What is the formula of alcoholic fermentation?
Sugar + Yeast = Alcohol + Carbon Dioxide
(C6H12O6 -> 2C2H5OH + 2CO2)
What are the three main acids naturally occurring in the grapes?
and Citric Acid.
What are the three main acids occurring as a result of fermentation?
Succinic Acid, Acetic Acid, and Lactic Acid.
What is the German term for
It is a blanket term encompassing all types of sparkling wine whether the gas naturally occurs as a result of fermentation or otherwise.
What is the German term for effervescent, or lightly sparkling wine?
Sekt (secondary fermentation must occur in the bottle), Perlwein (CO2 can be added.)
What is the method of sparkling wine making in which the secondary fermentation takes place in the bottle?
Méthode Traditionelle, or
Traditional Method in English
("Méthode Champenoise" is now outlawed in EU)
What is the method of sparkling wine making in which the secondary fermentation and soutillage (racking) takes place in a large air-tight fermentation tank?
Méthode Charmat, or Méthode de la Cuvée Close
What is the method of sparkling wine making in which the wine that has gone through the secondary fermentation is transferred to the pressurized tank, then cooled, and racked before bottled?
Méthode par Transversage, or
Transfer Method in English
What is the method of sparkling wine making in which the wine going through the fermentation is bottled and the remaining fermentation takes place in the bottle?
Méthode Rurale, or Rural Method in English
What are the two levels of EU wine classification according to the 1962 Treaty of Rome?
Quality Wines Produced in Specified Regions (QWpsr) or Vin de Qualité Produits dans une Région Déterminé (VQPRD) and Table Wine (TW) or Vins de Table
What are the three (or four) levels of wine classification in France?
Appellation d'Origine Protégée (AOP) - Also known as AOC until 2012
<Appellation d'Origine Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure (AOVDQS) - Abolished in 2012>
Vin de Pays
Vin de Table
What are the four levels of wine classification in Germany?
Qualitätswein bestimmter Anbaugebiete (QbA)
What are the four levels of wine classification in Italy?
Denominazione di Origine Controlata e Garantita (DOCG)
Denominazione di Origine Controlata (DOC)
Vino da Tavola Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT)
Vino da Tavola
What are the seven levels of wine classification in Spain?
Denominación de Origen Vino de Pago (VP)
Denominación de Origen Calificada (DOC)
Denominación de Origen (DO)
Vino de Calidad con Indicación Geográfica (VCIG)
Vinñedos de España
Vino de la Tierra
Vino de Mesa
What are the four levels of wine classification in Portugal?
Denominação de Origem Controlada (DOC)
Indicação Proveniência Regulmentada (IPR)
Vinho de Mesa
What are the four levels of wine classification in Austria?
What are the four levels of wine classification in Greece?
Onomasia Proelefsis Anoteras Piotitas (OPAP)
Onomasia Proelefsis Elechomeni (OPE)
What is the specie of grapes that is regarded as table grapes and when made into wine impart a "foxy flavor" profile?
What is the specie of grapes that is generally used as a base vine for grafting vitis vinifera to avoid the harm of phylloxera?
Vitis Rupestris, Vitis Riparia, and Vitis Berlandieri
What is the ideal annual average temperature for growing vitis vinifera?
10C° to 16C° (50F° to 61F°)
What is the name of the disease in which the leaves are covered in white powdery residue?
Oidium, or Powdery Mildew.
It arrived in Europe around 1855-1856.
What is the name of the disease in which the whole plant gets covered in white mold, and it causes leaves, flowers, and fruits to fall off?
Mildiou, or Mildew.
It was found in Europe around 1878-1880.
What is the name of the disease in which the leaves, flower, and fruits are covered in grey mold? It also causes fruits to shribble and concentrate the flavour component resulting in sweet desert wine.
Pourriture Grise, or Grey Rot.
Caused by Botrytis Cinerea.
What is the name of the tiny insects that suck out the sup of the vine especially the root that causes vines to die?
What is the name of the wine making technique in which the skin is immersed in the juice prior to fermentation?
Maceration, or Skin Contact
What is the name of the wine making technique in which the juice is put in a holding tank at below -7C° (19F°) to concentrate the sugar and flavour component?
What is the name of the wine making technique in which the wine is deliberately not racked after the fermentation is complete, and aged with the sediment to extract more flavour?
What is the name of the wine making technique in which the red grape is fermented with skin intact, but pressed mid-fermentation to extract lighter coloured juice, then continued the fermentation with the juice alone?
Define Malolactic Fermentation.
Fermentation that converts harsher Malic Acid into milder Lactic Acid.
What are the synonyms of Pinot Noir?
Gros Noirien (Jura)
What are the synonyms of
Brunello (Brunello di Montalcino), Prugnolo Gentile (Vino Nobile di Montepulciano)
What are the synonyms of Temperanillo?
Ull de Llebre (Cataluña)
Ojo de Lliebre (Cataluña)
Cencibel (La Mancha)
Tinto Fino (Castilla Léon)
Tinto del Pais (Castilla Léon)
Tinta de Toro (Spain)
Tinto de Madrid (Madrid)
Tinta Roriz (Portugal)
What are the synonyms of Pinot Blanc?
Pinot Bianco (Italy)
What are the synonyms of Pinot Gris?
Pinot Grigio (Italy)
What are the synonyms of Riesling?
Weisser Riesling (Germany)
White Riesling (US)
Johannisberg Riesling (US)
What are the five classification of Sake and how much surface weight (in percentage) need to be polished off to qualify them?
Junmai Daiginjo (50%)
Junmai Ginjo (40%)
What is the name of the style of ale that are produced in eight authorized Belgian monasteries?
What are the names of Scotch producing regions?
The Islands (Arran, Jura, Mull, Orkney and Skye)
What is the single most important factor that differentiates Scotch whisky from other types of whisky?
Peat is used for fire to dry malted barley, resulting in smoky flavour often referred to as "peatiness".
What are the main ingredients of Bourbon and what is the legal requirement to qualify for being called a Bourbon?
At least 51% of ingredients has to be corn, and aged in new charred American oak barrel.
What are the six (or seven)
sub-appellations of Cognac AOP?
What is the condition in which
is allowed on the label?
At least 51% of the blend comes from Grand Champagne AOP and the rest comes from Petit Champagne AOP.
What are the three sub-appellations of Armagnac AOP?
Armagnac Ténarèze AOP
How is Armagnac distilled
and how is it aged?
Either once in Continuous Still or twice in Pot Still, in 400L Pièce.
What is the general terminology for brandy made out of fruits such as cherries, raspberries, and plums?
What are the famous AOPs in Normandie that produces apple brandy?
Calvados du Pays d'Auge AOP
Calvados Domfrontais AOP
What are the famous AOPs in Bretagne and in Normadie that produce apple cider?
Pays d'Auge AOP
In order to qualify for "Añejo" deisgnation, how long does Tequila have to be aged in the barrel?
What are two process regulated by AOC, but not regulated by AOVDQS? - Prior to 2012 reform.
Pruning and Ageing Methods
What is the most planted white varietal in France?
(a.k.a. Saint-Emilion in Cognac and in Armagnac)
What is the river mouth estuary in which three great rivers of Bordeaux converge near the vineyards of Graves and flows by Médoc towards the Atlantic?
Name all six commues of Médoc from North to South
Name two Saint-Émilion Satelite AOPs
Name three AOPs in Graves permitted to produce botrytised wines.
Name all six red varietals and three white varietals permitted to grow in Bordeaux.
Name three AOP from Libournais besides Saint-Émilion AOP, Saint-Émilion Grand Cru AOP, and Saint-Émilion Satélites.
Côtes de Castillon AOP
Bordeaux Côtes de Francs AOP
What are the dominant varietal in wines produced in Libournais?
