacher = Red (78-79)

    Red or White? Grüner Veltliner

    Grüner Veltliner = White (78-79)

    What are three major soil nutrients required by grapevines?

    Nitrogen , N, Phosphorus P, and Potassium K , (p9).

    What is the difference between a species, a clone, and a variety of grape?

    Species - Within the genus vinifera, only vitis vinifera is used on a wide-scale for wine production.
    Clone - vines descended from a single plant, by cutting.
    Variety - a sub-species of grape. (p9).

    What is the correct progression of the following during the grapevine's annual cycle?
    Berry Set, Bud Break, Flowering, Harvest, Shoot and Leaf Growth, Verasion

    Bud Break,
    Shoot and Leaf Growth,
    Berry Set,
    Harvest (p10).

    What are the inputs and products of photosynthesis?

    Inputs: sunlight, CO2, water
    Products: Sugar, O2 (p10c2)

    What is the temperature range during which photosynthesis can occur?

    50-95 degrees Fahrenheit. Extremes. Optimally, 70-85-degrees F. (p10.)

    What are the differences between a macroclimate, a mesoclimate, and a microclimate?

    Macroclimate = Region
    Mesoclimate = The Vineyard
    Microclimate = The Vine (p11)

    What soil pest spreads fan leaf virus?

    Nematodes - Xiphinema index. (p13c2)

    How does phylloxera damage a vine?

    When feeding on vine roots, phylloxera injects saliva that causes the development of galls. Feeding wounds also allow bacteria and fungi to invade the vine and rot the root.

    What attributes does a balanced vine possess?

    1) Shoot length is between 3-4 feet long, before it stops naturally on its own without hedging.
    2) Shoot density is sparse enough that most, if not all, of the leaves are in the sun for a good % of the day.
    3) Shoot girth is smaller than the width of your little finger.
    4) There are few, if any laterals, on the shoots.
    5) Berry size is small for that variety because the shoot length stopped on its own, (p12).

    What are some of the differences between sustainable, organic, and biodynamic viticultural practices?

    Organic - forgoes all synthetics; allows the application of natural in-organic materials like sulfur and copper that can lead to soil toxicity. The planet is an ecosystem.
    Biodynamic - Austrian Rudolf Steiner, Quasi-religious. The universe is your ecosystem. Phases of moon are used to govern vineyard practices.
    Sustainable - Forgoes black/white rules to find the best overall solution. (p15-16)

    Who is the father of biodynamic viticultural practices

    Austrian, Rudolf Steiner in 1929

    What is Steen?

    Chenin Blanc

    What is a synonym for true Riesling?

    Only White Riesling and Johannisburg Riesling (p 20)

    What is a common synonym for Pinot Grigio?

    Pinot Gris

    Fume' Blanc is made from what grape variety?

    Sauvignon Blanc, typically with some oak influence , term coined by Robert Mondavi

    Which of the following grape varieties has the highest natural acidity?
    Gewurztraminer, Pinot Grigio, Sauvignon Blanc, Viognier?

    Sauvignon Blanc

    A wine with an aromatic profile of wheat berries, straw flower, toasted brioche, clotted cream, pear, and hazelnut is likely to be...?

    Chenin Blanc

    Which grape variety is believed to be the ancestor from which all other wine grapes descended?


    A wine with an aromatic profile of rose petals, lychee nut, sandalwood, grapefruit, ginger and nutmeg is likely to be...

    Gewurztraminer (p23)

    Which white grape variety is likely to be given the following cellar treatments: barrel fermentation, malolactic fermentation, and sur lie aging with batonnage?


    What three white grapes may be incorporated into the production of Sauternes?

    Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscadelle.

    Which of the following is not a red grape variety?
    Nebbiolo, Sangiovese, Viognier, Zinfandel?


    What is the common New World synonym for Syrah?


    What red grape variety is well known for its propensity to mutate?

    Pinot Noir (p31)

    Which of the following grape varieties has the highest natural tannin levels?

