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CMS - Certified Sommelier Exam / WSET Advanced flashcards |
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  • What is the formula of alcoholic fermentation?

    Sugar + Yeast = Alcohol + Carbon Dioxide
    (C6H12O6 -> 2C2H5OH + 2CO2)

    What are the three main acids naturally occurring in the grapes?

    Tartaric Acid,
    Malic Acid,
    and Citric Acid.

    What are the three main acids occurring as a result of fermentation?

    Succinic Acid, Acetic Acid, and Lactic Acid.

    What are the two main acids occurring in botrytised wines?

    Gluconic Acid, and Galacturonic Acid.

    Who discovered the effect of fermentation by yeast?

    Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac

    What is the French term for Sparkling Wine?

    Vin Mousseux, or Crémant

    What is the French term for effervescent, or lightly sparkling wine?

    Vin Pétillant

    What is the German term for
    Sparkling Wine?

    Schaumwein
    It is a blanket term encompassing all types of sparkling wine whether the gas naturally occurs as a result of fermentation or otherwise.

    What is the German term for effervescent, or lightly sparkling wine?

    Sekt (secondary fermentation must occur in the bottle), Perlwein (CO2 can be added.)

    What is the Italian term for
    Sparkling Wine?

    Vino Spumante

    What is the Italian term for effervescent, or lightly sparkling wine?

    Vino Frizzante

    What is the Spanish term for
    Sparkling Wine?

    Vino Espumosso

    What is the Spanish term for effervescent, or lightly sparkling wine?

    Vino de Aguja

    What is the method of sparkling wine making in which the secondary fermentation takes place in the bottle?

    Méthode Traditionelle, or
    Traditional Method in English
    ("Méthode Champenoise" is now outlawed in EU)

    What is the method of sparkling wine making in which the secondary fermentation and soutillage (racking) takes place in a large air-tight fermentation tank?

    Méthode Charmat, or Méthode de la Cuvée Close

    What is the method of sparkling wine making in which the wine that has gone through the secondary fermentation is transferred to the pressurized tank, then cooled, and racked before bottled?

    Méthode par Transversage, or
    Transfer Method in English

    What is the method of sparkling wine making in which the wine going through the fermentation is bottled and the remaining fermentation takes place in the bottle?

    Méthode Rurale, or Rural Method in English

    What are the two levels of EU wine classification according to the 1962 Treaty of Rome?

    Quality Wines Produced in Specified Regions (QWpsr) or Vin de Qualité Produits dans une Région Déterminé (VQPRD) and Table Wine (TW) or Vins de Table

    What are the three (or four) levels of wine classification in France?

    Appellation d'Origine Protégée (AOP) - Also known as AOC until 2012
    <Appellation d'Origine Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure (AOVDQS) - Abolished in 2012>
    Vin de Pays
    Vin de Table

    What are the four levels of wine classification in Germany?

    Prädikatswein
    Qualitätswein bestimmter Anbaugebiete (QbA)
    Landwein
    Tafelwein

    What are the four levels of wine classification in Italy?

    Denominazione di Origine Controlata e Garantita (DOCG)
    Denominazione di Origine Controlata (DOC)
    Vino da Tavola Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT)
    Vino da Tavola

    What are the seven levels of wine classification in Spain?

    Denominación de Origen Vino de Pago (VP)
    Denominación de Origen Calificada (DOC)
    Denominación de Origen (DO)
    Vino de Calidad con Indicación Geográfica (VCIG)
    Vinñedos de España
    Vino de la Tierra
    Vino de Mesa

    What are the four levels of wine classification in Portugal?

    Denominação de Origem Controlada (DOC)
    Indicação Proveniência Regulmentada (IPR)
    Vinho Regional
    Vinho de Mesa

    What are the four levels of wine classification in Austria?

    Prädikatswein
    Qualitätswein
    Landwein
    Tafelwein

    What are the four levels of wine classification in Greece?

    Onomasia Proelefsis Anoteras Piotitas (OPAP)
    Onomasia Proelefsis Elechomeni (OPE)
    Topikos Oinos
    Epitrapezios Oinos

    What is the specie of grapes that is generally used for making wine?