Merlot (except for Ch. Cheval Blanc, in which the dominant varietal is Cabernet Franc; and for Ch. Figeac in which the dominant varietal is Cabernet Sauvignon)
Name three appellations in
Entre-Deux-Mers district that are allowed to produce botrytised wine.
What are the five châteaux of Première Grand Cru Classé of Médoc and in which commune are they located?
Ch. Lafite Rothschild (Pauillac)
Ch. Latour (Pauillac)
Ch. Mouton-Rothschild (Pauillac)
Ch. Margaux (Margaux)
Ch. Haut-Brion (Péssac-Léognan) -*Not in Médoc but in Graves.
In which year, which château was upgraded from which growth to which growth?
In 1973, Ch. Mouton-Rothschild was upgraded from Second Growth to First Growth.
In which year, who ordered to classify the growth of wines from Médoc according to what?
1855, Napoléon Bonaparte ordered to classify the growth of wines from Médoc based on the then-current price list from majour négociants around the city of Bordeaux.
Name two 2nd growth from Pauillac.
Ch. Pichon-Longueville Baron
Ch. Pichon-Longueville Comtesse de Lalande
Name five châteaux from 3rd growth in Margaux.
Ch. Malescot Saint-Exupéry
Ch. Marquis d'Alesme-Becker
Name three Premières Crus of Sauternes and its commune.
Ch. Climens (Sauternes)
Ch. Coutet (Barsac)
Ch. Guiraud (Barsac)
Ch. Rieussec (Sauternes)
Ch. Suduiraut (Fargues)
Ch. La Tour Blanche (Perignac)
Ch. Rabaud-Promis (Bommes)
Ch. Sigalas Rabaud (Bommes)
Ch. Rayne-Vigneau (Bommes)
Ch. Clos Haut-Peyraguey (Bommes)
Ch. Lafaurie-Peyraguay (Bommes)
Name one châteaux from classed growth in Graves that are only classified for their white wines.
Name two Saint-Emilion Premier Grand Cru Classé Chateaux A.
Ch. Cheval Blanc
Ch. Angélus (Upgraded in 2012)
Ch. Pavie (Upgraded in 2012)
Name at least three chateaux from Saint-Emilion Premier Grand Cru Classé Chateaux B.
Name at least three châteaux from Pomerol AOP
Ch. Le Pin
Ch. La Conseillante
Name all seven (or eight) Grand Cru Vineyards of Chablis from North-West to South-East.
La Moutone is also permitted on the label but not recognized by INAO as a Grand Cru vineyard.
Name the only AOP in Burgundy that is permitted to produce wine from Sauvignon Blanc. Upgraded to AOC in 2003.
Similar soil type to Chablis region: alluvial and Kimméridgien, thus producing steely, and minerally Sauvignon Blanc with flavors of sour green apples.
Name all six sub regions of Burgundy. Also name four less important regions that are designated their own AOPs.
Côte de Nuits
Côte de Beaune
(Bourgogne Tonnerre AOP)
(Coteaux du Lyonnais AOP)
(Côte Roannaise AOP)
(Côte du Forez AOP)
Name two Grand Crus monopoles in the village of Vosne-Romanée that do not belong to
Domaine de la Romanée-Conti and who do they belong to?
La Grande Rue - Domaine François Lamarche
La Romanée - Domaine du Château de Vosne-Romanée (a.k.a. Domaine du Comte Liger-Belair)
Name all ten Crus of Beaujolais
Côte de Brouilly
What is the main soil composition of Chablis from Jurassic Period?
Kimméridgien - Layers of fossilised oyster shells.
Which villages in Côte de Nuits do they lack Grand Cru vineyards?
Which Grand Cru vineyards from Gevrey-Chambertin are they allowed to interchange their names?
Charmes-Chambertin AOP and Mazoyères-Chambertin AOP
What are the five smallest AOPs in France?
No1, La Romanée AOP 0.8ha (Monopole of Domaine du Château de Vosne-Romanée a.k.a. Domaine du Comte Liger-Belair)
No2, Criots-Bâtard-Montrachet AOP 1.57ha
No3, La Grande-Rue AOP 1.7ha (Monopole of Domaine François Lamarche)
No4, Romanée-Conti AOP 1.8ha (Monopole of Domaine de la Romanée-Conti)
No5, Château-Grillet 3.4ha AOP (Monopole of Château Grillet)
Name three Grand Cru vineyards from the village of Gevrey-Chambertin.
Chambertin-Clos de Bèze AOP (May also be labeled as Chambertin AOP)
Charmes-Chambertin AOP (May also be labeled as Mzoyères-Chambertin AOP)
Mzoyères-Chambertin AOP (May also be labeled as Charmes-Chambertin AOP)
Name two Grand Cru vineyards from Morey-Saint-Denis.
Clos de la Roche AOP
Clos des Lambrays AOP
Clos de Tart AOP
Name all Grand Cru Vineyards from Vosne-Romanée.
La Grande Rue AOP
La Romanée AOP
La Tâche AOP
Name two Grand Cru vineyards shared by Pernand-Vergelesses, Aloxe-Corton, and Ladoix.
Name three Grand Cru vineyards shared by Pernand-Vergelesses and Aloxe-Corton.
Name three villages in Côte de Beaune which are only permitted to produce red wine.
Name the only Grand Cru vineyard in Côte de Beaune which is permitted to produce red wine.
Corton AOP (including all 32 climats)
Name three climats from Corton AOP
Le Clos du Roi
La Tappe au Vert
Île des Vergelesses
Name two Premier Cru vineyards from Vosne-Romanée.
Les Beaux Monts
Clos des Réas
Name three Premier Cru Vineyrards from Meursault.
Les Gouttes d'Or
Les Santenots Blancs
Which village AOP from
Côte Chalonaise is only permitted to produce white wine from Chardonnay?
Which village from Côte Chalonaise that produces simple, acidic white wine made from lesser known white grape varietal very often used for Kir, and what is the name of the varietal?
Which AOP of Mâconais are permitted to produce white, red, and rosé wine?
Mâcon+Commune (eg. Mâcon-Solutré AOP, Mâcon-Vinzelles AOP, Mâcon-Loché AOP)
Which AOP from Mâconnais are permitted to produce white wine only?
Which regional AOP of Burgundy is known for their blend of Pinot Noir, Gamay, and other varieals?
Bourgogne Passe-Tout-Grains AOP
What grapes other than Pinot Noir and Gamay are permitted in
Bourgogne Passe-Tout-Grains AOP?
What is the maximum allowable percentage of each varietals?
What is the minimum percentage of Pinot Noir and Gamay in Bourgogne Passe-Tout-Grains AOP?
30% Pinot Noir
Name all monopoles owned by Domaine de la Romanée-Conti in Vosne-Romanée.
La Tâche AOP
Only 6 bottles of Romanée-Conti in Magnum was produced in 1945.
True or False?
False. No large format of Romanée-Conti was produced in 1945.
If 2/3 of the guests have
finished the appetizer and one of the guests with the empty plate has
finished a glass of wine. What is your action?
1), Automatically pour the same wine to the glass.
2), Offer to pour more of the same wine.
3), Collect the empty glass.
4), Wait for the next course to be served, then offer another type of wine to the host.
2), In the interest of service excellence.
When opening a sparkling wine bottle, the cage must be removed before twisting the bottle/cork. True or false?
False. The wire must be thoroughly loosen but the cage must not be removed when opening.
When serving Alsace Grand Cru AOP wine, it is necessary to name the varietal when presenting the bottle. True or False?
True (unless it is Gentil from Altenberg de Bergheim or from Kaefferpopf)
Majority of wines from Alsace are varietal instead of blends (except for Edelzwicker, Gentil or Crémant) and each AOP does not automatically denote the varietal so it is necessary to intrduce the varietal when presenting the bottle to the customer.
