Medoc Wine Regions North to South
NORTH TO SOUTH:
1. St Estephe
3. St Julien
Right Bank Regions North to South
NORTH TO SOUTH:
5. Cotes de Bourg
6. Cotes de Blaye
Burgundy Regions North to South
NORTH TO SOUTH:
2. Cote de Nuits
3. Cotes de Beaune
4. Cotes de Chalonnaise
Defines different climates: Macro, Meso and Micro
1. Macro-Climate: Wine Growing Region
2. Meso-Climate: Vineyard
3. Micro-Climate: Area Surrounding the Canopy of the Vine
Grand Crus of Chablis North to South.
100% Chardonnay grapes, aka Beaunois
NORTH TO SOUTH:
1. Les Clos
6. Le Preuses
Villages of Cote d'Nuits
2. Morey St Denis
6. Nuits-St Georges
Villages of Cote de Beaune
9. St Aubin
Villages of Cote Chalonnaise -- (Red Beans Make Great Mondays)
Know the Cru Beaujolais
1. St Amour
10. Cote de Brouilly
Steps for Method Champenoise, Creating the Sparkle
1. Still Wine
2. Liqueur de Tirage
4. Riddling or Remuage
6. Dosage or Liqueur d'Expedition
Classifications of Champagne - Driest to Sweetest
1. Extra Brut
3. Extra Dry
Various names for sparkling wines made in the classic Champagne Method:
1. Methode Champenoise
2. Metonde Tradionnelle
3. Classic Method
4. Metodo Classico
5. Cap Classique
7. Traditional Method
Important Appleations in France making Cremant
3. Bourgogne . Burgundy
Sizes of Champange needed for Test - Smallest to Largest
1. Split .18L
2. Demi .375L
3. Bottle .75L
4. Magnum 1.5L
5. Jeroboam 3L
The Loire Valley - Left to Right, West to East
2. Anjou & Saumur
4. Central France, Upper Loire
Wines and Sub-Regions of Touraine
1. Chinon - Cabernet Franc
2. Bourgueil - Cabernet Franc
3. St Nicholas-de-Bourgueil
4. Vouvray:Chenin Blanc for Dry to very sweet wines, moelleux
5. Montlouis - Chenin Blanc aka Pineau de la Loire
Wines of Upper Loire - Vins du Centre
Grapes of Vins du Centre
Mainly: Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Noir // A little Pinot Gris in Reuilly , Red and Rose
What is Edelzwicker?
Blend of Noble Grapes: Any Combination of Riesling, Gewurztraminer, Muscat, Pinot Gris, Zwicker: Non- Noble Blend Grapes: Pinot Blanc, Auxerrois, Sylvaner and Chasselas aka Fendant
What are the 5 grapes allowed in Alsace Grand Cru
3. Pinot Gris
Which is harvested 1st? Vendage Tardive VT & Selection de Grains Nobles SGN.
Selection de Grains Nobles SGN-- Harvest 1st due to Nobel Rot.
Grapes clusters with Botrytis are selected on the first pass through to ensure the best is picked for SGN.
Major Regions of Northern Rhone: North to South
1. Cote Rotie
2. Condrieu --only W Viognier
3. Chateau Grillet --only W Viognier
4. St Joseph
7. Cornas --only R Syrah
8. St Peray -- only W Marsanne, Roussane
Northern Rhône reds are often identified by their signature aromas of green olive and smoky bacon.
Major Regions of Southern Rhone
Galets stones // Chaptalization is illegal // Vin de Garde 13 permitted grapes. 8 red & 5 white
Famous Southern France Rose's
1. Lirac: Known for great roses, but now shifting to red to white
2. Tavel: Considered one of the best Rose Appleations. Roses must be made directly from red wine by prefermination or Saignage (bleeding off). Tavel must be rose.
Southwestern France Areas to Know: Bergerac
Because of its proximity to Bordeaux
- Red, Roses: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc
- Whites: Sauvignon Blanc and Semillon
Southwestern France Areas to Know: Cahors.Black Wines **VERY IMPORTANT
Cahors AC requires 70% Malbec aka locally as cot
Southwestern France Areas to Know: Madiran
Red Wine only , Tannat + Bordeaux Varieties, Tannat big in Uruguay as well
What would be the approximate alcoholic content of a dry wine made from grapes harvested at 22-degrees Brix?
12.2% , 55% Brix,( p43)
Why is SO2 Sodium Dioxide added to grape must?
To inhibit wild yeast, and prevent spoilage and oxidation.
When making white wine, what is the most typical order of the following events?
Aging, Bottling, Clarification, Crushing, Fermentation, Pressing, Racking.
Crushing, Pressing, Fermentation, Racking,Clarification, Aging, Bottling.
What might happen in the bottle if a wine is not cold stabilized?
Tartaric crystals may form in the bottle, when exposed to cold temperatures.
What is fining?
A clarification technique used to removed fine dissolved sediment in the fermented solution.
Fining agents bind to particles in the wine and settle out of solution via gravity. These bond particles are then removed through racking. (p47)
How does maceration affect a finished wine's flavor and texture?
[Extended Maceration] Astringency increases as more and more tannin and pigment is extracted. (p48)
What is carbonic maceration?
aka, "Whole-Berry Fermentation" in an anaerobic, oxygen-free, environment where grape sugars create alcohol without yeast.
This is an enzymatic fermentation, that runs hot at 85 to 95-degree and long, up to 3 weeks. (p49)
What is cold stabilization?
Tartaric acid precipitates out of solution as tartrate crystals when wine is chilled. To prevent what looks like 'glass shards' in the bottle, wines are chilled to 25-degrees to 27-degrees for 2-4 weeks in the cask.
What is heat stabilization?
Proteins turn into a white haze when exposed to heat. Fining agents remove proteins to prevent this.
For sparkling wine production, what are the desired levels high, medium, or low of acidity and sugar at harvest?
High Acid, Moderate Sugar (p50)
Why are the grapes used for sparkling wine production normally Pressed rather than Crushed?
Minimal pigment contamination or bitterness (p50).
When making sparkling wine in the traditional method, what is the order of the following events?
Assemblage, Base Wine Fermentation, Disgorging, Liquor de Triage,
Liqueur d' Expedition, Pressing, Remuage/Riddling, Second Fermentation
Pressing, Base Wine Fermentation, Assemblage, Liquor de Triage, Second Fermentation, Remuage/Riddling, Disgorging, Liqueur d' Expedition (p 50-52).