    Vitis Vinifera

    What is the specie of grapes that is regarded as table grapes and when made into wine impart a "foxy flavor" profile?

    Vitis Labrusca

    What is the specie of grapes that is generally used as a base vine for grafting vitis vinifera to avoid the harm of phylloxera?

    Vitis Rupestris, Vitis Riparia, and Vitis Berlandieri

    What is the ideal annual average temperature for growing vitis vinifera?

    10C° to 16C° (50F° to 61F°)

    What is the ideal latitude for growing vitis vinifera in Northern Hemisphere?

    30°-50° North

    What is the ideal latitude for growing vitis vinifera in Southern Hemisphere?

    20°-40° South

    What is the ideal annual sunlight hours for growing vitis vinifera?

    1300 to 1500 hours per year.

    What is the name of the disease in which the leaves are covered in white powdery residue?

    Oidium, or Powdery Mildew.
    It arrived in Europe around 1855-1856.

    What is the name of the disease in which the whole plant gets covered in white mold, and it causes leaves, flowers, and fruits to fall off?

    Mildiou, or Mildew.
    It was found in Europe around 1878-1880.

    What is the name of the disease in which the leaves, flower, and fruits are covered in grey mold? It also causes fruits to shribble and concentrate the flavour component resulting in sweet desert wine.

    Pourriture Grise, or Grey Rot.
    Caused by Botrytis Cinerea.

    What is the name of the tiny insects that suck out the sup of the vine especially the root that causes vines to die?

    Phylloxera

    What is the name of the wine making technique in which the skin is immersed in the juice prior to fermentation?

    Maceration, or Skin Contact

    What is the name of the wine making technique in which the juice is put in a holding tank at below -7C° (19F°) to concentrate the sugar and flavour component?

    Crio-Extraction

    What is the name of the wine making technique in which the wine is deliberately not racked after the fermentation is complete, and aged with the sediment to extract more flavour?

    Sur Lie

    What is the name of the wine making technique in which the red grape is fermented with skin intact, but pressed mid-fermentation to extract lighter coloured juice, then continued the fermentation with the juice alone?

    Saignée

    Define Malolactic Fermentation.

    Fermentation that converts harsher Malic Acid into milder Lactic Acid.

    What are the synonyms of Cabernet Franc?

    Breton (Loire)
    Bouchet (Bordeaux)

    What are the synonyms of Carignan?

    Cariñena (Spain)
    Mazuelo (Rioja)

    What are the synonyms of Cinsaut?

    Hermitage (South Africa)

    What are the synonyms of Malbec?

    Côt (France)
    Auxerrois (Cahors)

    What are the synonyms of Mouvèdre?

    Monastrell (Spain)
    Mataro (Australia, US)

    What are the synonyms of Nebbiolo?

    Spanna (Ghemme)
    Chiavennasca (Valttelina)

    What are the synonyms of
    Pinot Menier?

    Schwarzriesling (Germany)
    Müllerrebe (Germany)

    What are the synonyms of Pinot Noir?

    Spätburgunder (Germany)
    Blauburgunder (Germany)
    Gros Noirien (Jura)

    What are the synonyms of Sangiovese Piccolo (not Sangiovese Grosso)?

    Nielluccio (Corsica)

    What are the synonyms of
    Sangiovese Grosso?

    Brunello (Brunello di Montalcino), Prugnolo Gentile (Vino Nobile di Montepulciano)

    What are the synonyms of Syrah?

    Sérine (Rhône)
    Shiraz (Australia, South Africa, US)

    What are the synonyms of Temperanillo?

    Ull de Llebre (Cataluña)
    Ojo de Lliebre (Cataluña)
    Cencibel (La Mancha)
    Tinto Fino (Castilla Léon)
    Tinto del Pais (Castilla Léon)
    Tinta de Toro (Spain)
    Tinto de Madrid (Madrid)
    Tinta Roriz (Portugal)
    Aragonez (Portugal)

    What are the synonyms of Zinfandel?

    Primitivo (Italy)

    What are the synonyms of Arbois?

    Menu Pineau

    What are the synonyms of Chardonnay?

    Melon d'Arbois (Jura)
    Beaunois (Burgundy)

    What are the synonyms of Chasselas?

