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1. Wine Composition and Chemistry flashcards |
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  • What is the fermented product of grapes?

    wine

    Name the 4 main alcohols in wine?

    1. Ethyl Alcohol also called Ethanol
    2. Glycerol
    3. Methyl Alcohol also called Methanol
    4. Fusel Alcohols also called Higher Alcohols

    Name the 3 main acids in wine that originate from grapes?

    1. Tartar Acid
    2. Malic Acid
    3. Citric Acid

    Name the 3 main acids in wine that are created through fermentation?

    1. Lactic Acid
    2. Acetic Acid
    3. Succinic Acid

    Tartar acid at low temps will form what?

    White Diamonds

    How can White Diamonds be removed?

    through Cold Stabilization before bottling

    Which acid tastes like green apples?

    Malic Acid

    Which acid is more common in grapes grown in cool climates?

    Malic Acid

    Define assuage.

    Make something less intense

    Which acid is sometimes added to low quality wines?

    Citric Acid which is also natural in minute quantities

    Which acid is created through Malolactic Fermentation?

    Lactic Acid

    Name the bacteria involved with Malolactic Fermentation?

    Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Which acid has a buttery aroma?

    Lactic Acid

    Lactic Acid is created through Malolactic Fermentation from what other acid?

    Malic Acid

    Which wine acid is more common in Vinegar?

    Acetic Acid

    Which wine acid is most volatile?

    Acetic Acid

    Acetic Acid is more common which type of wine?

    Red wines

    Name the bacteria that creates Acetic acid?

    Acetobactor Bacteria

    What acid can be create by either bacteria or through a chemical reaction between alcohol and oxygen?

    Acetic Acid

    Which acid can get so high in concentration that the wine can become undrinkable?

    Acetic Acid

    Which acid is a minor component of grapes and can be a by-product of fermentation?

    Succinic Acid

    Which acid is sharp, slightly bitter, and slightly salty?

    Succinic Acid

    Name 2 common methods to describe the amount of acid in wines?

    1. Total Acidity
    2. pH

    Between 2.9 and 3.9, which is the stronger acid?

    2.9

    What can be added to a wine before selling that is determined by the amount of acid measured in the wine?

    Sulfur

    What is the typical percentage of sugar in grapes at harvest?

    15% to 28%

    Simple sugars are also called?

    Monosaccharides.

    Name the two types of Monosaccharides?

    1. Glucose
    2. Fructose

    Wines with less sugar are considered?

    Dryer

    Dessert wines can have sugar levels up to what percentage?

    18%

    Name 5 phenolic compound groups?

    1. Anthocyanins
    2. Favones and Flavonols
    3. Tannins
    4. Vanillin
    5. Resveratrol

    What are 3 other names for Phenolic compounds?

    1. Phenolics
    2. Polyphenolics
    3. Polyphenols

    What component of wine can have a major impact in minute quantities?

    Phenolic compounds

    Most phenolic compounds are from what 2 parts of the grape?

    1. Skins
    2. Seeds

    What phenolic compound group is the red pigment in wine?

    Anthocyanins

    What phenolic compound group is the yellow pigment in wine?

    Flavones and Flavonols

    What phenolic compound group is astringent or bitter?

    Tannins

    What 2 phenolic compound groups are also found in Oak?

    1.Tannins
    2. Vanillin

    What phenolic compound group causes a drying sensation in the mouth?

    Tannins

    What phenolic compound group is the backbone of big reds?

    Tannins

    Tannins in wine are from what 3 parts of the grape?

    1. Skins
    2. Seeds
    3. Stems

    More sunlight increases which phenolic compound group?

    Flavones and flavonols

    Which phenolic compound is more aromatic?

    Vanillin

    Which phenolic compound may have beneficial health effects?

    Resveratrol

    Overtime Tannins and pigments can?

    Polymerize

    What is the process called when molecules combine forming longer chains?

    Polymerization

    What happens to Tannins and pigments when they polymerize?

    They drop out of solution.

    Oxidized alcohol forms what?

    Aldehydes

    What is the most common type of Aldehydes?

    Acetaldehydes

    What is the largest group of odoriferous compounds?

    Esters

    What is the most common Ester?

    Ethyl Acetate

    Ethyl Acetate is form by what 2 components?

    1. Acetic acid
    2. Ethanol

    What Ester in low amounts smells flowery or fruity?

    Ethyl Acetate

    What Ester in high amounts smells like nail polish?

    Ethyl Acetate

    What 3 dissolved gasses are commonly found in wine?

    1. Oxygen
    2. Carbon Dioxide
    3. Sulfites

    What dissolved gas can be both beneficial and damaging?

    Oxygen

    What dissolved gas is in the bubbles of sparkling wines?

    Carbon Dioxide

    Sulfites are based on what element?

    Sulfur

    Name an important preservative in wine?

    Sulfites

    Name a common antioxidant added to wine?

    Sulfites

    Name the most common antibacterial agent in wine?

    Sulfites

    The U.S. must label the amount of sulfates in wine if the amount is greater than?

    10 ppm

    Ethanol is also called?

    Ethyl Alcohol

    Methanol is also called?

    Methyl Alcohol

    Acids are what percent by volume in most wines?

    0.5% to 0.75%

    Name the strongest acid in wines?

    Tartaric Acid

    What 2 acids are involved in Malolactic Fermentation?

    1. Malic Acid
    2. Lactic Acid

    What normally is the percentage of alcohol in wines?

    10% to 15%

    What does Malolactic Fermentation do to Malic Acid?

    1. Assuage (make less intense)
    2. convert to Lactic Acid.

    What phenolic compound group deepens in color with increased acidity?

    Anthocyanins

    Which phenolic compound group is also a preservative?

    Tannins

    What are the 2 major types of wine?

    1. Red
    2. White

    What type of organism is used in the fermentation of grapes to make wine?

    Yeast

    What type of organism makes Acetic Acid?

    Bacteria

    Between water and alcohol, which is heavier?

    Alcohol

    What produces the tears or legs in a glass of wine after the wine is swirled?

    high levels of Alcohol

    What sometimes can appear at the bottom of a wine bottle and will not redissolve?

    White Diamonds

    What sometimes can appear at the bottom in a wine bottle but is not considered a defect?

    White Diamonds

    Name 5 main types of wine?

    From Wikipedia

    1. Red Wine
    2. White Wine
    3. Rose Wine
    4. Sparkling Wine
    5. Fortified Wine

    All 5 types of wines can be made with 3 main levels of sweetness, what is another term for level of sweetness?

    From Wikipedia

    wine making style

    What are the 3 main levels of sweetness that the 5 main types of wine can be made?

    From Wikipedia

    1. Dry
    2. Semi-Sweet also called Off-Dry
    3. Sweet

    Name 2 main styles of Red Wine?

    From Wikipedia

    1. Dry Red
    2. Sweet Red

    Name 2 main styles of White Wine?

    from Wikipedia

    1. Dry White
    2. Sweet White

    Name 2 main styles of Rose Wine?

    from Wikipedia

    1. Dry Rose Wine
    2. Off-Dry Rose Wine
    (very rarely is a Rose sweet)

    Name 3 main types of Sparkling Wine?

    from Wikipedia

    1. Red Sparkling Wine
    2. White Sparkling Wine
    3. Rose Sparkling Wine

    Name 2 main types of Fortified Wine?

    from Wikipedia

    1. Red Fortified
    2. White Fortified

    What is another name for sweet Fortified Wines?

    from Wikipedia

    Dessert Wines

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