Place the following in order from driest to sweetest:
Brut, Demi-Sec, Doux, Extra-Brut, Extra Dry, Sec
Extra-Brut, Brut, Extra Dry, Sec, Demi-Sec, Doux (p52-53)
How much wine is contained in a Magnum, Jeroboam and Balthazar?
Magnum = 2 bottles, 1.5L
Jeroboam = 4 bottles, 3L
Balthazar =16 bottles,12L
(p53 - table of bottle sizes)
What is the name of the sparkling wine method in which the second fermentation is accomplished in a tank rather than a bottle?
Charmat aka, Cuvee Close or Tank Method (p53)
What is the English translation of Debourage?
Juice Settling (p51).
This is a wine-making technique whereby must is allowed to rest before fermentation begins in order for the gross particulate matter to fall out of the solution.
What are the two definitions of Cuvee?
1) A first cut, free run & light press juice.
2) Blended base wine.
What is Ausbruch?
An Austrian wine made by co-fermenting the must of late harvest, non-botrysized grapes with a must that has been affected by botrytis from the same vineyard (p82).
What is the most widely planted grape variety in Austria?
Grüner Veltliner is 1/30 grapes sanctioned for wine-making in Austria, more than a third of the acreage under vine is planted to this varietal. (p78)
What is the significance of the Heurige culture in Austria?
In German, this means "this year's" and refers both to new wine and the vintner-owned inns/taverns/wine bars that serve food and proprietary wines in Vienna (p81).
Describe the cause and effect of the Austrian wine scandal of 1985.
Some winemakers were found to be adulterating their wines with diethylene glycol to them more body. This resulted in some of the toughest laws in the world being instituted in Austria, now considered to be one of the most modern, dynamic, and active wine producing countries in the world (p78).
An Austrian wine made by fermenting the must of late harvest, non-botrysized grapes with a must that has been affected by botrytis.
Which Austrian wine region has its own classification system? Describe the three tiers.
1) Steinfeder- light body/dry up to 11% alcohol,
2) Federspiel - medium body/dry under 12.5%,
3) Smaragd - full-bodied/dry over 12.5%.
Niederösterreich is one of four wine growing regions in Austria. It is divided further into eight districts:
Carnuntum, Donauland, Kamptal, Kremstal, Thermenregion, Traisental, Wachau and the Weinviertel.
A wine district in Niederösterreich known for its Riesling and Grüner Veltliner. The area has it's own wine classification system.
What is Schilcher?
Schilcher - A tart herbal rosé made from the Blauer Wildbacher grape in Weststeiermark, Austria.
What is Uhudler?
Uhudler - A specialty wine of Südburgenland made from a nearly extinct Vitis lambrusca variety.
Where does Kabinett fall in the Austrian wine quality pyramid?
Qualitatswein, 2nd tier in Austria. In Germany, 1st tier QmP. (p82)"
Name three wine regions (districts?) within Niederösterreich.
Niederösterreich Lower Austria ,
Carnintum, Kamptal, Kremstal, Thermenregion, Traisental, Wachau, Wagram, Weinveiertel (p79-80).
What are three major soil nutrients required by grapevines?
Nitrogen , N, Phosphorus P, and Potassium K , (p9).
What is the difference between a species, a clone, and a variety of grape?
Species - Within the genus vinifera, only vitis vinifera is used on a wide-scale for wine production.
Clone - vines descended from a single plant, by cutting.
Variety - a sub-species of grape. (p9).
What is the correct progression of the following during the grapevine's annual cycle?
Berry Set, Bud Break, Flowering, Harvest, Shoot and Leaf Growth, Verasion
Shoot and Leaf Growth,
What are the inputs and products of photosynthesis?
Inputs: sunlight, CO2, water
Products: Sugar, O2 (p10c2)
What is the temperature range during which photosynthesis can occur?
50-95 degrees Fahrenheit. Extremes. Optimally, 70-85-degrees F. (p10.)
What are the differences between a macroclimate, a mesoclimate, and a microclimate?
Macroclimate = Region
Mesoclimate = The Vineyard
Microclimate = The Vine (p11)
How does phylloxera damage a vine?
When feeding on vine roots, phylloxera injects saliva that causes the development of galls. Feeding wounds also allow bacteria and fungi to invade the vine and rot the root.
What attributes does a balanced vine possess?
1) Shoot length is between 3-4 feet long, before it stops naturally on its own without hedging.
2) Shoot density is sparse enough that most, if not all, of the leaves are in the sun for a good % of the day.
3) Shoot girth is smaller than the width of your little finger.
4) There are few, if any laterals, on the shoots.
5) Berry size is small for that variety because the shoot length stopped on its own, (p12).
What are some of the differences between sustainable, organic, and biodynamic viticultural practices?
Organic - forgoes all synthetics;
allows the application of natural in-organic materials like sulfur and
copper that can lead to soil toxicity. The planet is an ecosystem.
Biodynamic - Austrian Rudolf Steiner, Quasi-religious. The universe is your ecosystem. Phases of moon are used to govern vineyard practices.
Sustainable - Forgoes black/white rules to find the best overall solution. (p15-16)
Fume' Blanc is made from what grape variety?
Sauvignon Blanc, typically with some oak influence , term coined by Robert Mondavi
Which of the following grape varieties has the highest natural acidity?
Gewurztraminer, Pinot Grigio, Sauvignon Blanc, Viognier?
A wine with an aromatic profile of wheat berries, straw flower, toasted brioche, clotted cream, pear, and hazelnut is likely to be...?
Which grape variety is believed to be the ancestor from which all other wine grapes descended?
A wine with an aromatic profile of rose petals, lychee nut, sandalwood, grapefruit, ginger and nutmeg is likely to be...
Which white grape variety is likely to be given the following cellar treatments: barrel fermentation, malolactic fermentation, and sur lie aging with batonnage?
What three white grapes may be incorporated into the production of Sauternes?
Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscadelle.
Which of the following is not a red grape variety?
Nebbiolo, Sangiovese, Viognier, Zinfandel?
Which of the following grape varieties has the highest natural tannin levels?
Cabernet Franc, Gamay, Merlot, Syrah
Syrah, High Tannin, (p34)
Cabernet Franc & Merlot, Moderate Tannin,
Gamay , Low Tannin
Name five typical aromas of Cabernet Sauvignon.
Black cherry, tobacco, vanilla, blackberry, chocolate, cigar box, black pepper, tea, herbs, coffee, toffee, mint ... (p28)
What two grape varieties cross-pollinated to give us Cabernet Sauvignon?
