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5. Fermentation and Still Wines flashcards |

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  • What is the term for winemakers who fly from North America to South America and back each year?

    Flying winemakers

    Between new world and old world, where is terrior more important?

    Old World

    What are Pips?


    Between new world and old world, which has fewer regulations?

    new world

    Pre-fermentation steps are also called?

    The Crush

    The Crush begins when?

    soon as harvest

    What do winemakers do to the grapes en-route to the winery?

    keep them cool and covered

    What can be added to the grapes before fermentation to stop any fermentation?


    Why would sulfur be added to grapes before fermentation?

    to stop fermentation

    Beside stopping fermentation what else does adding sulfur do?

    prevents juice from oxidizing and turning brown

    The first stop at the grape reception area in a winery is?

    sorting table

    What is removed at the sorting table?

    leaves, stems, debris, underripe grape bunches, damaged fruit

    Can grape sorting be partially mechanized?


    What is the next step, after sorting in the pre-fermentation process especially for red and rose wines?

    Crushing and destemming

    What does a crushing-destemming machine do?

    removes the grapes from the stems without crushing

    Is there pressure applied to the crushing process?


    What is the next step after crushing-destemming?


    What is the difference between crushing and pressing?

    Crushing is first (if at all) and pressing uses pressure

    What is free-run juice?

    The first juice from the grape during crushing and before pressing

    What is press juice?

    Juice from the pressing process and may or may not contain the free-run juice

    What is the pre-process step used instead of crushing?

    whole-berry fermentation

    Besides the juice, what else is left after crushing and destemming?

    skins and seeds

    Between making red or white wine, which has pressing before fermentation?


    Between making red or white wine, which has pressing after fermentation?


    To make white wine, what is limited as compared to red?

    contact time between skins and juice

    Between making red, white, or rose wine, which can have pressing before or pressing after depending on the wine maker?


    Besides sulfur what else could postpone fermentation?

    Cooling or Cold Soak

    What is macerate?

    skins remain in contact with juice

    In the making of white wine, how long is normal maceration?

    zero to less than 24 hours

    In the making of white wine, how long is maceration using aromatic grapes?

    longer than 24 hours

    In the making of red wine, how long is maceration?

    days to weeks

    Compared to other red grapes, is maceration for Syrah and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes more or less time?

    less time

    Compared to other red grapes, is maceration for Pinot Noir longer or shorter time?


    In the making of red wine, what do you need if maceration is before fermentation?

    Cold Soak

    Compared to other red wines, is maceration longer or shorter if the wine is meant to be consumed upon release?


    What is considered to be the highest quality of juice?

    free-run juice

    What are the 2 benefits of bladder presses compared to other presses?

    1. will not crush seeds
    2. will not burst skin cells

    How does a bladder press work?

    a balloon is slowly inflated

    What is Pomace?

    the cake of dry compressed seeds and skins after juice is released

    In most vineyards what is pomace used for?


    In some unique cases what is pomace used for?

    making Marc or Grappa

    What are the 3 main must adjustments?

    1. Acidification
    2. Chaptalization
    3. add Tannin

    Between new world and old world, which has few restrictions on must adjustments?

    New World

    What is the generic term, if the grape juice destined for fermentation is altered?

    Must Adjustment

    Would acidification be more likely used in hot years or cool years?

    hot years

    What is the typical acid used in acidification?

    Tartaric Acid

    What could be added to the grape juice which would not change the flavor of the wine, while bringing the wine more into balance?

    acid or acidification

    What is chapitalization?

    adding sugar before fermentation

    Would chapitalization be more likely used in hot years or cool years?


    What process would be used for not optimally ripened grapes before fermentation?


    What is debourbage?

    Juice settling

    Chapitalization and Acidification are part of what process in the wine making?


    What process is after Pre-Fermenation?


    What does the term catalyzed mean?

    bring about

    What organic substance is capable of causing a chemical change?


    Fermentation involved what type of living biological agent?


    What 3 things does the breakdown of sugar produce?

    1. alcohol
    2. carbon dioxide
    3. heat

    At what temperature does yeast start to die?

    100 degrees F

    Name 8 chemical by-products of fermentation?

    1. glycerol
    2. methanol
    3. higher alcohols
    4. acetic acid
    5. lactic acid
    6 succinic acid
    7. ethyl acetate
    8. acetaldehyde

    What are 4 main advantages of stainless steel tanks in fermentation?

    1. inert
    2. airtight
    3. easy to clean
    4. easy to control temperature

    What is the French word for barrel?


    A 60 gallon barrel is how many liters?

    225 liters

    Beside stainless steel tanks, what else can be used for storing grape juice during the fermentation process?

    wooden barrels

    What are the 2 common methods to stop fermentation after it has started?

    1. Sulfur
    2. refrigeration

    Between the new world and old world, which uses natural fermentation more often?

    Old World

    What is natural fermentation?

    using the indigenous yeast

    What is inoculation?

    adding a specific yeast strain to start the fermentation

    What is the scientific name for the yeast used in most wine fermentation processes?

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    What are the 4 types of Cap Management?

    1. Punching down
    2. Pumping over
    3. Delestage
    4. Rotofermentation

    How is a cap formed?

    CO2 pushes solids to the top

    What is the problem with leaving a cap alone?

