What is the term for winemakers who fly from North America to South America and back each year?
Beside stopping fermentation what else does adding sulfur do?
prevents juice from oxidizing and turning brown
What is the next step, after sorting in the pre-fermentation process especially for red and rose wines?
Crushing and destemming
What is the difference between crushing and pressing?
Crushing is first (if at all) and pressing uses pressure
Between making red, white, or rose wine, which can have pressing before or pressing after depending on the wine maker?
Compared to other red grapes, is maceration for Syrah and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes more or less time?
Compared to other red wines, is maceration longer or shorter if the wine is meant to be consumed upon release?
What are the 2 benefits of bladder presses compared to other presses?
1. will not crush seeds
2. will not burst skin cells
What could be added to the grape juice which would not change the flavor of the wine, while bringing the wine more into balance?
acid or acidification
Name 8 chemical by-products of fermentation?
3. higher alcohols
4. acetic acid
5. lactic acid
6 succinic acid
7. ethyl acetate
What are 4 main advantages of stainless steel tanks in fermentation?
3. easy to clean
4. easy to control temperature
Beside stainless steel tanks, what else can be used for storing grape juice during the fermentation process?
What is the scientific name for the yeast used in most wine fermentation processes?
What are the 4 types of Cap Management?
1. Punching down
2. Pumping over
What is the term for having the grape skins remaining in contact with the grape juice for weeks?
Sulfur is added after fermentation for 2 main reasons?
1. decrease spoilage
2. stop additional fermentation
What are 2 main differences between American and French oak barrels?
1. American is less expensive
2. American add more complexity
What is an alternative to barrel aging that could give similar results?
adding oak chips or planks to tank
What other process would be needed to simulate barrel aging when using oak chips?
create tiny bubbles for simulating the oxidation effect
What is the term for creating tiny bubbles in the alternative process to barrel aging?
What is the first thing that happens in Carbonic Maceration?
The bottom grapes break and start to ferment
What happens to the top grapes in Carbonic Maceration?
The top grapes are blanketed with CO2 from the fermentation of the bottom grapes. The enzymes will break sugars into alcohol
After fermenting, what is cold stabilization used for?
remove tartaric crystals also called white diamonds
In the Saignee method of wine making, which is used for Rose wines, the early juice or late juice?
Which method of Rose wine making has the grapes crushed and pressed at the same time?
Direct Press method
What are the 4 methods for making sweet wines?
2. Late harvest
3. dried grapes
What are the 2 main grapes used for making sweet wines in the Loire Valley?
2. Chenin Blanc
What are the 2 main white grapes used in making late harvest sweet wines?
1. Chenin Blanc
Dried Grapes are also used to make a dry, high alcohol wine in what region in Italy?
Amarone in Italy
What is the same effect as waiting until the grapes freezes on the vine?
storing late harvest grapes in a freezer
What is the risk of adding sweetness to a sweet wine after fermentation has completed?
risk of restarting fermentation
What type of wine making has a low impact on the environment but can have sulfur added?
How must the grapes be handled before bottling for Kosher wines?
handled only male observant Orthodox Jew under supervision of a Rabbi
What is unique in the process of Orange wine making?
white grape seeds spend a significant amount of time during maceration from days to weeks.