Cross of Cabernet Franc x Sauvignon Blanc.
True or False: Barbera is a tannic grape variety related to Zinfandel.
False. Moderate tannins, not related to Zinfandel.
What are the two general categories into which Sherry can be classified after fermentation?
Fino and Oloroso, with or without Flor (p58, 59)
In Sherry production, what is the typical order of the following events?
Aging in barrel, blending, classification, fermentation, fortification, pressing
Aging in barrel
How much residual sugar is typically present in an Amontillado immediately after fortification?
None. Amontillado is fermented dry. (p57)
Vino dulce serves what purpose?
Boost sugar levels (p58 c1). Vino dulce is made from raisined Palomino or PX grapes that have been picked and dried in the sun.
What is a solera?
The solera can refer to:
(1) a set of casks often arranged in scales,
(2) a dynamic aging and fractional blending system
(3) the butts that contain the oldest wine in the system... name comes from Latin solum, floor/soil b/c these butts are closest to the ground. (p57 c2)
What are the typical alcohol and residual sugar levels in Port immediately following fortification?
19% alcohol, 8-12% RS (p60 c1)
What is a LBV? How does it differ from a vintage Port?
Late Bottled Vintage. Vintage Port ages in large vats for 2 years. LBV matures in large vats for 4-6 years (p61c2).
What is a colheita Port?
Rare, less than 1% of Ports. It is a single vintage tawny Port, tawnies are aged in small barrels. It remains in cask for a minimum of 7 years. There is no limit to the number of years that it can spend in wood. Some colheitas are 10, 15, even 50 years old. (p61c2)
True or False: All Port spends time aging in cask.
False. Tawnies are aged in small barrels. Rubies are aged in large vats. (p60c2)
True or False: Most Ports reflect a blend of several grape varieties, vineyard lots, and vintages.
True (p60c2). Most Ports do.
Name the three common methods of Madeira production today.
1) Concrete vats with submerged coils.
2) Heated warehouses aka estufagen.
3) Uncooled warehouses, (p62-63)
What are the four noble grapes used for top-quality Madeira production?
3) Bual or Boal
4) Malvasia (p62c2)
What is the most widely planted grape on the island of Madeira?
Tinta Negra Mole, a native vinifera not considered to be the grape of choice for high-quality, long-lived Madeira (p62c2).
What is an estufa?
Steam-filled pipes heating a hot room, armazens de calor, for Madeira production (p62c2-p63c1).
What is Vin doux natural aka VDN?
Naturally sweetened wine, achieved by arrested fermentation through the addition of grape spirits to leave residual grape sugars in the product (p64c2).
List three examples of VDN, vin doux naturel.
Muscat de Frontignan, Muscat de Lunel, Muscat de Mireval, Muscat de St Jean-de-Minervois, Muscat de Rivesaltes, Bayuls, Maury, Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise, Rasteau (p64c2).
What are the three most common grapes incorporated into VDN, vin doux naturel?
2) Muscat a Petits Grains
3) Muscat of Alexandria (p65c1)
How does the production of Malaga and Montilla-Moriles mirror the production methods of other fortified wine products?
Solera aging and arrested fermentation (p64).
What is the most widely planted white grape in Argentina?
Pedro Giménez. It is typically used in the production of grape concentrate and is not the Pedro Ximénez of Jerez (p69c1).
What factors contributed to a strong wine culture in Argentina?
European emigration, 98% population is of European decent; 1/2 of Italian decent. (p67c1).
Where are most of the Argentine vineyards located?
The major quality winegrowing zone is in the northwest section of the country on the lower slopes of the Andes (p67c2).
What is the zonda?
A fierce, hot, dry wine that blows out of the northwest. If the wind blows during flowering, it will cause poor berry set, which, in turn, reduces crop yield (p68c2).
What is a parral?
An overhead trellis system used to help the vines escape the reflected heat. These are used in vineyards planted for high yield in deep, fertile soils in Argentina. These vineyards are typically heavily irrigated (p68c2).
What is meant by "hens and chicks" when referencing a grape cluster?
Uneven berry set; grape berries of different size within a cluster. Developed for the Argentine wine industry by the University of California at Davis, the Mendoza clone of Chardonnay is prone to 'hens and chicks' to offer the advantage of a greater skin-to-juice ratio (p69c1).
Is the Argentine climate Mediterranean, continental, or maritime?
Continental. There are enormous diurnal, within 24 hours, temperature swings and a full rotation of all four seasons. There is also little humidity so growers have less need of chemical sprays. (68c2).
What is unique among the Australian geographic indications GI about South Eastern Australia?
South Eastern Australia is the only current appellation that covers an area larger than a single state. It combines New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, The Australian Capital Territory, and parts of Queensland and South Australia (p71c2).
Under Australian law, if a single varietal appears on the label, what is the minimum content from that grape variety in the wine?
85% from the grape variety (p72c1).
What is the minimum percentage of a wine that must originate in a geographic indication GI to cite that GI as the place of origin on an Australian label?
85% from the GI (p72c1).
True or False: Australia's Granite Belt region possesses terra rossa soils.
False. Of the two Queensland GIs,
Granite Belt is composed of decomposing granite soils
South Burnett is composed of terra rossa soils (p76c2).
What single region in South Australia is responsible for a quarter of the total national grape production?
Riverland = 25% of Australia's total wine production (p76c2).
Name three GIs within the Limestone Coast.
Coonawarra, Padthaway, Mount Benson, Robe, Wrattonbully (p76c1). They all have the famous red-brown mix of clay, sand, and silt known as 'terra rossa.' Most expensive viticultural land in Australia.
What two GIs within South Australia are famed for their Riesling?
Clare Valley (p75c2) and Eden Valley (p76c1).
Name two ultra-cool wine regions on the Australian mainland.
Henty and the Macedon Ranges vie for the title of the coolest growing region on the Australian mainland (p75c1).
What state or territory is the original home of grapevine planting Down Under?
New South Wales (p72c2).
Which of the following wine regions is not located along the coast of Western Australia?
Geographe, Margaret River, Blackwood Valley, Manjimup, Pemberton, Great Southern.
Blackwood Valley. All of these regions, except Blackwood Valley which is located inland, experience sea breezes from the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, or both. Salinity from the oceans is an issue (p73c2-74c1).
Riverina is best known for what two wine products?
Riverina is known for, Bag-in-Box, cask wine and dessert wines, botrytis-affected Semillon, (p73c1).
