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6. Sparkling Wine Production flashcards |
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  • Sparking wines are also called?

    Effervescent Wines

    How were sparking wines accidentally invented?

    wine bottles chilled in the winter and restarted fermenting in the spring

    What was the earliest example of a wine being named after a place?

    Champagne

    California Champagne will not be able to be used after what date?

    March 10, 2016

    What are the 3 main grapes of Champagne?

    1. Chardonnay
    2. Pinot Noir
    3. Pinot Meunier

    Champagne, which has a cool climate, produces sparkling wines which are?

    high acid
    moderate alcohol

    What is the grape varietal for making sparkling wines in the Loire Valley?

    Chenin Blanc

    What is the grape varietal for making sparkling wines in Germany?

    Reisling

    What are the 3 grape varietals for making sparkling wines in Spain?

    1. Xarel-lo
    2. Macebeo
    3. Parellada

    What are the 3 famous grape varietals for making sparkling wines in Italy?

    1. Muscat (white)
    2. Brachetto (red)
    3. Glera (red)

    What are the 2 most common grape varietals for making sparking wine in the new world?

    1. Chardonnay
    2. Pinot Noir

    Which is the most common grape varietal used for making sparking wine in Australia?

    Shiraz

    What are 2 synonyms for the Traditional method of making sparkling?

    1. Fermented in the bottle
    2. Classical Method

    Most sparkling wines of France are made by this method?

    Traditional

    Sparkling wines made in France but outside of the Champagne region are called?

    Crements

    Sparkling wine made in Spain is called?

    Cava

    The 2 most famous areas for making sparking wine in Italy are?

    1. Franciacorta
    2. Talento

    Between high and low, sparkling wines usually want what level of acid?

    high

    What is debourbage?

    Juice settling

    What is Saignee?

    a method for making Rose wine

    What is pupitre?

    an "A frame" used in Champagne, France for riddling and is shaken each day.

    What is another term for riddling?

    Remuage

    What does reserve mean in the making of sparking wines?

    a still wine from an earlier vintage used for blending

    What is tranversage?

    transfer between bottles

    What is assemblage?

    blending

    What is "liqueur de tirage"?

    a mix of yeast and sugar

    When is "liqueur de tirage" added for sparking wine?

    Just before the second fermentation

    What is different in the bottles between a sparkling wine and a still wine?

    a heavy punt for sparkling wine

    The second fermentation usually adds how much more alcohol?

    about 1% more

    What type of location does the second fermentation usually take place when in the bottle?

    dark and cool, such as in cellars or caves

    How long is the second fermentation?

    about a month or more

    What is Autolysis?

    The yeast decomposing

    What aromas are created with Autolysis?

    nutty, toasty flavors

    What is the name of the process where the fermented juice remains in contact with the yeast?

    lees aging

    What is the French term for lees aging?

    sur lie

    What are the English words for "sur lie"?

    on the lees

    What is another French term for "sur lie"?

    sous tirage

    What other benefit occurs during lees aging in sparkling wines?

    Carbon Dioxide becomes more dissolved

    Lees Aging is more common in what 2 types of Cuvee?

    1. prestige
    2. vintage wines

    Within a single brand of sparkling wines, what are the 6 main types of Cuvee?

    1. Prestige
    2. Vintage
    3. nonvintage
    4. Blanc de Blanc
    5. Blanc de Noirs
    6. Rose

    What is another term for Prestige Cuvee?

    tete de cuvee

    What are the literal translation for tete de cuvee in English?

    cream of the crop

    What is unique about Prestige Cuvee?

    It is from earliest part of the first pressing

    List in order, the 3 processes which follow assemblage before the second fermentation in sparkling wine making?

    1. Fining
    2. Racking
    3. Cold Stabilization

    What happens when "liqueur de tirage" is added to the wine?

    The second fermentation starts

    What 2 processes back to back removes lees from bottles?

    1. Riddling
    2. Disgorging

    What is riddling?

    leaving the bottles upside down to bring the lees near the cap

    Historically, what are the 6 steps of disgorging?

    1. end of bottle in icy brine
    2. sediment freezes
    3. turn bottle upright
    4. open bottle
    5. remove ice plug
    6. reseal

    What is a mechanized Pupitre?

    Gyropallette

    What is dosage?

    Adding same cuvee to bottle after disgorging

    What is the French term for dosage?

    liqueur d'expedition

    What is added to the sparkling wine wine for balance during dosage?

    a little sugar

    List from low to high, what are the 7 levels of sweetness in Sparkling wines?

    1. Brut Nature
    2. Extra Brut
    3. Brut
    4. extra dry or extra sec
    5. sec
    6. demi-sec
    7. doux which is very sweet

    The Brut level of sweetness usually has what percentage of sugar?

    1.2% to 1.7%

    The doux level of sweetness usually has what percentage of sugar?

    greater than 5%

    The EU allows adding what to white sparkling wine to make rose sparking wine?

    red wine

    What are the 5 synonyms for Brut Nature?

    1. san dosage
    2. pas dose
    3. dosage zero
    4. but sauvage

    How much sugar is added at the Brut Nature level of sweetness?

    zero sugar added

    What is the normal atmospheric pressure inside a bottle of sparkling wine?

    6 atmospheres

    What are the 3 features of the house style of sparking wines?

