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  • What is the canopy?

    The entire top of the grape vine

    What is the Scion?

    The grape vine above the root.

    In order from youngest to oldest, what are the 3 terms used to describe and arm of a grape vine as it grows older?

    1. Spurs
    2. Canes
    3. Cordons

    Most grape vines are trimmed having 2 what?

    Cordons

    Most grapes vines are propagated how?

    by cloning

    List 4 steps on how a grape vine is cloned?

    1. Cut a short cane
    2. Place cane in water
    3. Root will grow
    4. Plant in soil

    What benefit is cloning over propagating from seeds?

    Offspring a genetically identical

    Attaching a new cane onto a trunk is called?

    grafting

    For a new planting, what year does a new vine first produce grapes?

    First or second year

    For a new planting, what year does a new vine produce grapes good enough for wine making?

    3rd year

    Vines can start decreasing in quantity of grapes around how many years old?

    20 years

    Grape vines can produce more excellent wines after how many years?

    20 years

    Grape vines have lived over how many years?

    100 years

    Most grape vines that have grapes for wine making grow best between what latitudes?

    30 N to 50 N
    30 S to 50 S

    About how many day is it from bud break to harvest for a typical grape vine?

    140 to 160 days

    In the best vineyards, what are the summers like?

    warm to hot days

    In the best vineyards, what are the winter like?

    short, cold to cold days

    Around what temperature does Bud Break usually occur?

    50 degrees F

    Flowering occurs how many days after bud break?

    40 to 80 days

    How are grape vine flowers pollinated?

    Wind or self pollinated

    What are the best condition for flowering?

    warm dry weather

    Berry Set is also called?

    Fruit set

    What is the order of the annual growth cycle of a grapevine: bud break, flowering, berry set, verasian, ripening, harvest?

    1. bud break
    2. flowering
    3. berry set
    4. verasian
    5. ripening
    6. harvest

    Sudden acceleration to maturation of the berry is called?

    Verasian

    The physiological change of the berry is called?

    Verasian

    What stage of the annual grow cycle does the berry change color?

    Verasian

    Ripening occurs after what stage of the annual growth cycle?

    Verasian

    Sugar is stored in the berry in what stage of the annual growth cycle?

    Ripening

    Acid falls in the berry in what stage of the annual growth cycle?

    Ripening

    What stage of the annual growth cycle does the seed develop?

    Ripening

    What changes about the berry during the ripening stage of the annual growth cycle?

    softens and enlarges

    Harvest occurs how long after verasian?

    about 1 and a half months

    What is the term for poor fruit set?

    Coulure

    What is another name for Shatter?

    Coulure

    What occurs about 3 months after bud break?

    berry set also called fruit set

    What is the term for abnormal fruit caused by bad weather?

    millerange

    What is another term for abnormal fruit set?

    millerange

    Berry Set take about how long?

    about 1 and 1/2 months

    What are the 4 metabolic processes in grapes vines?

    1. Photosynthesis
    2. Respiration
    3. Transpiration
    4. Translocation

    What is the term for the grapevine metabolic process that converts Carbon dioxide and water to sugar?

    Photosynthesis

    What process breaks down sugar for energy?

    Respiration

    Photosynthesis occurs best above what temperature?

    50 degree F

    What 5 conditions will promote maximum ripeness?

    1. warm (not hot and not cold)
    2. long days
    3. clear days
    4. minimal shading
    5. Aspect

    What is the best aspect?

    Slope of hill facing sun

    Why are longer days important in developing grapes?

    produces more sugar in grapes

    The amount of photosynthesis changes under 2 main conditions.

    1. Sunshine
    2. Temperature

    Photosynthesis is best between what temperatures?

    70 F to 85 F

    Photosynthesis slows as temperatures become greater than?

    95 F

    What signals the grape vine to go into the dormant state?

    cold nights

    What 2 things happen when a grape vine is entering the dormant state?

    1. leaves drop
    2. sap is withdrawn from branches to the trunk and roots

    When sugar is not available to the grapevine, what does the plant use to metabolize for energy?