What is Strategy 2025?
Launched at the turn of the 21st century, Strategy 2025 expresses Australia's goal to become a $4.5 billion dollar wine industry by being the world's most influential and profitable supplier of branded wines. (p71c1)
Describe the nature of Australian soils.
Australia is the flattest, driest continent in the world, with the oldest, most depleted soils on Earth. Some say the soil itself is a fossil. It is leached, acidic, and saline with a high Potassium, K, content. In the entire world, only South Africa has a slightly similar soil profile (p70c1).
Name the three districts within the Champagne appellation.
The 77K acres of vineyards in Champagne are grouped into the districts of 1) Vallée de la Marne, 2) Montagne de Reims, and 3) Cotes de Blanc (p103).
What is the primary grape variety of Bourgueil and Chinon?
Loire Valley, Touraine: AOCs Bourgueil and Chinon produce some of the Loire's finest red wines. All are at least 90 percent Cabernet Franc, with the remainder, if any, being Cabernet Sauvignon (p102).
What is the level of French quality wine that falls just below AOC?
VDQS, Vin délimité de qualité supérieure, aka, delimited wine of superior quality, Discontinued in 2011. ( p87)
How many levels of red crus were defined in the 1855 Bordeaux Classification?
Five (p 91-92): First Growths, aka Premiers Crus,
Second Growths, aka, Deuxièmes Crus,
Third Growths, aka, Troisièmes Crus,
Fourth Growths, aka, Quatrièmes Crus
Fifth Growths, aka, Cinquièmes Crus.
Name the three primary grape varieties of Burgundy.
Pinot Noir, Gamay, Chardonnay and the 4th is Aligote (p98)
What grape variety produces the sweet wines of Quarts-du-Chaume?
Loire Valley, 100% Chenin Blanc (p101). The sweet white wines of Anjou-Saumur come from Coteaux du Layon and its sub-regions Bonezeaux and Quarts-de-Chaume. All three regions are 100% Chenin Blanc and are very long-lived sweet wines.This area, along the Layon River tributary of the Loire, is similar to Sauternes in that it has the right climatic conditions for botrytis, aka, pourriture noble, noble rot (p101c2).
What is the name for a Champagne house's top-of-the-line wine?
Prestige cuvées or cuvée spéciale wines are the showpieces of the Champagne producers--the highest-quality wine produced and, of course, the most expensive. Generally speaking, these are the Champagnes with the longest aging potential (p104c2).
What grape varieties are allowed in a wine from Côte Rôtie?
Côte Rôtie, "Roasted Slope", produces a red wine made from Syrah that is vinified together with up to 20% white Viognier, although in practice 10% or less is more typical. (p107c2)
What is the difference between Côte du Rhône and Côte du Rhône Villages?
Sixteen communes within the Côte du Rhône AOC, such as Rasteau, Cairanne, and Seguret, comprise the Côte du Rhône-Villages appellation and are allowed to append their names to "Côte du Rhône-." The appellation has somewhat higher production standards than does the Côte du Rhône AOC and produces 99% red wine (pg108c2-109c1).
Name the two primary white grape varieties of the Bordeaux region.
Similar to its reds, Bordeaux's white wines are also blends. Sémillon and Sauvignon Blanc dominate the mix. (p89)
What is 'vendange tardive' VT wine?
Late Harvest grapes, which may or may not be affected by noble rot (p106c1). aka, "VT". Alsace wines were the first to be described as vendange tardive but the term is now used in other regions of France.
Name four grand crus in the Côte de Nuits.
Romanée-Conti, Musigny, and Clos de Tart.
Burgundy, p96) Its 25 Grand Cru vineyards are all red, except Musigny, which produces both red and white wine. ...
Where would a wine labeled "Premier Grand Cru Classé" come from?
Bordeaux's St Émillion family of appellations. the wines of St Émillion were classified for the first time in 1954, and since been updated three times. There are officially two levels: Grand Cru Classé "great classified growths" and the higher ranked Premier Grand Cru classé "first great classified growths". Château Cheval Blanc and Château Ausone are considered to be the very best Premier Grand Cru Classé and are elevated to "category A". All others are "category B" (p93).
What style of wine is a crémant?
Sparkling. Crémant refers to French AOC sparkling wine made outside the Champagne region e.g., Crémant d'Alsace, Crémant de Die, Crémant de Loire, (p104c2).
Where are Minervois, Costières de Nîmes, and Banyuls located?
Minervois and Banyuls are in the Languedoc-Roussillon (p110). Costières de Nîmes is in Rhone (p109).
What is the section of the Bordeaux region that lies on the left bank of the Gironde north of the city of Bordeaux called?
Médoc and Haut-Médoc, (p90 c2)
Name five crus of Beaujolais.
There are 10 communes, villages, in the Cru Beaujolais zone. They are marketed with only the name of the village on the label: St Amour, Juliénas, Chénas, Moulin-à-Vent, Fleurie, Chiroubles, Morgon, Régnié, Côte de Brouilly, Brouilly (p98c2).
What does the term "supérieur" usually indicate on a French wine label?
This designation may be added to the names of AC designations. It requires a higher minimum alcohol level, usually one percentage point higher than the basic designation. (p88)
What does a Bordeaux wine broker do?
Seller of wine. not producer, responsible for sale of 75% of export wine, primarily though selling futures. (p89)
Place the following appellations in the most likely order of increasing quality and price: Côte de Beaune, Puligny-Montrachet Premier Cru "La Joquelotte," Puligny-Montrachet, Chevalier-Montrachet, Bourgogne.
These are all Burgundy Appellations. (p97)
1) Bourgogne - Burgundy
2) Côte de Beaune - 1 of 6 major wine districts
3) Puligny-Montrachet - a Village
4) Puligny-Montrachet Premier Cru "La Joquelotte" - A Primier cru, below Grand Cru
5) Chevalier-Montrachet - a Grand Cru
What is the grape variety used to make Pouilly-Fumé?
Sauvignon Blanc, in France's Upper Loire next to Sancerre. (p102c2).
Place the following in order of increasing sweetness: Sauternes, Sancerre, Vouvray.
1. Sancerre - Loire classic Sauvignon Blanc and some Pinot Noir; likely fermented dry (p102c2).
2. Vouvray - Loire Valley, Touraine, white Chenin Blanc wines ranging in style from dry to sweet (p102c1)
3. Sauternes - famous Left Bank Bordeaux, Graves, sweet white wines from Semillon and Sauvignon Blanc. (p90c2)
What are the four levels of the French wine quality pyramid?