    Gutedel (Alsace, Germany)

    What are the synonyms of
    Chenin Blanc?

    Pineau de la Loire (Loire)
    Steen (South Africa)

    What are the synonyms of
    Folle Blanche?

    Gros Plant (Loire, Cognac, Armangac)

    What are the synonyms of Furmint?

    Sipon (Slovenia)

    What are the synonyms of Maccabeu?

    Macabeu (France)
    Macabeo (Spain)
    Viura (Rioja)

    What are the synonyms of
    Müller-Thurgau?

    Rivaner (Luxembourg, Slovenia)

    What are the synonyms of Muscadet?

    Melon de Bourgogne (Loire)

    What are the synonyms of Pinot Blanc?

    Klevner (Alsace)
    Weissburgunder (Germany)
    Pinot Bianco (Italy)

    What are the synonyms of Pinot Gris?

    Ruländer (Germany)
    Pinot Grigio (Italy)
    Szürkebarát (Hungary)
    Grauburgunder (Germany)

    What are the synonyms of Riesling?

    Weisser Riesling (Germany)
    White Riesling (US)
    Johannisberg Riesling (US)
    Rheinriesling (Germany)

    What are the synonyms of Rousette?

    Altesse (Jura)

    What are the synonyms of
    Sauvignon Blanc?

    Blanc Fumé (Loire)
    Fumé Blanc (US)

    What are the synonyms of Savagnin?

    Naturé (Jura)

    What are the synonyms of Ugni Blanc?

    Saint-Emillion (Cognac, Amagnac)

    What are the synonyms of Vermentino?

    Rolle (Provence)

    What are the five classification of Sake and how much surface weight (in percentage) need to be polished off to qualify them?

    Junmai Daiginjo (50%)
    Daiginjo (40%)
    Junmai Ginjo (40%)
    Ginjo (40%)
    Honjozo (30%)

    What is the name of the yeast used for sake production?

    Koji

    What is the main ingredients of
    Iki-Shochu?

    Wheat

    What is the main ingredients of
    Kuma-Shochu?

    Rice

    What is the main ingredients of Awamori?

    Rice-Koji

    What is the main ingredients of Satsuma-Shochu?

    Sweet Potato

    What primary ingredient is added to the beer for flavouring?

    Hop

    What is the name for the pre-fermentation sugar rich soup that is used to make beer?

    Wort

    What is the name of the style of ale that are produced in eight authorized Belgian monasteries?

    Trappist

    What are the names of Scotch producing regions?

    Lowland
    Speyside
    Highland
    Islay
    Campbeltown
    The Islands (Arran, Jura, Mull, Orkney and Skye)

    What are the two most common types of Scotch?

    Single Malt Whisky
    Blended Whisky

    What is the single most important factor that differentiates Scotch whisky from other types of whisky?

    Peat is used for fire to dry malted barley, resulting in smoky flavour often referred to as "peatiness".

    How is Scotch whisky usually distilled?

    Twice in Pot Still

    How is Irish whisky usually distilled?

    Three times in Pot Still

    How long does an Irish whisky have to be aged in wood before released?

    Three years

    What are the main ingredients of Bourbon and what is the legal requirement to qualify for being called a Bourbon?

    At least 51% of ingredients has to be corn, and aged in new charred American oak barrel.

    What are the six (or seven)
    sub-appellations of Cognac AOP?

    Grand Champagne
    Petit Champagne
    (Fine Champagne)
    Borderies
    Fins Bois
    Bons Bois
    Bois Ordinaire

    What is the condition in which
    "Fine Champagne"
    is allowed on the label?

    At least 51% of the blend comes from Grand Champagne AOP and the rest comes from Petit Champagne AOP.

    How is Cognac distilled
    and how is it aged?

    Twice in Pot Still, in 300L Barrique.

    What are the three sub-appellations of Armagnac AOP?

    Bas-Armagnac AOP
    Armagnac Ténarèze AOP
    Haut-Armagnac AOP

    How is Armagnac distilled
    and how is it aged?

    Either once in Continuous Still or twice in Pot Still, in 400L Pièce.

    What is the general terminology for brandy made out of fruits such as cherries, raspberries, and plums?