When serving Vintage Port, it is necessary to decant. True or False?
Vintage Port is bottled without filtration, thus comes with a large amount of sediment. It is thus important to decant it prior to serving.
What is the name of grape brandy AOP from Burgundy that is made from fermenting the pips and skins?
Marc de Bourgogne AOP
Name all three sub-regions of Champagne AOP that have Cru 100% (Grand Cru) villages.
Montagnes de Reims
Vallée de la Marne
Côte des Blancs
Name two sub-regions of Champagne AOP that don't have
Cru 100% (Grand Cru) villages.
Côte de Sézanne
Côte des Bars
What is the terminology of white to light salmon pink sparkling wine made exclusively from red grapes?
Blanc de Noirs
What is the terminology of sparkling wine made exclusively from white grapes? (100% Chardonnay in Champagne AOP)
Blanc de Blancs
What is the name of the famous Benedictine monk credited for improving the quality of then-still wine of the Champagne Region?
How did the Champagne wine come to be associated with celebration?
Because the Cathedral of Reims was a venue for coronation of the King of France and the still wine of Champagne region was served at the banquet.
What is the name of the AOP from Champagne region that produces the red, white, and rosé still wine made from the three champagne varietals?
Coteaux Champnois AOP
What is the name of the AOP from Champagne region that produces the rosé still wine made exclusively from Pinot Noir?
Rosé des Riceys AOP
Name three Cru 100% (Grand Cru) Villages from Montagne de Reims.
Name two Cru 100% (Grand Cru) Villages from Côte des Blancs.
What does "La Cuvée"
(a.k.a. Tête de Cuvée) in
Champagne AOP consist of?
2,050L of juice from 4,000kg of grapes.
What is "Première Taille" in
Additional 500L of juice from 4000kg of grapes after La Cuvée is extracted.
What is the bottle aging requirement for Non Millésimé (non-vintage) champagne?
15 months after Tirage.
What is Liquer de Tirage?
A mixture of sweet reserve wine and yeast added to the bottle to start the secondary fermentation in the bottle.
What is Remuage?
Turning of bottles to bring the yeast sediment to the neck of the bottles.
It is also called Riddling in English.
What is Dégorgement
(Disgorgement in English)?
Process of removing the sediment from the neck of the bottle by freezing at very low temperature.
What is Liqueur d'Expedition?
A liquid consisting of base wine and sucrose (sugar) used for dosage. It can sometimes include flavouring and preservatives that are trade secret.
Name two terminology allowed for Champagne that did not receive any sugar in dosage?
Brut de Brut
What is the range of residual sugar content that is allowed to use the terminology Brut?
0g/L to 15g/L.
What is the range of residual sugar content that is allowed to use the terminology Demi Sec?
33g/L to 50g/L.
What does N.M. on Champagne seal stand for and what does it mean?
Négociant-Manipulant - It is used to identify that the wine comes from a large négociant that mainly purchases grapes from the growers to make their wine. Majority of Champagne productions including most major Maison fall into this category.
What does R.M. on Champagne seal stand for and what does it mean?
Récoltant-Manipulant - It is used to identify that the the winery grew their own grapes to make wine. Most small producers fall into this category.
What is the name of the AOP in
Burgundy which produces sparkling red wine from Pinot Noir, Chardonnay,
Gamay, and other minor varietals?
Note: It is not Crément de Bourgogne
Bourgogne Mousseux AOP
La Romanée AOP is a monopole of which domaine?
Domaine du Château de Vosne-Romanée a.k.a. Domaine du Comte Liger-Belair
Who regulates and enforces the AOC (prior to 2012) or AOP (after 2012) law?
Institut National des Appellations d'Origine (prior to 1 January 2007) - INAO
Institut National de l'Origine et de la Qualité (Still called INAO despite the new name's acronym being INOQ)
What are the two biggest changes took place in the wine classification law reform of 2006?
1), Renaming of Appellation d'Origine Controlée (AOC) to Appellation d'Origine Protégée (AOP)
2), Abolishment of Appellation d'Origine de Vin de Qualité Supérieur (AOVDQS)
When did the French wine legislation reform start and when did the new regulation come into effect?
It started in 2006 and came into effect in 2012.
Name three Premier Cru vineyards from Chassagne-Montrachet.
Les Grandes Ruchottes
Les Champs Gain
Abbaye de Morgeot
La Grande Montagne
Bois de Chassagne
Name two Premier Cru vineyards from Puligny-Montrachet.
Clavillon (or Clavoillon)
Name three Premier Cru vineyards from Nuits-Saint-Georges.
Rue de Chaux
Clos de la Maréchale
Clos des Argillières
Clos des Grandes Vignes
Name two Premier Cru vineyards from Chambolle-Musigny.
Name two Premier Cru vineyards from Gevrey-Chambertin.
Clos des Varoilles
Clos du Chapître
Which village in Côte d'Or does it have a Grand Cru vineyard but lacks Premier Cru Vineyard?
Name two Premier Cru climats from Chablis.
Mont de Milleu
Montée de Tonnerre
Côte de Léchet
What are the dominant white varietals in Centre Nivernais?
Sauvignon Blanc a.k.a. Blanc Fumé
What is the name of the AOPs enclaved in Anjou AOP known for their botrytised Chenin Blanc and what are the two communal AOPs that are known to produce some of the best examples of the botrytised Chenin Blanc in the world?
Coteaux du Layon AOP - Regional Appellation
Quarts de Chaume AOP and Bonnezeau AOP - Communal Appellation
What is the name of the AOP enclaved in Savennières AOP that is a monopole of Nicholas Joly?
What is the name of the twin enclaves in Savennières AOP that is not
What are the grapes permitted for producing Coteaux de Saumur AOP and in which style?
Chenin Blanc, Dessert Wine
What grapes are permitted for producing rosé from Crémant de Loire AOP?
What grapes are permitted for producing rosé from Touraine AOP?
Chinon AOP is permitted to produce white wine. True or False?
True. Production of rosé is also permitted.
What is the name of the AOP on the right bank in Centre Nivernais district that produces the world-renowned flinty white wine from Sauvignon Blanc?
Pouilly Fumé AOP a.k.a.
Blanc Fumé de Pouilly AOP
What is the name of the AOP situated on the left bank directly across from
Name one AOPs in Centre Nivernais district that are permitted to produces still rosé wine exclusively from
Which one of the following AOP is not permitted to produce wine from Chenin Blanc?
1), Jasnières AOP
2), Cour-Cheverny AOP
3), Quincy AOP
4), Chinon AOP
2), Cour-Cheverny AOP.
Produced exclusively from Romarantin.
Name all Grand Cru
Le Montrachet AOP
Which Grand Cru vineyards of Montrachet are shared by the villages of both Puligny-Montrachet
What are the main stylistic differences between Northern Rhône wines and Southern Rhône wines?
Northern Rhône wines tend to be Syrah dominant, blended with either Rousanne & Marsanne or with Viognier (except for Cornas AOP which is 100% Syrah). Southern Rhône wines tend to be blends of many different varietals with some relative importance to Grenache.
What are the two AOPs in Northern Rhône known for their wines made out of Viognier?
This AOP in Northern Rhône is a monopole, and it is known for their Viognier wine. What is the name of the AOP?
Cornas AOP produces a small amount of white wine made out of Rousanne & Marsanne. True or false?
False. Cornas is only permitted to produce red wine exclusively from Syrah.
Hermitage is permitted to produce rosé wine. True or false?
False. Hermitage is only permitted to produce white and red wines.
What is the varietal requirement of red Hermitage AOP?