    Malic Acid

    What will start lowering the acid level in a grape?

    metabolizing Malic Acid

    For each 10 degree F increase what happens to a grapevine?

    The respiration doubles.

    The term for the small holes in the underside of the leaf where water evaporates is?

    Stomatas

    The term for the metabolic process where materials are moved from one part of the plant to another part is?

    Translocation

    What part of the grapevine, creates sugars?

    the leaf

    Where are the sugars for the grapevine stored for later use?

    the grape

    What metabolic process moves sugars from the leaf to the grape?

    Translocation

    What primary method is used to avoid viral diseases in a vineyard?

    not adding new vines.

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter transmits what disease?

    Pierce's disease

    Pierce's disease causes what condition in a grapevine?

    premature leaf fall

    What are the 2 ideal conditions for fungal disease?

    1. warm
    2. humid

    What is the other term for Powdery Mildew?

    Oidium

    What is the other term for Downy Mildew?

    Pernonospore

    What type organism causes noble rot?

    Fungus

    What type organism causes Pierce's disease?

    bacteria

    What type of diseases are Powery Mildew and Downy Mildew?

    Fungal

    What is the Latin name for the organism causes Noble Rot?

    Botrytis cinerea

    What is the French term for Noble Rot?

    Pourriture noble

    What is the German term for Noble Rot?

    Edelfaule

    What are the 3 most common white grapes that benefit from noble rot?

    1. Semillon
    2. Riesling
    3. Chenin Blanc

    What type of wine is processed from grapes which have noble rot?

    sweet wines

    How does noble rot affect the grape?

    uses filaments into the grape to extract water

    What are the ideal conditions for noble rot?

    morning fog and afternoon sun

    What was the Latin name for the pest that nearly destroyed all old world grapevines?

    Phylloxera

    What was the pest that nearly destroyed all old world grapevines?

    a tiny louse

    What do new world species grapevines do to protect from Phylloxera?

    form galls under the leaves

    What part of the grapevine did Phylloxera attack Vitis vinifera?

    the roots

    How are old world vine varieties saved from Phylloxera?

    graft old world vines onto new world rootstock

    What soil conditions do not promote Phylloxera?

    rich sandy soils

    What underground animal can spread virus diseases from plant to plant in a vineyard?

    Nematode

    What bio fumigant can reduce nematodes?

    Mustard Plant

    Nematodes are more of a problem when the grapevine has?

    shallow roots

    What human process can cause grapevines to have shallow roots?

    Drip irrigation

    What 4 components make up Terroir in the old world?

    1. Climate
    2. Soil
    3. Sunlight
    4. Water

    Define Climate.

    historical average weather

    Define Weather.

    actual meteorological conditions experienced in an area.

    Poor sugar-acid balance can be caused by?

    high temperatures

    Humidity promotes what 2 main disease categories?

    1. mold
    2. fungus

    Is fog good or bad?

    both. Fog is good for botrytis

    What weather condition can both reduce humidity and pests but also cause plant stress?

    high winds

    What weather condition is both good and bad for wine making but is good for Botrytis?

    Fog

    What is the annual average precipitation that is best for wine grapes?

    20 to 30 inches per year

    What happens to the berries if it rains during harvest?

    they swell

    What level of Climate occurs at the plant level?

    micro-climate

    What level of Climate occurs at the vineyard level?

    meso-climate

    What level of Climate occurs at the regional level?

    Macro-climate

    What 5 types of soils are most commonly found in vineyards?

    1. clay
    2. chalk
    3. sand
    4. gravel
    5. limestone

    What happens to grapevine grown in very fertile soil?

    There are more leaves than grapes.

    What are the 4 particle sizes of soils found in vineyards?

    1. Clay
    2. Silt
    3. Sand
    4. rocks and stone

    Name the 5 main physical geographical features important to a location of a vineyard?