    Eau-de-Vie

    What are the famous AOPs in Normandie that produces apple brandy?

    Calvados du Pays d'Auge AOP
    Calvados Domfrontais AOP
    Calvados AOP

    What are the famous AOPs in Bretagne and in Normadie that produce apple cider?

    Cornouaille AOP
    Pays d'Auge AOP

    What is the base of Gin and how is it seasoned?

    Grain spirits. Juniper berries and other botanical.

    What are the common ingredients of Vodka?

    Potatoes, wheat, and oats.

    What is the main ingredient of Tequilla?

    Blue Agave

    In order to qualify for "Añejo" deisgnation, how long does Tequila have to be aged in the barrel?

    One Year

    What is the main ingredient of Rum?

    Sugar Cane

    How is Campari seasoned?

    With the peel of bitter orange.

    What is the base of Dranbuie and what is it seasoned with?

    Scotch whisky. Honey and various herbs.

    What is Amaretto flavoured with?

    Stone of apricot
    (for the flavour of almond).

    What is Frangelico flavoured with?

    Hazelnut

    What are two process regulated by AOC, but not regulated by AOVDQS? - Prior to 2012 reform.

    Pruning and Ageing Methods

    When was AOC law enacted?

    1935

    What is the most planted red varietal in France?

    Merlot

    What is the second most planted red varietal in France?

    Grenache

    What is the most planted white varietal in France?

    Ugni Blanc
    (a.k.a. Saint-Emilion in Cognac and in Armagnac)

    What is the second most planted white varietal in France?

    Chadonnay

    Name three rivers that flow through Bordeaux region from North to South.

    Dordogne
    Garonne
    Ciron

    What is the river mouth estuary in which three great rivers of Bordeaux converge near the vineyards of Graves and flows by Médoc towards the Atlantic?

    Gironde

    Name all six commues of Médoc from North to South

    Saint-Estèphe
    Pauillac
    Saint-Julien
    Listrac-Médoc
    Moulis
    Margaux

    Name two Saint-Émilion Satelite AOPs

    Lussac-Saint-Émilion AOP
    Montagne-Saint-Émilion AOP
    Puisseguin-Saint-Émilion AOP
    Saint-Georges-Saint-Émilion AOP

    Name three AOPs in Graves permitted to produce botrytised wines.

    Cérons AOP
    Barsac AOP
    Sauternes AOP

    Name all six red varietals and three white varietals permitted to grow in Bordeaux.

    Cabernet Sauvignon
    Cabernet Franc
    Merlot
    Malbec
    Petit Verdot
    Carmenère
    Sémillon
    Sauvignon Blanc
    Muscadelle

    Is Bordeaux AOP permitted to produce white wine?

    No

    What is the dominant varietal of left bank Bordeaux?

    Cabernet Sauvignon

    What is the dominant varietal of Sauternes AOP?

    Sémillon

    Name three AOP from Libournais besides Saint-Émilion AOP, Saint-Émilion Grand Cru AOP, and Saint-Émilion Satélites.

    Pomerol AOP
    Lalande-de-Pomerol AOP
    Néac AOP
    Fronsac AOP
    Canon-Fronsac AOP
    Côtes de Castillon AOP
    Bordeaux Côtes de Francs AOP

    What are the dominant varietal in wines produced in Libournais?

    Merlot (except for Ch. Cheval Blanc, in which the dominant varietal is Cabernet Franc; and for Ch. Figeac in which the dominant varietal is Cabernet Sauvignon)

    Name three appellations in
    Entre-Deux-Mers district that are allowed to produce botrytised wine.

    Cadillac AOP
    Loupillac AOP
    Saint-Croix-du-Mont AOP

    What is the soil type in Pomerol?

    Gravel, sand, and clay.

    What is the soil type in Saint-Émilion?

    Limestone, gravel, and clay.

    What are the five châteaux of Première Grand Cru Classé of Médoc and in which commune are they located?

    Ch. Lafite Rothschild (Pauillac)
    Ch. Latour (Pauillac)
    Ch. Mouton-Rothschild (Pauillac)
    Ch. Margaux (Margaux)
    Ch. Haut-Brion (Péssac-Léognan) -*Not in Médoc but in Graves.