Syrah minimum 85%
with Rousanne and Marsanne.
What is Vin de Paille?
Vin de Paille is a sweet straw wine in which the grapes are left on the straw mats to dry (the process is called "Passerillage") so the juice is concentrated. It is also made in Jura. Same practice of wine making is also seen in Austria, Greece, and notably in Italy (Vin Santo for example.).
What is the legal requirement of
Vin de Paille made in Hermitage AOP?
It has to be dried in straw mats for the minimum of 45 days. It has to be aged for 18 months before release.
What is the varietal requirement of Clairette de Die AOP?
Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains 75% minimum and the rest is Clairette.
What is the varietal requirement of Crémant de Die AOP?
Clairette 55% minimum, Aligoté 10% minimum, and Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains
What is the varietal requirement of red and rosé Châtillon-en-Diois AOP?
Gamay minimum 75%,
Pinot Noir and Syrah.
Must be picked by hand.
What is the varietal requirement of white Châtillon-en-Diois AOP?
Aligoté and Chardonnay.
Must be picked by hand.
Of all the 77 villages allowed to produce Côte du Rhône wines, how many of them are allowed to put their village name on the label?
What is Tavel AOP famous for?
Full bodied rosé produced from the blend of predominantly Grenache, with Cinsault, Mouvèdre, and Syrah.
Lirac AOP is allowed to produce red, white, and rosé. True or false?
True. Mainly from Grenache and Clairette.
What is the AOP in Southern Rhône that gained the AOP status in 2006?
Vinsobres AOP. Grenache 50% minimum. Red wine only.
What is the varietal requirement of Beaumes-de-Venise AOP?
Grenache 50% minimum,
and Syrah 25% minimum.
Red wine only.
Name three varietals each from eighteen red and white varietals permitted for producing Châteauneuf-du-Pape AOP. (List revised and published by INAO in 2009.)
Vaccarèse (Brun Argenté)
What is the name of the AOP in Southern Rhône in which
Vin de Liquer is produced?
Muscat Beaumes de Venise AOP
Vins Doux Naturels made out of Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains.
What are the three varietals explicitly forbidden from being used for producing Châteauneuf-du-Pape AOP?
Carignan, Marsanne, and Viognier.
What is the name of the river that flows on the East of Alsace wine producing region that serves as a natural boarder between France and Germany?
Le Rhin (in French), Der Rhein (in German), or the Rhine in English
What is the name of the mountain range that stands on the West of Alsace wine producing region?
How is Vosge Mountains beneficial to the viticulture in Alsace wine producing region?
Vosge Mountains provide the rain curtain to the Alsace wine producing region from the wet Altlantic winds coming from the West. As a result, Alsace wine producing region is the driest region in France with 500~600mm of annual rain fall. It is classified as Semi-Continental climate.
How long does the Alsace wine producing region stretch from North to South?
Approximately 100km (60miles)
What are the four noble varietals and four other varietals permitted in Alsace wine producing region?
Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains
Pinot Blanc (Klevner)
What is the legal requirement for calling wine Alsace Grand Cru AOP?
*It has to be produced from the
four noble varietals - Riesling, Gewurtztraminer, Pinot Gris, and
Muscat. (Except for Zolzenberg where Sylvaner is permitted instead of
*It has to be produced from one of the fifty one "Lieux-Dits" (noted sites).
*It has to satisfy the minimum sugar level (or potential alcohol), vine density, and maximukm yield.
*Principally, it has to be a varietal wine. (Except for Altenberg de Bergheim, and Kaefferkopf where the blends are also permitted.)
*Grapes must be harvested by hand.
Name five Alsace Grand Cru AOP's Lieu-Dit.
*Declared ion 20 November 1975
*Declared on 23 November 1983
Gloeckelberg (Rodern et Saint-Hippolyte)
Hatschbourg (Hattstatt et Vœgtlinshoffen)
Moenchberg (Andlau et Eichhoffen)
Rangen (Thann et Vieux-Thann)
Sommerberg (Niedermorschwihr et Katzenthal)
Spiegel (Bergholtz et Guebwiller)
*Declared on 17 December 1992
Engelberg (Dahlenheim et Scharrachbergheim)
Florimont (Ingersheim et Katzenthal)
Furstentum (Kientzheim et Sigolsheim)
Mandelberg (Mittelwihr et Beblenheim)
Marckrain (Bennwihr et Sigolsheim)
Pfersigberg (Eguisheim et Wettolsheim)
Schœnenbourg (Riquewihr et Zellenberg)
Steinert (Pfaffenheim et Westhalten)
Vorbourg (Rouffach et Westhalten)
Wineck-Schlossberg (Katzenthal et Ammerschwihr)
Zinnkoepflé (Soultzmatt et Westhalten)
*Declared on 12 January 2007
What is the minimum residual sugar level for Vendenge Tardive for Gewurtztraminer and Pinot Gris?
What is the minimum residual sugar level for Sélection de Grains Nobles for Gewurtztraminer and Pinot Gris?
What is the minimum residual sugar level for Sélection de Grains Nobles for Riesling and Muscat?
What is Vendenge Tardive in
Wines made out of late harvested grapes which is partially affected by Botrytis Cinerea.
What is Sélection de Grains Nobles in Alsace wine?
Wines made out of late harvested grapes which is largely affected by Botrytis Cinerea.
What is the unofficial designation of high quality Sélection de Grains Nobles wine in Alsace that far exceeds the legal requirement for Sélection de Grains Nobles, regarded as equivalent or higher in quality to German Trockenbeerenauslese or Hungarian Tokaji Eszencia?
Quintessence de Grains Nobles (Domaine Weinbach)
Trie Spéciale (Domaine Zind-Humbrecht)
Name one each from red and white grape varietals permitted in Jura?
Pinot Noir (Gros Noirien)
Chardonnay (Melon d'Arbois)
What is Vin Jaune and how is it made?
It literally translates to Yellow Wine. It is wine that is made from Savagnin (Naturé) grapes. The wine is not filled to the brim of the barrel so that it allows for the growth of yeast film called Fleur du Vin developing on the surface of the wine protecting it from excessive oxidation. Gradually the wine turns yellow and starts to develop a flavour profile called Goût de Jaune (Yellow Taste) which are often described as walnuts, roasted almond, and hazelnut. A few strict rules are imposed on producing this wine.
What are the notable legal requirements of Vin Jaune?
*It has to be produced exclusively from Savagnin (Naturé).
*Ouillage (Topping-up) and Soutirage (Racking) are prohibited.
*Minimum six years maturation in the wood. (Longest legal requirement for maturation for French wine.)
*It must be sold in a 620ml bottle called Clavelin.
l'Etoile AOP is allowed to produce red an rosé wine. True or false?
l'Etoile AOP is only permitted to produce white, Vin Jaune, and Vin de Paille wines.
What is the legal requirement for Crémant de Jura?
Secondary fermentation must take place in the bottle.
It must be aged for 9 months after Tirage (removal of sediment).
It must be aged for one year before the release.
What is the aging requirement for Crémant d'Alsace?
It must be aged for nine months after Tirage (removal of sediment).
Name one of the varietals permitted to produce wine in Savoie wine region.
What is the name of the cult vignéron from Loire who produced highly concentrated white wine from barrel aged Sauvignon Blanc who passed away in 2008?
What is the name of the cult vignéron from Burgundy who is credited for macération-à-froid (cold soaking) technique and revolutionlised many aspects of viticulture and wine making in 1960's, and who passed away in 2006?
Domaine de la Romanée-Conti is under a co-ownership of which families?
de Villaine family
Jurançon AOP is known to produce what style of wine from predominantly which varietals?
Sweet White Wine from
Petit Manseng and Gros Manseng.
Name one white varietals permitted in Provence.