Vin de Table, Vin de Pays, VDQS, AOC or AC (p87)
What are the grape varieties allowed for a grand cru in Alsace?
Gewurztraminer, Muscat, Pinot Gris, or Riesling (p106c1).
Name an appellation that produces a vin doux naturel aka VDN.
Rivesaltes, Languedoc-Roussillon, produces nearly half of the vins doux naturales of France (p110c2).
What is the primary grape variety used to make the "black wines" of Cahors?
At least 70% Malbec, known locally as Cot, in SW France. (p111).
What is the primary grape variety used to make Madiran wine? Second red grape?
Tannat, In the extreme Southwest France, along the Basque border, (p111c2). (Wikipedia) Tannat is a red wine grape, historically grown in South West France in the Madiran AOC and is now one of the most prominent grapes in Uruguay, where it is considered the "national grape." Second red grape is Cabernet Franc.
Define the Chilean borders and describe their significance.
The desert to the north, the tall Andean peaks to the east, the Pacific Ocean to the west, and the frozen ice expanses to of Antarctica to the south have kept this country and its people and island to itself. (p83c1)
What is the largest fine wine region in Chile?
The Central Valley is, by far, the largest fine wine region in Chile. (p83)
What influences Chile's weather patterns?
Weather patterns are significantly influenced by the Pacific Ocean and its cold Humboldt Current.
True or False: Rainfall increases and temperatures decrease as you progress south down Chile's Central Valley.
True. Progressing south and east from the northern portion of the Central Valley, rainfall increases and temperatures decrease (p83).
Describe the "rule of 75 percent."
Under Chilean wine law updated in 1996, the "rule of 75 percent" established the minimum proportions for:
* Estate bottling
* Place of origin
Many wineries still use 85% to be compliant for EU exports. (p84c2)
In Chile, much of what is believed to be Merlot actually turned out to be something else. What?
Much of what was thought to be Merlot is actually Carmenère. (p84c1)
A fourth of Chile's Chardonnay comes from one wine region. Which one?
Almost a quarter of Chile's Chardonnay is grown is Casablanca, and there is some growing excitement over the Pinot Noir plantings in the areas as well (p85.)
Name three wine growing areas with Chile's Central Valley.
There are four, all are Valleys:
Maipo Valley - status symbol estates.
Rapel Valley - wide expanses of flat farmland.
Curicó Valley - coastal range, quite warm.
Maule Valley - cloud cover and cooler temp. (p85)
What wine growing district lies at the southern end of Chile's Central Valley?
The Bio-Bio Valley marks the southern end of the Central Valley. The Coastal Range is lower here, so the weather is more heavily affected by the Pacific Ocean. There is more rain, less sun, and cooler temperatures. (p85)
Place the following in order from largest to smallest:
Anbaugebiet, Bereich, Einzellage, Grosslage.
4) Einzellage (p120)
What does Gustabfüllung indicate on a German wine label? What does Erzeugerafüllung indicate?
Wines made by grape growers are designated:
Gustabfüllung = Estate bottled grape-grower produced.
Erzeugerafüllung = Producer bottled, includes cooperative. (p114c1)
What is the difference between Deutscher Tafelwein and Tafelwein
The term Deutscher preceding Tafelwein or Landwein indicates that all the grapes came from within Germany. If the wine label does not say "Deutscher," the wine is probably not German-grown, but rather an imported wine blended with German wine and bottled in Germany (p114c2).
Why are most German vineyards located near rivers or lakes?
To provide a warmer micro-climate and prevent frost (p113).
List all six categories of QmP wines in order of increasing sugar levels at harvest.
1) QmP Kabinett. Cabinet)
2) QmP Spätlese, Late-harvest
3) QmP Auslese, Select bunches
4) QmP Beerenauslese, Select berries
5) QmP Trockenbeerenauslese, Dried select berries
6) QmP Eisewein, Ice wine (p119)
What unit of measurement do Germans employ to measure sugar levels at harvest?
Degrees Oechsle. Oechsle is the difference between the specific gravity of grape must and that of water [1.00]; must with a specific gravity of 1.068 has a must weight of 68° Oechsle (p114).
What Prädikat levels are always sweet?
The top three:
QmP Beerenauslese,select berries
QmP, Trockenbeerenauslese, dried select berries
QmP Eiswein, ice wine (p119)
Define the following terms: Süss, Trocken, Halbtrocken, Feinherb, Classic, Selection
Süss = sweet (GWA Glossary)
Trocken, Classic, and Selection = Dry
Halbtrocken and Feinherb = Off Dry (p116c1)
Which northernly German wine region is best known for its red wines?
Ahr. The Ahr is one of Germany's most northerly and smallest wine regions. Despite the fact that it sits at 50° 30' north latitude, it is best known for its red wines. Spätburgunder aka Pinot Noir and Portugieser both produce light, fruity wines here. (p116c2).
True or False: Fully three-quarters of the vines planted in the Mittelrhein are Riesling.
True. Three-quarters of the vines planted here are Riesling (p117).
What are the Mosel, the Saar, and the Ruwar?
Rivers. Saar and Ruwar are tributaries to the Mosel (p117).
Which German wines are bottled traditionally in bocksbeutels?
Franken wine is bottled in a distinctive squat, green flagon called the Bocksbeutel (p118c2).
Which German wine region is comprised of one long hillside that flanks the Rhine River as it takes a sharp westerly bend?
What is Germany's largest wine-growing region according to acreage planted? According to production numbers? According to physical size?
Acreage planted and production = Rheinhessen (p117)
Physical size = Baden (p120)
What two German wine regions were formerly located in East Germany?
Saale-Ustrut and Sashsen are two small wine regions located in what was formerly East Germany (p120).
True or False: Eiswein is always influenced by boytrytis.
False. These wines are intensly flavored, sometimes with the honeyed influence of botrytis, sometimes not (p115c2).
High growth wines, a declassified QmP Kabinett or a "super QbA", chaptalization is permitted for these wines (p119).
Name the Loire Valley wine district downriver from Anjou.
Pays Nantais, aka, Muscadet, closest to the Atlantic, the end point, mouth, of the river, western Loire Valley. (p100)
What grape variety/wine was named after the Greek port Monemvasia?
Malvasia or Malmsey wine was named after the Greek port town on Monemvasia (p121c1).
Why was Greek wine originally resinated?
Greek wine was originally resinated to retard spoilage (p131c2).