    Acetobactor grow on the cap

    What is delestage?

    drain the bottom of the juice and pump over the cap

    What is another name for delastage?

    rack and return

    Which process of cap management uses rotating paddles?


    How can you speed up fermentation?

    increase the temperature

    What is the ideal temperature for fermenting Pinot Noir?

    60 to 70 degrees F

    What is the ideal temperature for fermenting strong Cabernet Sauvignon?

    85 to 95 degrees F

    What are 2 advantages of fermenting at higher temperatures?

    1. faster
    2. more phenols from skins

    Between red and white, which has a need for Cap Management?


    Between red and white, which is usually fermented at lower temperatures?


    What is the range of temperature for fermenting white wines?

    50 to 60 degrees

    How long is fermentation of white wine?

    2 to 6 weeks

    Which is faster, fermenting for red wines or fermenting for white wines?

    fermenting for red wines

    Between red, white and rose, which 2 are usually fermented at the same temperatures?

    white and rose

    Sweet wines are usually about what percent alcohol?


    Dry wines are usually about what percent alcohol?

    12% to 14%

    What is the term for having the grape skins remaining in contact with the grape juice for weeks?

    Extended Maceration

    What is MLF?

    Malolactic Fermentation

    Between red and white, which is Malolactic Fermentation more common?


    What is not a true fermentation but is actually a conversion process?

    Malolactic Fermentation

    How can you start Malolactic Fermentation?

    innoculate with a specific strain of lactic bacteria

    How can you stop Malolactic Fermentation?

    add Sulfur Dioxide

    What is the chemical formula for Sulfur Dioxide?


    What changes the flavor of wine from green apple to creamy?

    Malolactic Fermentation

    Name an ester by-product of Malolactic Fermentation?


    What ester adds a buttery aroma?


    What varietal white wine benefits from Malolactic fermentation?


    Malolactic Fermentation is part of what process in wine making?

    Post Fermentation

    Post Fermentation pressing is needed to?

    remove solids

    Between red and white, which usually need Post Fermentation pressing?


    Between red and white, which uses less Clarification?


    What are the 3 styles of Clarification?

    1. Racking
    2. Fining
    3. Filtering

    Between racking, fining and filtering styles of clarification, which has more Lees contact?


    What is the definition of Lees?

    Any solid particles at the bottom

    What are the English words for "sur lie aging"

    on the lees

    What is "sur lie aging"?

    juice having extended time with contact with lees

    What is batonnage?

    stirring the lees

    What is the benefit of batonnage?

    adds yeasty aroma and creamy texture

    What are the 3 main products that can be used in Fining?

    1. gelatin
    2. egg white
    3. bentonite clay

    What 2 main products remove tannins in fining?

    1. gelatin
    2. egg white

    What is removed in wine by using bentonite clay?


    Gravity is used for which style of clarification?


    What is the main benefit of sterile filtering?

    removes bacteria that may cause spoilage

    What style of filtering removes solids?


    Sulfur is added after fermentation for 2 main reasons?

    1. decrease spoilage
    2. stop additional fermentation

    What 2 white varietal wines benefit from oak aging?

    1. Chardonnay
    2. Sauvignon Blanc

    Between red, white and rose, which is more common to use Oak aging?


    What is the term for tannin molecules combined together?

    polymerized tannins

    What type of aging has slow oxidation?


    what type of aging adds complexity to the wine?


    What type of aging adds flavors to the wine?


    Which is more effective in barrel aging, larger or smaller barrels?

    smaller barrels

    A new barrel is usually less than how many years?

    4 years

    What 2 types of trees are used for most barrels?

    1. American Oak
    2. French Oak

    What are 2 main differences between American and French oak barrels?

    1. American is less expensive
    2. American add more complexity

    What is an alternative to barrel aging that could give similar results?

    adding oak chips or planks to tank

    What other process would be needed to simulate barrel aging when using oak chips?

    create tiny bubbles for simulating the oxidation effect

    What is the term for creating tiny bubbles in the alternative process to barrel aging?


    What aging process is used after barrel aging?

    Bottle Aging

    Between red and white, which is usually bottle aged?


    What is the term for the alternative fermentation which uses whole berries?

    Carbonic Maceration

    What type of fermentation uses unbroken grapes in the absence of oxygen?

    Carbonic Maceration

    What is the first thing that happens in Carbonic Maceration?

    The bottom grapes break and start to ferment

    What happens to the top grapes in Carbonic Maceration?

    The top grapes are blanketed with CO2 from the fermentation of the bottom grapes. The enzymes will break sugars into alcohol

    What is phenol is usually lower in Carbonic Maceration compared to normal fermentation?


    What process may be needed after Carbonic Maceration?

    Malolatic Fermentation

    What is the famous wine which uses Carbonic Maceration?

    Beaujolais Noveau

    What aroma is unique in Beaujolais Noveau?

    tropical fruit

    What process is more important for branded wines?


    After fermenting, what is cold stabilization used for?

    remove tartaric crystals also called white diamonds

    What is the temperature used for Cold Stabilization?

    minus 4 degrees F

    What is the usual length of time for Cold Stabilization?

    2 to 3 weeks

    What style of wine almost never has malolactic fermentation?


    What style of wine almost never has lees stirring?


    What style of wine almost never has oak aging?


    What does Blush mean in a Rose wine?

    slightly sweet rose

    What is the Spanish word for Rose?


    What is the Italian word for Rose?


    What is the German word for Rose?


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