    1. mixing of several years
    2. least expensive
    3. highest volume made in winery

    Name a blanc to blanc sparkling wine from Spain?

    Cava

    What 2 grape varietals would be used to make a Blanc de Noirs in Champagne?

    1. Pinot Noir
    2. Pinot Meunier

    What grape varietal would be used to make Rose in Champagne?

    Pinot Noir

    Name 3 synonyms for the Tank method of Sparkling wine fermentation?

    1. Charmat
    2. curve close
    3. bulk method

    What gives the tank method in sparkling wine fermentation the bad rap?

    being a cheaper process

    What are the 2 white grapes are best for aromatic white sparkling wines?

    1. Muscat
    2. Riesling

    What is the most famous sparkling wine from Italy?

    Prosecco

    What is the German word for Sparkling wine?

    Sekt

    List the steps in the second fermentation process when using the a tank method?

    1. ferment dry
    2. add cuvee
    3. add yeast and sugar
    4. ferment under pressure
    5. left on lees

    What step is not used for aromatic sparkling wines?

    leaving on lees

    What method is a hybrid between the tank method and bottle method for fermenting sparkling wines?

    Transfer Method

    The first fermentation in the transfer method occurs where?

    In the bottle

    The second fermentation in the transfer method occurs where?

    in the tank

    What process is needed when fermenting in the bottle but not needed when fermenting in a tank?

    riddling
    also disgorging

    What character of wine which may be wanted, but can be removed through filtering?

    flavor components

    The transfer method in the US is noted by 2 different phrases on the label of a bottle of sparkling wine?

    1. Fermented in the Bottle
    2. Bottle Fermented

    What 2 Italian sparkling wines are partially fermented?

    1. Moscato d'Asti
    2. Brachetto d'Acqui

    Mocato d'Asti is located in what region of Italy?

    Peidmont

    Brachetto d'Acqui is located in what region of Italy?

    Piedmont

    Partial fermentation of sparkling wine is usually what percentage of alcohol?

    5% to 6%

    List the steps in partial fermentation?

    1. Ferment to a point
    2. Chilled
    3. racked off sediment
    4. 2nd Fermentation in tank
    5. filtered and bottled

    Having the 2nd fermentation in a tank is common in which 3 types of fermentation?

    1. Tank method
    2. Transfer method
    3. Partial Fermentation method

    What type of fermentation gives you 1/2 the alcohol, 1/2 the pressure and is more sweet?

    Partial Fermentation

    What method of fermentation can be performed all year round?

    Partial fermentation

    Why can Partial fermentation be produced all year round?

    because the base wine is very refrigerated

    Name the 2 standard champagne bottle sizes which are smaller than the standard bottle.

    1. Split
    2. Half

    Name the standard bottle size for champagne which is equal to 2 standard bottles.

    Magnum

    In order, list the 3 standard bottle sizes for Champagne which are incremented by 2 bottles from the Magnum bottle size.

    1. Jeroboam
    2. Rehoboam
    3. Methuselah

    How many standard bottles are in the Methuselah bottle size?

    8

    Name the standard champagne bottle size which is equal to 12 bottles.

    Salmanazar

    Name the standard champagne bottle size which is equal to 16 bottles.

    Balthazar

    Name the standard champagne bottle size which is equal to 20 bottles.

    Nebuchadnezzar

    The term for the sparkling wine which is incompletely fermented in the bottle is?

    Blanquette de Limoux Methode Ancetrale

    What region is noted for Blanquette de Limoux Methode Ancestrale?

    Languedoc

    Are incomplete fermented wines in the bottle, sweet or dry?

    sweet

    What remains in the bottle of Blanquette de Limoux Methode Ancestrale sparkling wines which is usually removed in other sparkling wines?

    sediment

    What fermentation process is chilled to 50 degree F throughout fermentation?

    Clairette de Die

    How long is Clairette de Die fermented?

    6 months

    What viticulture area is famous for Clairette de Die?

    Pays Diois in the Rhone Valley

    List the 4 steps in order for Partial Fermentation after the first fermentation and before the second fermentation?

    1. Refrigeration
    2. Racking
    3. Filtering
    4. Blending

    Which fermentation process has the longest lees aging?

    Traditional

    Which fermentation process does not have dosage?

    Partial Fermentation

    Dosage is added to the bottle in which fermentation process?

    Traditional

    Which 2 fermentation processes have dosage added to the tank?

    1. Tank method
    2. Transfer method

    Which fermentation process creates the highest alcohol?

    Traditional

    Which fermentation process creates the highest atmospheric pressure?

    Traditional

    Which fermentation process creates the lowest alcohol?

    Partial Fermentation

    What are the 4 main types of fermentation processes for making sparking wines?

    1. Traditional
    2. Tank
    3. Transfer
    4. Partial

    What is frizzante?

    fizzy sparking

    What is petillant?

    Slightly Sparkling

    List the top 10 sparkling wine producing countries?

    1. France
    2. Germany
    3. Spain
    4. Italy
    5. Russia
    6. US
    7. Thailand
    8. Ukraine
    9. Poland

    What is transversage?

    transfer between bottles

    What are the 2 typical pressure units of measure?

    1. atmostphere
    2. pounds per square inch

    What is 1 atmosphere of weight of air at sea level?

    1 bar

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