The better vineyards in Greece face which direction? North, South, East, West
To avoid over-ripening, better vineyards often face north, contrary to most classic wine areas in the Northern Hemisphere, where vines need to hug the sun-drenched south-facing slopes (p122, c2).
What is Mavrodaphne?
A dark, sweet desert wine (p123c1). One of three grapes responsible for 97% of sweet wines in Greece (p124c2).
What are the tiers within the Greek wine quality pyramid?
15% Quality wines, OPE for sweet and OPAP for dry, Regional wines, TO, 50% Table wines, EO, and Restina, TZ or OKP (p123).
True or False: Ninety percent of Greece's dry wine production is produced from just six grapes.
Red or White: Xynomavro?
Red, from The North, is the principal red wine grape of the uplands of Naousa in the regional unit of Imathia. (p124c2.)
Red or White: Roditis?
White, from Patras, is a pink-skinned Greek wine grape traditionally grown in the Peloponnese region of Greece.(p124c2).
Name three subregions of Chianti.
There are eight Chianti subregions: Chianti Classico (located between Florence and Siena), Colli Aretini, Colli Fiorentini, Colli Sensesi, Colline Pisane, Montalbano, Montespertoli, and Ruffina. (p135c2)
What Italian wine region produces Taurasi?
red, still Italian wines based principally on the Aglianico grape variety produced in the Province of Avellino in the Campania region. (p128c2)
Name a DOCG in Lombardy that makes sparkling wine.
Franciacorta, 85% Chardonnay, 10% Pinot nero and 5% Pinot bianco. (p131, c2)
What other appellation produces wine from the same grapes as Valpolicella?
Bardolina produces wines from Corvina, Veronese/Corvinone and Rondinella (p134, 133).
Which of the following is not from the South of Italy?
-Aglianico del Vulture Cirò
-Prosecco di Conegliano-Valdobbiadene
Prosecco di Conegliano-Valdobbiadene is from the Veneto in the North East, not South of Italy. (p134).
What is the difference between IGT wine and a vino da tavola?
IGT was created to ... these wines can be varietal labeled, be labeled under a geographic indication, and be vintage dated (p129).
What region produces Frascati?
Latium, aka Lazio. it's a white wine made from Trebbiano and Malvasia. (p137)
Garganega is the primary grape in what wine?
Soave. Widely grown in the Veneto region of North East Italy, particularly in the provinces of Verona and Vicenza. (p134c1)
Which of Italy's regions is known for wines made from Spanna, Barbera, Arneis, and Brachetto?
What is Cannonau and where would you fine it?
Cannonau is another name for Grenache in Sardinia (p140c2).
In which of Italy's regions is one most likely to encounter Teroldego, Müller-Thurgau, and Riesling?
Trentino - Alto Adige
What is the name of the Sangiovese clone used to make the rich reds of Montalcino?
Brunello is a local name for a Sangiovese clone that picks up a brown (brun) sheen on its skin when ripe. (p136c1)
What is the difference between Montepulciano d' Abruzzo and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano?
Vino Nobile di Montepulciano DOCG should not be confused with Montepulciano d' Abruzzo: Vino Nobile is a blend based on Sangiovese grown on the slopes of the Tuscan town of Montepulon, whereas Montepulciano d' Abruzzo is made in the Abruzzo region from the Montepulciano grape. (p136c1).
How does "vin santo" differ from vermouth?
Vin Santo is a maderized dessert wine from Tuscany (p136); Vermouth is a Piedmont wine that is fortified and flavored with roots, spices, wood, and so forth. (p130c2).
What type of climate do most of the vineyards of New Zealand have?
Temperate, maritime climate (p143c1)
What is the southernmost wine-growing region in the world?
Central Otago, South Island of New Zealand. (p149c2)
What are New Zealand's three most widely planted grape varieties?
Sauvignon Blanc (26K acres), Pinot Noir (11K acres), and Chardonnay (10K acres) (p144c1).
Where are most of New Zealand's vineyards located?
Most wineries are situated within 20 miles of the east coast. (p143 c2).
What is New Zealand's largest and most acclaimed wine-growing region?
Marlborough, NorthEast corner of South Island. (p148c2)
Which wine region calls itself New Zealand's "Chardonnay Capital." Why?
Gisborne (p148c1); 1/2 vineyard production is Chardonnay.
Name two wine regions on the North Island and one wine region on the South Island known for Sparkling wine production.
2 North Island Regions: Gisborne (p148c1), Hawke's Bay (p148c2),
1 South Island Regions: Marlborough (p149c1)
Where were New Zealand's first vines planted?
The Bay of Islands: New Zealand's first vineyards were planted around 1819 by the Reverand Samuel Marsden in the Bay of Islands at the top of the North Island (p143c2).
Which of New Zealand's wine regions is also its warmest?
Northland typically experiences the country's warmest ripening conditions (p145c2).
Which portions of Portugal enjoy a Mediterranean climate? Maritime climate?
Mediterranean: South and Inland
Maritime: North and coast (p150c2)
Why is vinho verde "green wine" called vinho verde?
Young wine of Portugal, crafted for immediate consumption. (p150c2)
Describe the climate and topography of Porto's three sub regions.
Baixo Corgo - no steep slopes, fertile soils, 47 inches of rain
Cima Corgo - quality heartland, steep slopes/rocky, 28 inches of rain
Douro Superior - Gentle slopes, 15 inches of rain (p152)
What is the soil composition of the Douro Valley?
Pre-Cambian schist and decomposing schist, with outcroppings of granite, some sand, clay and quartz. (p152c2)
What is the Cadastro? Name four of its criteria.
A unique vineyard ranking system in Portugal. 12 total criteria, including: Altitude, yield, soil and locality. (p152)
What is Vila Nova de Gaia?
A town responsible for maturing and shipping port; tradition, location, and climate, humidity, make this an ideal location. (p153)
How many grape varieties can be incorporated into the production of Port? How many are recommended by the Casa do Douro? Name them.
80; 8 recommended by Casa do Douro:
5 Reds: Touriga Nationale, Touriga Franca, Tinta Barroca, Tinta Roriz aka Tempranillo, and Tinta Cão
3 Whites: Gouveio, Verdelho, Malvasia Fina, Vinosiho. (p153c2)
True or False: Most of the wine produced in Bairrada is red.
True, 70%+ Portuguese red or rosé, deep colored tannic red wines that often have bell pepper and black currant flavors, (p154c1)
True or False: Colares is a fortified wine region in Estremadura.