Rolle (a.k.a. Vermentino or Malvoisie de Corse)
What is the varietal and aging requirement for Bandol AOP?
It has to be minimum 50% Mouvèdre and it has to be aged in wood for 18 months.
What are the two AOPs in Provence that gained the AOP status in 2005?
Côte de Provence Sainte-Victoire AOP
Côte de Provence Fréjus AOP
What is the name of the AOP in Languedoc that produces exclusively rosé wine?
Minervois la Livinière AOP
from total of at least 60% of Syrah, Mourvèdre, and Grenache.
Must be matured until 1 November following the year of the harvest.
What is the name of the AOP in Languedoc that produces red from minimum 50% Merlot and rosé from 50% Cabernet Franc in which it gained AOP status in 2007?
What is the name of the AOP in Languedoc that produces rosé from Carigan, Grenche, Mouvèdre, and Syrah?
What are the permitted varietals in Blanquette de Limoux AOP? How long does it have to be aged?
9 months after tirage.
What are the permitted varietals in Crémant de Limoux?
12 months after tirage and 15 months before release.
What are the varietals permitted for Rasteau AOP,
and Rasteau Rancio AOP?
What are Vins Doux Naturels?
They are fortified wines in which the fermentation is halted by the addition of brandy. Leaving the resulted wine sweet and high in alcohol.
What is En Primeur practice?
En Primeur is the the practice of merchants and trade organizations are invited to taste the barrel sample of wines that are entering the maturing phase. It is then sold before bottling at a significantly lower price than after being bottled. Though it is often seen as a gamble since the wine price can appreciate or depreciate depending on many factors such as overall quality, age-worthiness, or the economy.
What is "Vin de Primeur"?
Vin de Primeur is wine that are permitted by INAO to be sold in the same year as the harvest. There are 55 AOCs permitted to produce Vin de Primeur. Beaujolais Nouveau AOP is evidently the most famous Vin de Primeur in which it is released on the third Thursday of November following the harvest.
When is Beaujolais Nouveau AOP released each year?
Third Thursday of November following the harvest.
Name three Vins Doux Naturels AOPs.
Muscat du Cap Corse AOP
Maury Rancio AOP
Banyuls Rancio AOP
Banyuls Grand Cru AOP
Banyuls Grand Cru Rancio AOP
Rivesaltes Rancio AOP
Muscat de Rivesaltes AOP
Grand Rousillon AOP
Grand Rousillon Rancio AOP
Muscat de Lunel AOP
Muscad de Mireval AOP
Muscat de Frontignan AOP
Vin de Frontignan AOP
Muscat de Saint-Jean de Minervois AOP
What is Rancio?
Rancio is a production method of Vins Doux Naturels and Vins de Liqueur in which the wine is left under the sun either in the barrels or in the bottles for an extended period of time which maderises the wine. Similar to Madeira poduction.
What is Mutage?
Mutage is a process for making Vins Doux Naturels and Vins de Liqueur in which the fermentation is halted or prevented by the addition of brandy, making the resulting wine high in alcohol and high in residual sugar.
Name two Vin de Liqueur.
Macvin du Jura AOP
Clairette du Languedoc AOP
Muscat de Frontignan AOP
Vin de Frontignan AOP
Pineau des Charentes AOP
Floc de Gascogne AOP
Name all six levels of Prädikatswein from highest to lowest in Öchsle level.
Eiswein and Berenauslese (BA)
What is the condition of Trocken in German wine and what colour of seal does it receive?
<9g/L residual sugar.
It is allowed without condition if it is <4g/L sugar.
If it is 4g/L~9g/L sugar, sugar minus total acidity must be equal to or less than 2g/L.
What is the condition of Halbtrocken in German wine and what colour of seal does it receive?
<18g/L residual sugar.
It is allowed without condition if it is <12g/L sugar.
If it is 12g/L~18g/L sugar, sugar minus total acidity must be equal to or less than 10g/L.
What is the condition of Lieblich in German wine and what colour of seal does it receive?
<45g/L residual sugar.
What is Süßreserve?
The grape juice obtained from the harvest is kept without going through fermentation. In order to achieve the desired residual sugar level, it is permitted to be added to the wine up to the 25% of the volume of resulting wine. It must come from the same locality as the wine in which it is added.
How do you convert Öchsle to residual sugar (percentage)?
Öchsle / 4 - 2 = residual sugar (percentage)
What is the name of the Anbaugebiete in which the 88% of the wine produced here is red wine made from Spätburgunder and Portugieser. It has vineyards situated on steep hills?
What is the name of the Anbaugebiete which has vineyards stretching for approximately 130km (80miles) and it is situated where Nahe merges with Rhein (the Rhine)?
What is the name of the Anbaugebiete known for the high quality Riesling from vineyards with slate soil situated on steep hills along the Saar and the Ruwer?
What is the name of the Anbaugebiete in which the wine is said to have the floral characteristic of Mosel and elegance of Rheingau?
What is the name of the Anbaugebiete in which the vineyards stretch from Lorchhusen to Assmannhausen, then to Wiesbaden? The wine from this Anbaugebiete is known to be elegant, yet fruity, while attaining sophisticated aroma and power.
What is the name of the Anbaugebiete which is the largest of all Anbaugebiten in Germany? Wine is known to be soft, delicate, and fruity.
What is the name of the Anbaugebiete near the French boarder which is the second largest Anbaugebieten in Germany that benefits from warmer climate?
What is the name of the Anbaugebiete in which vineyards are located North of Heiderberg, East of Rhein (the Rhine), and the West of Odenwald mostly producing Spätburgunder?
What is the name of the Anbaugebiete which is the most Southerly and it has the warmest climate of all Anbaugebieten in Germany?
What is the name of the Anbaugebiete which is the most Easterly of all Anbaugebieten in Germany? It is also know to produce a high quality dry white wine with earthy character that are sold in Bocksbeutel bottles?
What is the name of the Anbaugebiete which is located on the banks of the Neckar and its tributaries, and produces the highest volume of red wine in Germany?
What is the name of the Anbaugebiete which is the most Northerly of all Anbaugebieten in Germany and it hardly produces wines above Spätlese? It is located within former East Germany.
What is the name of the Anbaugebiete which produces the smallest volume of wine in Germany? It is also the most Easterly Anbaugebiete in Germany.
What is "Ampelography"?
Ampelography (ἄμπελος, "vine" + γράφος, 'writing') is the field of botany concerned with the identification and classification of grapevines.
What is a "Großlage"?
A collection of vineyards within a district.
167 of them in existence as of 2009.
What is an "Einzellage"?
A single vineyard. It must be larger than 5ha.
2,658 of them in existence as of 2009.
What does Weingut mean?
Wine was produced exclusively from the grapes harvested by the owner of the winery. Equivalent to "Domaine" in Burgundy.
What are the conditions for upgrading DOC to DOCG?
*It has to be a DOC for at least 5 years.
*It has to plant more vines per hector.
*It has to reduce the yield.
*It has to be traded in vessels less than 5L.
*It has to pass the quality test after the fermentations, and before bottling.
*Pruning must meet the prescribed criteria.
*Vilification method must meet the prescribed criteria.
*The wine must be aged longer.
*It has to be sealed with the government issued DOCG seal.
What is the name of the Italian region in which the vineyards are located in the highest attitude in Europe?
Known for their only DOC.
What is the name of the Italian region in which it produces the best examples of Nebbiolo grapes such as
Barolo DOCG, and Barbaresco DOCG?
Piemonte (Piedmont in English)
What is the name of the Italian region which has many lakes that softens the Continental climate? This region is known for sparkling wine made from traditional method such as Franciacorta DOCG.