    Cabernet Franc, Gamay, Merlot, Syrah

    Syrah, High Tannin, (p34)
    Cabernet Franc & Merlot, Moderate Tannin,
    Gamay , Low Tannin

    Name five typical aromas of Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Black cherry, tobacco, vanilla, blackberry, chocolate, cigar box, black pepper, tea, herbs, coffee, toffee, mint ... (p28)

    Brunello is a clone of what grape variety?

    Sangiovese (p35)

    What two grape varieties cross-pollinated to give us Cabernet Sauvignon?

    Cross of Cabernet Franc x Sauvignon Blanc.

    What is Tempranillo called in Portugal's Douro Valley?

    Tinta Roriz

    True or False: Grenache aka Garnacha is a high-acid red.


    True or False: Barbera is a tannic grape variety related to Zinfandel.

    False. Moderate tannins, not related to Zinfandel.

    What are the two general categories into which Sherry can be classified after fermentation?

    Fino and Oloroso, with or without Flor (p58, 59)

    What is flor?

    Yeast layer (p55)

    In Sherry production, what is the typical order of the following events?
    Aging in barrel, blending, classification, fermentation, fortification, pressing

    Aging in barrel
    Blending (p56-57)

    What is the alcoholic content of Fino Sherry after fortification?

    15-15.5% (p56)

    How much residual sugar is typically present in an Amontillado immediately after fortification?

    None. Amontillado is fermented dry. (p57)

    Vino dulce serves what purpose?

    Boost sugar levels (p58 c1). Vino dulce is made from raisined Palomino or PX grapes that have been picked and dried in the sun.

    What is a solera?

    The solera can refer to:
    (1) a set of casks often arranged in scales,
    (2) a dynamic aging and fractional blending system
    (3) the butts that contain the oldest wine in the system... name comes from Latin solum, floor/soil b/c these butts are closest to the ground. (p57 c2)

    What are the typical alcohol and residual sugar levels in Port immediately following fortification?

    19% alcohol, 8-12% RS (p60 c1)

    What are the two primary categories of Port?

    Bottle aged, Wood aged. (p60c2)

    What is a LBV? How does it differ from a vintage Port?

    Late Bottled Vintage. Vintage Port ages in large vats for 2 years. LBV matures in large vats for 4-6 years (p61c2).

    What is a colheita Port?

    Rare, less than 1% of Ports. It is a single vintage tawny Port, tawnies are aged in small barrels. It remains in cask for a minimum of 7 years. There is no limit to the number of years that it can spend in wood. Some colheitas are 10, 15, even 50 years old. (p61c2)

    True or False: All Port spends time aging in cask.

    False. Tawnies are aged in small barrels. Rubies are aged in large vats. (p60c2)

    What is the meaning of quinta?

    Quinta means "Single Estate" (p60c2).

    True or False: Most Ports reflect a blend of several grape varieties, vineyard lots, and vintages.

    True (p60c2). Most Ports do.

    Name the three common methods of Madeira production today.

    1) Concrete vats with submerged coils.
    2) Heated warehouses aka estufagen.
    3) Uncooled warehouses, (p62-63)

    What are the four noble grapes used for top-quality Madeira production?

    1) Sercial
    2) Verdelho
    3) Bual or Boal
    4) Malvasia (p62c2)

    What is the most widely planted grape on the island of Madeira?

    Tinta Negra Mole, a native vinifera not considered to be the grape of choice for high-quality, long-lived Madeira (p62c2).

    What is an estufa?

    Steam-filled pipes heating a hot room, armazens de calor, for Madeira production (p62c2-p63c1).

    Where is Marsala produced?

    Sicily. The island of Sicily (63c2).

    What are the three types of Marsala?

    Oro, Ambra, Rubio (p63c2).

    What is the range of residual sugar found in Marsala?

    4-10% RS.

    What is Vin doux natural aka VDN?

    Naturally sweetened wine, achieved by arrested fermentation through the addition of grape spirits to leave residual grape sugars in the product (p64c2).

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