False, Carcavelos is a fortified wine region in Estremadura (p155).
Name the four noble grapes of Madeira. Name the grape most widely planted there.
Sercial, Verdelho, Bual, Malmsey are the four noble grapes of Madeira.
Tinta Negra Mole is the most widely planted grape in Madeira. Madeira is unique because it is not only fortified, but oxidized and "cooked," technically referred to as "estufagem" (p156)
What percentage of South Africa's wine production is produced by cooperatives?
85% and declining, (p157c2)
What is the Cape Doctor?
A strong wind in the summer, from the South East. Oak Trees were planted to block this wind, (p158c1).
In South Africa, the climate is cooler than the latitude might suggest. Why?
The Benguela current and winds from cold oceans, Atlantic and Indian.
The vineyards of South Africa are buffeted by the winds of which two oceans?
Atlantic and Indian, p157c2
How long has South Africa been growing grapes and making wine?
1655 - growing grapes
1659 - making wine
What is the KWV? Detail its role in South Africa's wine industry.
Began as a grape growers cartel, now a company charged with investing in South Africa's national wine industry (p158-159)
What are Steen, Pinotage, and Hanepoot?
Grape varieties in South Africa ...
Steen = Chenin Blanc
Pinotage = a 1925 cross of Pinot Noir x Cinsault
Hanepoot = Muscat d' Alexandria (p159c1)
If origin is listed on the bottle of South African wine, what percentage of that bottling must come from the place listed?
True or False: Spain possesses the largest amount of grape acreage in the world.
True. 3 million acres under vine with Airen the largest amount. (p163c1)
How does Spanish wine law differ from French wine law?
In Spain, Aging requirements, both in barrel and in bottle, are set down by law. (p163c2)
Spanish wine is divided into two main categories. What are they?
Table wines and quality wines (p163c2)
Name the three grapes used in Sherry production. What soil types does each prefer? What purpose does each grape serve in the production process?
Palomino- the primary grape, white albariza soil of chalk, clay and sand.
Pedro Ximénez- the sweetening agent, aka PX, barro a clay soil with iron oxide
Moscatel- the coloring agent aka Muscat of Alexandria, arena a sandy soil with 10% chalk. (p167c1)
Name the three principal towns within the Sherry district.
The Sherry Triangle is formed by the towns of Jerez de la Frontera, Sanlúcar de Barrameda, and Puerto de Santa María. (p167c1)
Give three synonyms for Tempranillo.
"Tinta del País" in Ribera del Duero (p167c2)
"Cencibel" in La Mancha (p167c2)
"Tinta Roriz" in Portugal
Red or White: Airén.
White, most widely planted varietal in world, mainly bulk wine, known in Castilla-La Mancha (p167c2)
Red or White: Viura
White aka Macabeo outside of Rioja in Spain, (p165) ... the most important white wine grape of Rioja.
With regards to red Rioja, what are the aging requirements of a crianza, reserva, and gran reserva?
Crianza- at least 1 year on oak / 6 months in bottle; not released until its 3rd year.
Reserva- also minimum of 1 year on oak but not released until its 4th year.
Gran reserva- minimum of 2 years on oak; 3 in bottle, not released until its 6th year. (p164c2)
What is cava?
Spain's traditional-method sparkling wine, produced mainly in the Penedés region in Northeastern Spain. (p166c1)
What seven items are required on the label of all U.S. wines?
1) Brand name
2) Class or type of wine
3) The name and address of the bottler or the importer
4) Alcohol content
5) A sulfite statement, if required
6) A health warning
7) The net contents, volume of the bottle.
Also, country of origin and "imported by" must appear on foreign wines. (p172c1)
What restrictions are imposed on grape growing and wine-making to qualify for naming an AVA as a wine's place of origin?
No growing or wine-making restrictions (p175c1). If an AVA appears on the label as the place of origin, 85% of the wine in the bottle must have been grown in that area (p175c2).
In the United States, for a wine labeled with an AVA as its place of origin, what is the maximum amount of an older vintage that can be blended with the current year's wine and still list a vintage date on the label?
What AVA produces the largest amount of grapes in Washington?
...doesn't say, but the Columbia Valley AVA is one of the largest in the country, covering 1/3 of the state. (p186)
What is the primary U.S. government agency with responsibility over the wine trade?
The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau aka TTB, p172c1.
For a wine that lists AVA as its place of origin, what is the minimum content that must be from that AVA?
Name the five large regional AVAs in California.
1) North Coast
2) Sierra Foothills
3) San Francisco Bay
4) Central Coast
5) South Coast (p178)
What restrictions are placed on a U.S. wine by the TTB in order to use the term reserve on the label?
Where is the Finger Lakes AVA?
Central New York (p188c1); responsible for 85% of New York's total wine production. NY is second or third in production to CA, Washington
Name the two counties in the Sierra Foothills AVA.
Amador, Calaveras, El Dorado, Placer, Nevada, Yuba, Tuolumne, and Mariposa counties (p184c1)
Name the southernmost AVA in Oregon.
Rouge Valley (map cross ref); binder lists Southern Oregon AVA, includes Rouge Valley AVA and Umpqua Valley AVA. (p186c2)
Name four AVAs in Sonoma County.
1. Sonoma Coast, 2. Los Carneros, 3. Sonoma Valley, 4. Sonoma Mountain, 5. Russian River Valley, 6. Green Valley of Russian River Valley, 7. Bennett Valley (newest), 8. Chalk Hill, 9. Alexander Valley, 10. Knights Valley, 11. Dry Creek Valley, 12. Rockpile, 13. Northern Sonoma, 13 AVAs, (p180-181)
What is semi-generic wine?
Terms that can be applied to any class or type of grape wine, e.g, Red, White, Chablis, Burgundy, Port, Champagne, Chianti, and Madeira (p172c2)
What cool-climate AVA stretches across southern Napa and Sonoma counties?
Los Carneros lies half in Napa County and half in Sonoma County. Carneros is the coolest part of Napa County. (p180c1)
If a single county is named as a wine's place of origin, what is the minimum content from that county?
What and when was Prohibition?
The 18th Amendment to the constitution to prohibit the sale and consumption of alcohol, passed in 1919 and enacted in 1920 til 1933. (p170c2)
What is the allowable variation from the stated alcohol content on a U.S. wine label?
1.5% for alcohol by volume 14% or less; 1% for wines with alcohol greater than 14%. (p174c1)
On a varietal labeled U.S. wine, what is the minimum content of that grape variety in the wine? One state has a higher standard: what is the state and what is the standard?