What is the name of the Italian region in which the half of it is a flat and the other half is mountains and foothills? It is know for Soave DOCG, Bardolino DOCG, and Valpolicella DOC.
What is the name of the Italian region which boarders Austria, and it is the most Northerly region in Italy? Think of Teroldego Rotaliano DOC.
What is the name of the Italian region in which it has the most rain fall in Italy that is known for their sweet white wine? Think of Collio DOC
What is the name of the Italian region which is facing Adriatic sea and known for Lambrusco DOC?
What is the name of the Italian region that is a thin and long stretch of hills descending from Alps to Mediterranean?
Think of Cinque Terre DOC.
What is the name of the Italian region which is known for their world renowned Chianti DOCG, Chianti Classico DOCG, and Brunello di Montalcino DOCG?
Toscana (Tuscany in English)
What is the name of the Italian region which is the only region in Italy that is not facing the sea? Think of Montefalco Sgrantino DOC.
What is the name of the Italian region which mostly produces early drinking wine? Think of Est! Est!! Est!!! di Montefiascone DOC
What is the name of the Italian region which produces a high volume of Aglianico? The capitol is Napoli (Naples). Think of Greco di Tufo DOCG
What is the name of the Italian region which is covered with eroded limestone? The capitol is Potenza. Think of Aglianico del Vulture DOCG
What is the name of the Italian region which is stylistically similar to Greek wine due to the influences by Greek seafarers who originally brought wine making to this region? Think of Cirò DOC.
What is the name of the Italian region which is mostly clay soil with the capitol of Ancona? Think of Verdicchio dei Castelli.
What is the name of the Italian region with many mountains which is known for their Montepulciano? The capitol is L'Aquila.
What is the name of the Italian region known for classical agricultural practices? Think of Biferno DOC.
What is the name of the Italian region which is know for their Negroamaro grapes? The capitol is Bari.
Puglia (or Apulia)
What is the name of the Italian region which is an island South of Corse (Corsica) which is well known for their Vermentino?
What is the name of the Italian region which is an island which is known for Marsala DOC?
Sicillia (Sicily in English)
What are "Passito" grapes?
Grapes left in the shade to dry out, concentrating the flavour components and sugar. Similar wine making methods are observed in Rhône, Jura, and in Austria.
Passito and Recioto are the same thing. True or false?
True. Recioto is what people from Veneto call Passito.
What is Amarone?
Grapes that went through Passito process are pressed and fermented dry. Resulting in high alcohol, dry wine with intense flavour.
Amarone and Aforzato are the same thing. True or false?
True. Aforzato is what people from Lombardia call Amarone.
What is Vin Santo in Italy?
Grapes that went through Passito process are pressed and fermented sweet, then put in the barrel partially full with yeast film allowed to develop on the surface. Produced mainly in Toscana from white grapes. If it is produced from red grapes, it is allowed to be labeled as "Occhio di Pernice".
What is Grappa?
Brandy made out of fermenting pips and skins of grapes. Same as Marc in France. Most Grappa does not see wood but if it is aged, takes on amber colour.
What is the grape permitted for Vino Nobile di Montalcino DOCG?
Prugnolo Gentile (a.k.a. Sangiovese)
Name two of the eight sub-regions of Chianti.
Montespertoli (since 1996)
What are the grapes permitted for
Est! Est!! Est!!! di Montefiascone DOC?
Trebbiano Toscano 65%,
Malvasia Bianca 15% minimum
Who invented the fortified wine Marsala?
While travelling in Sicily, he realized that the wine made in Marsala tasted similar to Port, Sherry, and Madeira.He then decided to recreate the fortified wine there with maturation process similar to solera syetem in Sherry production.
What is the aging requirement for red Crianza in Spain?
6 months in the barrel (12 months for Rioja and Ribera del Duero),
18 months in the bottle. (for Rioja and Ribera del Duero)
Total: 24 months (30 for Rioja and Ribera del Duero) before release.
What is the aging requirement for red Reserva in Spain?
12 months in the barrel,
24 months in the bottle.
Total: 36 months before release.
What is the aging requirement for red Gran Reserva in Spain?
18 months in the barrel,
42 month in the bottle.
Total: 60 months before release.
What is the aging requirement for white and rosé Crianza?
6 months in the barrel,
12 months in the bottle.
Total: 18 months before release.
What is the aging requirement for white and rosé Reserva in Spain?
6 months in the barrel,
18 months in the bottle.
Total: 24 months before release.
What is the aging requirement for white and rosé Gran Reserva in Spain?
6 months in the barrel,
42 months in the bottle.
Total: 48 months before release.
What is the maximum capacity of barrels they are allowed to use for the production of Crianza, Reserva, and Gran Reserva?
Name two red grape varietals permitted in Rioja DOC
Mazuelo (a.k.a. Cariñena)
Name two white grape varietals permitted in Rioja DOC
Viula (a.k.a. Macabeo)
This Spanish wine region is known for introducing the drip irrigation system in the 1980 by two legendary wine makers René Barbier and Álvaro Palacios. It is known to produce mostly red wine from the blend of Garnacha with international varietals such as Cariñena, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Merlot. What is the name of this region?
This Spanish wine region produces around 90% of all the Cava produced. What is the name of this region?
What is the name of this Spanish wine region which is located at the heart of Castillia Léon and it produces wine from at least 75% Tinto Fino (a.k.a.Tempranillo)?
Ribera del Duoro DOC
What is the name of this Spanish wine region which is only permitted to produce white wine using mostly Albariño?
Rias Baixas DOC
Name three cities in Xérès region of Spain which forms Sherry triangle.
Jerez de la Frontera
El Puerto de Santa Maria
Sanlúcar de Barrameda
What are the three most important grape varietals in Cava?
Macabeo (a.k.a. Viula)
also permitted are:
What is the system in which Sherry is aged? It is the system that the new wine is added from the top of the stack of barrels, then that barrel tops off the next level of barrels below and so on.
What is the benefit of Solera system?
It homogenizes the quality and flavor of the wine while allowing it to mature for an extended period of time.
I am a type of Sherry lighter in colour and quite dry. My flavour is fragile and I am meant to be drunk within a couple of days after being opened. I was covered by "Flor" during production. Jerez de la Frontera and El Puerto de Santa Maria are mainly where we come from. I am required to have >15% ABV. What type of Sherry am I?
I am a type of Fino Sherry coming
from the port city of Sanlúcar de Barrameda. Since the grapes that I am
made of come from the seaboard, I taste slightly salty.
I am required to have a minimum alcohol >15%. What type of Sherry am I?
I am a type of Fino Sherry that is aged for an extended period of time. I am amber in colour and I have a nutty flavour. I am required to have a minimum alcohol >15%. What type of Sherry am I?
I am a type of Sherry that did not take on the blanket of "Flor". I am golden in colour and quite dry. I am required to have a minimum alcohol >17%. What type of Sherry am I?
I am a type of Sherry that initially had the blanket of "Flor", but it somehow disappeared in the process but allowed to continue maturing. I taste somewhat in between Fino and Olorosso. What type of Sherry am I?
What is a "Flor"?
Flor is a film of yeast that protects Sherry wine from excessive oxidation, allowing it to take on numerous flavors as it matures in barrel. It is a result of barrels not filled to the brim. Similar practices are seen in Vin Jaune of Jura (Fleur du Vin) or in Marsala.
Name three most notable red grape varietals in Portugal.
Tinta Roriz (a.k.a. Aragones, Tempranillo)
Tinta Negro Mole
Name three most notable white grape varietals in Portugal.
Alvarinho (Alvariño in Spain)
This DOC in Portugal produces early drinking lightly sparkling wine from Alvarinho. What is the name of this DOC?
Vinho Verde DOC
This DOC in Portugal produces still wine from the same area as Porto DOC. What is the name of this DOC?