    1. Latitude
    2. Elevation
    3. Topography
    4. Aspect
    5. Proximity to bodies of water

    What advantage does a vineyard usually have at higher elevations?

    more sunlight

    What advantage does a hillside have for a vineyard?

    less frost

    What disadvantage does a hillside have for a vineyard?

    harder for workers

    The best vineyards have an aspect that slopes how?

    towards the sun

    What is the benefit of having a vineyard near water?

    less temperature fluctuation

    What are the 3 main climates for vineyards?

    1. Maritime
    2. Continental
    3. Mediterranean

    What are the summer conditions of a Mediterranean climate?

    warm and dry

    What are the winter conditions of a Mediterranean climate?

    mild and wet

    Describe the humidity in a Mediterranean climate?

    low

    What is left on a grapevine after Cane Pruning?

    1 or 2 canes, each with 6 to 10 nodes

    What is left on a grapevine after Spur Pruning?

    several canes on a few inches long, with 1 or 2 nodes on each cane

    What is the term for pruning vine leaves during the growing season?

    Canopy Management

    What are the 4 type of vine training systems?

    1. Head training or bush training
    2. Guyot
    3. Cordon
    4. Pergola

    What is VSP?

    Vertical Shoot Positioning

    What are the 2 types of Guyot training systems?

    1. single Guyot
    2. double Guyot

    What type of pruning is done with Guyot Training?

    cane pruning

    What type of pruning is done with Cordon training?

    spur pruning

    What is the difference between single Guyot and double Guyot training systems?

    single Guyot has 1 canes per vine trained along one wire.
    double Guyot has 2 canes per vine each trained along a different wire.

    What is unique about Pergola Training systems?

    The vines can be overhead

    What units does US measure sugar in grapes?

    Brix

    What is the tool to measure Brix?

    refractometer or old fashioned hydrometer

    How much alcohol will 24 Brix grapes fermented dry be?

    24 * 5/9 = 13.3 % alcohol

    What units does France measure sugar in a grape?

    Baume

    How much alcohol will 12 Baume grapes were fermented dry be?

    12% alcohol

    What units does Germany measures sugar in a grape must?

    Oechlse

    What is oechlse measuring?

    the sugar density of the grape must

    What percent alcohol will 68 Oechle grapes be fermented dry?

    68 Oechle is roughtly 9% alcohol

    If the density of the grape must is 1.068, what is the Oechlse?

    68 Oechlse

    What units does Austria measure sugar for wine making?

    KMW

    What is Klosterneuburger Mostwaage?

    KMW unit of measure for sugar in Austria

    What is KMW measuring?

    The exact sugar content of the grape must

    What unit of USDA tracks organic food products?

    National Organic Program

    What does the abbreviation NOP mean as a part of the USDA?

    National Organic Program

    How many years free of chemicals before a vineyard can be classified as organic?

    3 years

    What does the abbreviation for IMP mean?

    Integrated Pest Management

    What major department runs the NOP in the US?

    USDA

    What is the main difference of Integrated Pest Management compared to non-IPM?

    IMP control pests without chemicals

    What vineyard practice is more organic than organic?

    Biodynamic Viticulture

    What international organization certifies a vineyard as Biodynamic Viticulture?

    Demeter International

    What vineyard practice has leaf days and root days?

    Biodynamic Viticulture

    What vineyard practice notes phases of the moon?

    Biodynamic Viticulture

    What vineyard practice has metaphysical elements and a few mandated practices?

    Biodynamic Vitculture

    What vineyard practice is more of a grayscale of relative value?

    Sustainable Viticulture

    What vineyard practice is noted for leaving the land for the next generation in better condition?

    Sustainable Viticulture

    What vineyard practice addresses global warming?

    Sustainable Viticulture

    What vineyard practice prides on using water wisely?

    Sustainable Viticulture

    What 3 US organizations are involved with Sustainable Viticulture?

    1. Lodi Winegrape Commission
    2. Napa Valley Vintners
    3. New York State Vine Balance

    Lodi Rules are associated with which Sustainable viticulture organization?

    Lodi Winegrape Commission

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