75%; 90% in Oregon (p173c2)
What AVA has the warmest climate within the Central Coast AVA?
Paso Robles, inland and Northern half of San Luis Obispo County protected from the Ocean by Mountains and too far upriver to be reached by fog. (p183c1)
What is the most widely planted red grape in Washington?
... doesn't say. Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah are given as examples of reds that do well here, Chardonnay, white, was mentioned has barely hanging on to the prize of being the most widely planted varietal. (p185)
What is the maximum concentration of sulfites a wine can have without requiring a sulfite statement on the label in the United States?
10ppm, nearly all wines; many yeast strains produce this much during fermentation alone., (p174c2)
What is the smallest amount of residual sugar that most people can recognize in a wine?
average 1%, range 0.5-2.5% (p192c1)
What are the two main six-carbon sugars that can be fermented into alcohol by yeast?
Glucose and fructose (p191c2) 6 carbon sugars are fermentable; 5 carbon sugars are not. Glucose ferments faster than Fructose, Fructose is 2x as sweet. There is always more Fructose in must as a result. Significant for White Zinfandel.
Which of the primary acids in wine is not present in any appreciable amount in grapes?
Lactic, succinic, and acetic acids. (p192c2)
What are the typical pH values for wine?
2.9 - 3.8, for grape juice and wine.
Higher acid = lower pH. Higher acid wines are longer lived. (p193c1)
Name the three types of alcohol found in wine.
Ethyl (10-15% wine),
Methanol (toxic) ,
Glycerol (sweet as glucose, 7-10% alcohol), and
Fusel oils (high alcohols, very toxic result from low nitrogen must. Hangover) (p193c1)
Alcohol = body,, legs, tears; less surface tension than water.
What are anthocyanins?
The principal pigments occurring in red wine. (p194c2) These are also found in flowers like petunias and delphinias.
In what way does pH affect the color of a red wine?
Anthocyanins will change form according to pH. Brighter red hue at low pH, high acid; blue/purple hue at a high pH. low acid; less stable, (p194c2). These are only found in red wine, not white, they have Flavones.
Which of the following are not phenolic compounds?
What chemical compounds are formed by the oxidation of alcohols in wines such as sherry?
Also? - Acetic acid results from oxidation of ethyl alcohol. It smells like vinegar. (p193c1)
What does the size of the bubbles in a sparkling wine indicate?
The smaller the bead, bubble, the higher the pedigree, (p198c1).
What is TCA?
Cork taint from mold reacts with bleaching agents, produces a wet cardboard smell in wine. Bacterial? (p199c2 / 200c1)
What do legs or tears on the inside of the glass after swirling a wine indicate?
The alcohol content (p198c1)
What is the probable source of hydrogen sulfide in a wine?
Nitrogen deficient must fermentation. Rotten egg smell comes from yeast breaking down amino acids to retrieve nitrogen needed to grow and multiply, (p200c2).
What is the best procedure for judging the color of a wine?
Tilt the glass over a white surface with natural lighting, view the edge of the wine for color and hue on the rim. Intense color is high extract and flavor; compare with other wines. (p198)
What are the two routes by which odors reach the olfactory epithelium?
Directly through the nostrils and indirectly through the mouth and rear nasal passages as wine is tasted, (p204c1).
What might the red color of a wine indicate?
Dark colors in red wines are
clues that indicate intense fruit aromas and high tannin levels. Overall
quality in red wines is correlated with total color and pigment
-- Inky purple => young
-- Brick red => mature
-- Ruby/orange => high-acid
-- Black/blue => low-acid (p202c2)
What is the purpose of swirling a wine in the glass while tasting?
To increase the wine's surface area so that the concentration of volatile molecules in the air above the wine will be higher, thus increasing the taster's ability to detect aromas and flavors (204c2).
What is the difference between detection threshold and recognition threshold?
Detection threshold is the smallest amount of stimulus necessary to trigger an unidentifiable sensation; and recognition threshold is the smallest amount of stimulus necessary to trigger an identifiable sensation. (p202c1)
What is the purpose of drawing air through the mouth while tasting a wine?
To increase the wine's surface area of warmed wine in one's mouth so that the concentration of volatile molecules, enabling more odor-saturated air to reach the olfactory epithelium through the back of the mouth and nasal cavities, (204c2).
Name two compounds found in wine that are powerful antioxidants.
Resveratrol and Quercetin (p207c2).
Wine has been found to increase high density lipoproteins HDL in the blood, which protect against the development of atherosclerosis and promote the production of cellular Nitric oxide, a compound which regulates blood vessel tone and blood pressure?
What phenolic compound gives wine an advantage over other alcoholic beverages such as beer and spirits in contributing to cancer prevention?
What is another name for the J-shaped mortality curve that describes the affects of alcohol consumption?
The French Paradox (p208)
Describe the characteristics of an ideal wine storage area.
Cool temperatures, moderately humid, constant temperature, no vibrations, no light, bottles stored on the side or at an angle to keep the cork moist and labels facing up to avoid scuffing, (p213.)
When setting a place at a dinner table, where should the wineglass or wineglasses be placed?
To the right of the water glass, above the knife on the right side of the place-setting, (p209c2).
What is the traditional order of service for a waiter pouring wine at a dinner table?
Moving counterclockwise, serve the female guests; moving clockwise serve the male guests, finish with the host, male or female, (p211c1). Wine is always poured from the customer's right.
Under what circumstances should a wine be decanted?
Young, robust reds
Complex wines with moderate age
Fully aged and mature wines
Wines with sediment (p212c2 -213)
Title of merit in Tuscany for wines that are produced by members of the private Capitolare, formerly Predicato, group; this use and group was to be disbanded in 1997.
An Italian sweet dessert wine made from grapes that have been dried, maybe on straw mats. straw wine
Reserve; wine which has been aged a longer, specified time, usually applies to DOC and DOCG.
In DOC or DOCG wines, indicates a higher level of alcohol, usually 1%, or aging and sometimes a special geographic origin
What are the 3 primary acids found in grapes?
Tartaric, Malic and Citric acid (p192c1). These are fixed acids that do not pass into wine spirits by remain in the residue. They are odorless.
In what way does pH affect the color of a white wine?
Flavones and flavonols are yellow pigments in white wine (and red. They will change form according to pH. High pH, low acid; less stable, will tend toward amber or brown, (p194c2 / 195c1).