This DOC in Portugal produces world famous fortified wine from mainly Touriga Nacional. What is the name of this DOC?
This DOC in Portugal is known to produce light and fruity white and sparkling wine from traditional method. It is named after their clay soil type too. What is the name of this DOC?
This DOC in Portugal is famous for their powerful and dry red wine, but also known for their light and refreshing white wine. You will also find a statue of sommelier in the city of Nelas. What is the name of this DOC?
This DOC in a Portuguese island is famous for their fortified wine. What is the name of this DOC?
What is the legal requirement for Vintage Port?
*It has to be harvested and vilified in the years in which the superior-vintage was declared by IVDP.
*The application to declare vintage must be submitted to IVDP in the second year from the vintage between January and September.
*It has to be bottled in between July of the second year from the harvest to June of the third year from the harvest without filtration.
*It has to be made from the single vintage.
*It has to display the vintage on the label.
What is the legal requirement for Late Bottled Vintage Port (LBV)?
*It has to be made exclusively from grapes that are harvested in the inferior-declared vintage.
*It has to display the vintage on the label.
*The application to declare vintage must be submitted to IVDP in the fourth year from the vintage between March and September.
*It has to be bottled in between July of the second year from the harvest to the end of the sixth year from the harvest.
What is the legal requirement for Colheita?
*It has to be a single vintage Tawny opted for long maturation period.
*It has to display the vintage and bottled year on the label.
*The application to declare vintage must be submitted to IVDP in the third year from the vintage between July and the end of the year.
*It is only permitted to be bottled after seven years of maturation in wood.
What is Tawny Indication of Age?
It is blended Tawny Port from
various vintages in which the wine is matured for a defined period of
time: 10, 20, 30, 40, 40+ years.
It has to be approved by IVDP.
It is bottled after filtration.
It must have the maturation period and bottled year on the label.
Name two grapes permitted for Madeira DOC.
Tinta Negra Mole
This facility is used for Madeira DOC production. The storage facility that is heated up by the sunlight which keeps the building to an average of 30C° (86F°). It is used to keep the barrels containing higher quality Madeira for extended maturation period. What is the name of the facility?
This facility is used for producing Madeira DOC. It is a man made heating machine in which the wine is heated in large stainless steel vats which heats the wine to 35C° (95C°) to 50C° (120F°) for minimum three months, then cooled down for three to four weeks before transferred to a large barrel called Cuba. What is the name of the facility?
What is Frasueira or Garrafeira?
It is a Madeira made from single vintage and single varietal.
Also known as Vintage Madeira.
It is required to be matured in wood for minimum 20 years.
It must be made exclusively from the labeled varietal.
What is Strohwein?
It is a wine making practice in Austria, where the grapes were laid on straw mats in the shades, allowed to dry. It is then pressed and vinified to make sweet wine. This wine making is also practiced in Rhône and Jura (Vin de Paille), and in Italy (Passito or Recioto)
This Weinbauregionen produces 61% of wine by volume in the entire country. It is also famous for their Grüner Veltliner. Main subregions include Wachau and Weinviertel.
What are the three tiers in traditional wine classification of Wachau.
Name one wine producing region in Hungary besides Tokaj-Hegyalija.
The Great Plain
What is the varietal permitted in Tokaji?
Sarga Muskotály (a.k.a. Muscat Blancs à Petits Grains)
What is the name of the wine produced in Tokaj region made from grapes unaffected by Botrytis Cinerea, which means "Au Naturel"?
What is the name of the wine produced in Tokaj region made from grapes affected by Botrytis Cinerea, which means "Syrup-like"?
What is the measurement of sweetness derived from the name of the bucket with the capacity of 26kg used to determine the sweetness of the Tokaji Aszú wine?
What is the name of the Tokaji Aszú equivalent to 7 to 8 Puttonyos? What is the minimum residual sugar level? What is the aging requirement?
5 years before release.
What is the name of the Tokaji Aszú made entirely from botrytised grapes? What is the minimum residual sugar level?
Tokaji Natúreszencia / Tokaji Eszencia
What is the name of the famous wine produced in Northern Hungary called "Blood of the Egrian Bull"?
Name one wine producing region in Switzerland.
Genève (Genf, Ginevra, Genèva, Geneva)
What is the name of the Swiss wine producing region with half of the entire outputs in the country?
What is the name of the wine in Switzerland that is made from vinifying at least 51% of Pinot Noir and Gamay together?
Name two wine producing regions of Greece.
Macedonia & Thrace
Espiros & Ionian Islands
Name at least three red grape varietals grown in Greece.
In which year was Wine Institute in the United States established? It is also the year in which UC Davis opened the faculty of Viticulture and Oenology.
What is the varietal requirement in Oregon?
Minimum 90% (Exceptions are: Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Malbec, Carmenère, Petit Syrah, Mouvèdre, Grenache, Marsanne, Rousanne, Sangiovese, Syrah, Tannat, Tempranillo, and Zinfandel which are minimum 75%)
What percentage of wine does it have to come from the AVA in order to put the said AVA on the label in California?
What percentage of wine does it have to come from the AVA in order to put the said AVA on the label in Oregon?
What percentage of wine does it have to come from the specific vineyard in order to put the said vineyard on the label in California?
What percentage of wine does it have to come from the specific vineyard in order to put the said vineyard on the label in Oregon?
In AVAs, what percentage of wine does it have to come from the vintage in order to put the said vintage on the label?
In wines produced in AVAs what is the allowable difference in alcohol by volume between the one that is on the label, and the one actually in wine?
Name three of the five regional AVAs in California.
North Coast AVA
Central Coast AVA
Sierra Foothills AVA
Central Valley AVA
South Coast AVA
Name three smaller AVAs from Central Coast AVA.
Arroyo Grande Valley AVA
Arroyo Seco AVA
Carmel Valley AVA
Chalone AVA, Cienega Valley AVA
Edna Valley AVA
Hames Valley AVA
Lime Kiln Valley AVA
Livermore Valley AVA
Monterey AVA, Mt.
Pacheco Pass AVA
Paso Robles AVA
San Antonio Valley AVA
San Benito AVA
San Bernabe AVA
San Francisco Bay AVA
San Lucas AVA
San Ysidro District AVA
Santa Clara Valley AVA
Santa Cruz Mountains AVA
Santa Lucia Highlands AVA
Santa Maria Valley AVA
Santa Ynez Valley AVA
Sta. Rita Hills AVA
York Mountain AVA
Name three smaller AVAs from
North Coast AVA.
Alexander Valley AVA
Anderson Valley AVA
Atlas Peak AVA
Benmore Valley AVA
Bennett Valley AVA
Chalk Hill AVA
Chiles Valley AVA
Clear Lake AVA
Cole Ranch AVA
Diamond Mountain District AVA
Dos Rios AVA
Dry Creek Valley AVA
Fort Ross-Seaview AVA
Green Valley of Russian River Valley AVA
Guenoc Valley AVA
High Valley AVA
Howell Mountain AVA
Knights Valley AVA
Los Carneros AVA
McDowell Valley AVA
Mendocino Ridge AVA
Mt. Veeder AVA
Napa Valley AVA
Northern Sonoma AVA
Oak Knoll District of Napa Valley AVA
Potter Valley AVA
Red Hills Lake County AVA
Redwood Valley AVA
Russian River Valley AVA
Solano County Green Valley AVA
Sonoma Coast AVA
Sonoma Mountain AVA
Sonoma Valley AVA
Spring Mountain District AVA
St. Helena AVA
Stags Leap District AVA
Suisun Valley AVA
Wild Horse Valley AVA
Yorkville Highlands AVA
Which wines each from red and white won the first place in Paris tasting?