    In which year, which château was upgraded from which growth to which growth?

    In 1973, Ch. Mouton-Rothschild was upgraded from Second Growth to First Growth.

    In which year, who ordered to classify the growth of wines from Médoc according to what?

    1855, Napoléon Bonaparte ordered to classify the growth of wines from Médoc based on the then-current price list from majour négociants around the city of Bordeaux.

    What is the only third growth from Saint-Estèphe?

    Ch. Calon-Ségur

    In which class and what commune is Ch. Palmer classified?

    3rd, Margaux

    Name two 2nd growth from Pauillac.

    Ch. Pichon-Longueville Baron
    Ch. Pichon-Longueville Comtesse de Lalande

    In which class and what commune is Ch. Cos d'Estournel classified?

    2nd, Saint-Estèphe

    In which class and what commune is Ch. Talbot classified?

    4th, St-Julien

    In which class and what commune is Ch. Clerc-Milon classified?

    5th, Pauillac

    In which class and what commune is Ch. Lynch-Bages classified?

    5th, Pauillac

    In which class and what commune is Ch. Léoville-Barton classified?

    2nd, Saint-Julien

    In which class and what commune is Ch. Branaire-Ducru classified?

    4th, Saint-Julien

    Name one château from 5th growth in Haut-Médoc.

    Ch. Belgrave
    Ch. Camensac
    Ch. Cantemerle

    Name five châteaux from 3rd growth in Margaux.

    Ch. Ferrière
    Ch. Malescot Saint-Exupéry
    Ch. Marquis d'Alesme-Becker
    Ch. Boyd-Cantenac
    Ch. Cantenac-Brown
    Ch. Desmitail
    Ch. d'Issan
    Ch. Kirwan
    Ch. Palmer

    Name the only 4th growth from Pauillac.

    Ch. Duhart-Milon Rothschild

    How many total classified growth
    are there in Médoc?

    61

    Which commune has the largest number of classified growth in Médoc?

    Margaux (21)

    What is the only
    Premier Cru Supérieur
    in Sauternes?

    Ch. d'Yquem

    Name three Premières Crus of Sauternes and its commune.

    Ch. Climens (Sauternes)
    Ch. Coutet (Barsac)
    Ch. Guiraud (Barsac)
    Ch. Rieussec (Sauternes)
    Ch. Suduiraut (Fargues)
    Ch. La Tour Blanche (Perignac)
    Ch. Rabaud-Promis (Bommes)
    Ch. Sigalas Rabaud (Bommes)
    Ch. Rayne-Vigneau (Bommes)
    Ch. Clos Haut-Peyraguey (Bommes)
    Ch. Lafaurie-Peyraguay (Bommes)

    Name one châteaux from classed growth in Graves that are only classified for their white wines.

    Ch. Laville-Haut-Brion
    Ch. Couhins
    Ch. Couhins-Lurton

    Name two Saint-Emilion Premier Grand Cru Classé Chateaux A.

    Ch. Ausone
    Ch. Cheval Blanc
    Ch. Angélus (Upgraded in 2012)
    Ch. Pavie (Upgraded in 2012)

    Name at least three chateaux from Saint-Emilion Premier Grand Cru Classé Chateaux B.

    Ch. Belair
    Ch. Figeac
    Ch. Beau-Séjour-Bécot
    Ch. Canon
    etc...

    Name at least three châteaux from Pomerol AOP

    Ch. Pétrus
    Ch. l'Evangile
    Ch. Lafleur
    Ch. Le Pin
    Ch. La Conseillante
    Ch. Gazin
    etc...

    Name all seven (or eight) Grand Cru Vineyards of Chablis from North-West to South-East.

    Bourgros
    Les Presuses
    Vaudésir
    Grounouilles
    Valmur
    Les Clos
    Blanchots
    La Moutone is also permitted on the label but not recognized by INAO as a Grand Cru vineyard.

    Name the only AOP in Burgundy that is permitted to produce wine from Sauvignon Blanc. Upgraded to AOC in 2003.

    Saint-Bris AOP
    Similar soil type to Chablis region: alluvial and Kimméridgien, thus producing steely, and minerally Sauvignon Blanc with flavors of sour green apples.

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