Stag's Leap Wine Cellars Cabernet Sauvignon 1973
Chateau Montelena CHardonnay 1973
Who organized the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976?
the chair and president of
l'Academie du Vin
Name three AVAs from Napa Valley AVA.
Los Carneros AVA 1983-08-18
Howell Mountain AVA 1983-12-30
Wild Horse Valley AVA 1988-11-30
Stags Leap District AVA 1989-01-27
Mt. Veeder AVA 1990-02-20
Atlas Peak AVA 1992-01-22
Spring Mountain District AVA 1993-05-13
Oakville AVA 1993-07-02
Rutherford AVA 1993-07-02
St. Helena AVA 1995-09-11
Chiles Valley AVA 1999-02-17
Yountville AVA 1999-03-19
Diamond Mountain District AVA 2001-06-01
Oak Knoll District of Napa Valley AVA 2004-02-25
Calistoga AVA 2009-12-08
Coombsville AVA 2011-12-14
Why are Cascade Mountains so important to the viticulture in Pacific Northwest?
Because it works as a rain curtain. The West of the Mountains is classified as Maritime Climate, receiving more rain while the East side is classified as Continental Climate and it is more dry.
What is the name of the AVA that exists on the West of Cascade Mountains, and in Washington State?
Puget Sound AVA
Name two AVAs that exist on the East of Cascade Mountains, and in Washington State?
Yakima Valley AVA
Red Mountains AVA
Horse Heaven Hills AVA
Wahluke Slope AVA
Rattlesnake HIlls AVA
Name two AVAs that exist on the East of Cascade Mountains, and are shared by both Washington State and Oregon?
Columbia Gorge AVA
Columbia Valley AVA
Walla Walla Valley AVA
Name three AVAs that exist on the West of Cascade Mountains, and which exists in Oregon?
Willamette Valley AVA
-Dundee Hills AVA
-Yamhill-Carlton District AVA
-Ribbon Ridge AVA
-Eola-Amity Hills AVA
-Chehalem Mountains AVA
Umpqua Valley AVA
-Red Hill Douglas County AVA
Rogue Valley AVA
Applegate Valley AVA
Southern Oregon AVA
This AVA in Pacific Northwest produces about 98% of grapes used for wine in Washington State. What is the name of the AVA?
Columbia Valley AVA
What is the name of the AVA that is known the world over for their
Willamette Valley AVA
Name at least two AVAs from Willamette Valley AVA.
Dundee Hills AVA
Yamhill-Carlton District AVA
Ribbon Ridge AVA
Eola-Amity Hills AVA
Chehalem Mountains AVA
Name one from four wine producing regions in New York state.
Finger Lakes AVA
Hudson River AVA
Long Island AVA
Lake Erie AVA
This AVA in New York state produces around 85% of the entire output of the state. What is the name of the AVA?
Finger Lakes AVA
Name two from all the AVAs in New York state.
Finger Lakes AVA
Hudson River Region AVA
Long Island AVA
North Fork of Long Island AVA
Hamptons of Long Island AVA
Lake Erie & Chautauqua AVA
Niagara Escarpment AVA
Name two wine producing regions from South Australia.
This region in Australia has similar climate to Pomerol or Saint-Emillion and well known for their Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. Which region is this?
This state in Australia has a similar climate to New Zealand and well known for their Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Noir, Riesling, and Chardonnay. Which state is this?
In order to qualify for VQA in British Columbia, how much grape has to come from British Columbia?
In order to qualify for VQA with the name of the vineyard in Canada, how much grape has to come from the said vineyard?
Name one wine producing region in British Columbia.
Name one wine producing region in Ontario.
Lake Erie North Shore
Prince Edward County
This region produces about 80% of entire output of Canada and known for German style Ice Wine from Riesling and Vidal. Which region is this?
What is the most widely planted white varietal in Argentina?
Pedro Gimenez (completely unrelated to Pedro Ximénez in Spain)
Name at least two wine producing regions from Chile.
San Antonio Valley
Bio Bio Valley
What is the name of the varietal native to Bordeaux, which found a new home in Chile that is not Malbec?
Name at least two wine producing regions in North Island of New Zealand.
Waikato / Bay of Plenty
Name at least one wine producing regions in South Island of New Zealand.
Canterbury / Waipara
What is the name of the wine producing region in New Zealand coined as "The Capitol of Chardonnay in New Zealand"?
What is the name of the wine region that produces the second biggest volume in New Zealand?
This wine region in New Zealand is well known for their Pinot Noir. Which region is this?
This grape, found in South Africa, is a cross hybrid of two varietals. What is the name of the parent varietals and the resulting varietal?
Pinot Noir x Cinsaut
Name one of the five "Regions" in South Africa.
Breede River Valley
Name two "Districts" within Coastal Region in South Africa.
What is the most ideal environment for storing wine?
Temperature: 12C° or 56F°
Laid down on the side with the label facing up.
What are the factors that determines the speed of maturation in wine?
The amount of organic acid.
Poly-phenol from Barrels
Residual Sugar Level
Concentration of Extract
Free Sulpheric Acid Level
Wine coming from the warmer climate tend to have darker colour, and the wine coming from the colder climate tend to have lighter colour. True or false?
Brick tinge to the rim of wine indicates the age of the wine. True or false?
Some grapes such a Sangiovese can exhibit brick colour at youth too especially in high-yield.
What is the ideal serving temperature for Non-Millésimé (non-vintage) Champagne and Sparkling Wine?
6C° (43F°) to 8C° (46F°)
What is the ideal serving temperature for Millésimé (non-vintage) Champagne and Sparkling Wine?
8C° (46F°) to 12C° (54F°)
What is the ideal serving temperature of red Bordeaux wine?
18C° (64F°) to 20C° (68F°)
Higher for high-end wines.
Chaptalization is the process of adding sugar to unfermented grape must in order to increase the alcohol content in the resulting wine.
In Burgenland, Chaptilisation is permitted provided a certain condition is met. True or false?
False. Chaptilisation is prohibited in Austria.
What is Acidification?
Addition of acids to the wine (acidification) to make the wine more acidic, most commonly in warm climate regions where grapes are often harvested at advanced stages of ripeness with high levels of sugars, but very low levels of acid.
This Alsace Grand Cru is the only climat that is permitted to produce Sylvaner instead of Muscat. What is the name of this climat?
Name the only two climats in Alsace Grand Cru that are permitted to produce Gentil.
Altenberg de Bergheim
How does an Alsace wine qualify for Gentil on the label?
At least 50% of the cépage is from noble grapes.
Which Château in St-Emilion Grand Cru Classé was it promoted from Grand Cru Classé to Grand Cru Classé Château B in 1996, and then to Château A in 2012?
Central Otago belongs to what type of climate?
Continental Climate - It is the only region is New Zealand to be classified as true Continental Climate.
Define "Monopole" situation in France.
It is an unofficial designation in which a given AOP or a vinayard is solely owned by a proprietor, such as Clos du Tart AOP, Château-Grillet AOP, or Savenières-Coulée-de-Serrant AOP. It is also applicable to the Premier Cru AOPs with vineyard designation such as Meursault Clos de la Barre (Appelation Meursault Premier Cru Protégée) by Comte Lafon. Some Grand Cru AOP and village level AOP may carry "Monopole" designation on its etiquette when historical "lieu-dit", or certain "climat" is solely owned by a single proprietor. e.g. Corton Clos des Cortons (Appelation Corton Grand Cru Protégée) by Domaine Faiveley, or Vosne-Romanée Clos du Château (Appelation Vosne-Romanée Protégée) by Domaine du Compte Liger-Belair.
Which Château in St-Emilion Grand Cru Classé was it promoted from Grand Cru Classé to Grand Cru Classé Château B in 1954, and then to Château A in 2012?