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  1. May be applied to those who present alternative viewpoints.
  2. Can involve changes in the volume of products made or product features.
  3. Implies the management of the entire value chain, from suppliers through to customers.
  4. Attempt to resolve conflict through the use of civil discussion.
  5. Temporary teams that are comprised of people from different areas in the organization, each with a unique perspective and different information about the problem.
  6. Grouping people according to the basic functions of the business that they perform.
  7. A type of organization in which decisions are made at high levels.
  8. Process of transmitting information to others; one of the most useful tools for overcoming resistance to change.
  9. Works with employees in organized labor unions.
  10. Belief that a group can do no wrong and is beyond criticism.
  11. Naturally reduces resistance to change.
  12. Exchange of information between individuals in different units and levels of the company.
  13. Assessing whether work has been done in a manner that is consistent with the previous functions.
  14. Part of operations management that continues to search for cost effective ways to improve productivity through new and improved technologies.
  15. Sending critical information through multiple channels or media.
  16. Capacity of a medium for information
  17. A competitive strategy technique that finds some basis for being different.
  18. Ability to project a positive outlook and deal with negative emotions that arise.
  19. Style of leadership that involves subordinates in decision-making, asking for their input and involvement.
  20. New changes that may reduce an individual's status and influence.
  21. For each critical position, three potential replacements are listed along with their readiness for moving up.
  22. Uses threats of punishment to get subordinates to do things.
  23. Situations that involve known goals but incomplete option information, and the likelihood or probability of outcomes is not known.
  24. Individuals who seek to protect the group from dissenting viewpoints.
  25. Ability to get others to do things
  26. An attempt to influence the forces in the environment.
  27. Context-related factors that turn employees off, such as pay, working conditions, and coworker and supervisor relations.
  28. Administrative school writer who applied her training in psychology to understand workers and their reactions to management.
  29. Leadership dimension that involves listening to workers, being supportive, and encouraging them.
  30. Technical, interpersonal, and problem-solving capabilities that contribute to the overall effectiveness of a team.
  31. The most concrete embodiment of the organizing function; most charts use rectangles to represent departments or other units, with lines showing the connections and formal authority relationships.
  32. Proposed 5 categories of need that influence human motivation.
  33. Another means available to managers in an attempt at reducing resistance to change.
  34. Final contingency factor for organizing, often described in terms of stability and complexity.
  35. Configuration of parts and manufacturing systems that allow for both low cost and high variety.
  36. The products that are packaged and ready to be shipped to customers.
  37. When the duties and boundaries assigned to an individual are not clear.
  38. Provides skills for the future.
  39. An aspect of organizing; one of the basic devices in the hierarchy or chain of command.
  40. Response to conflict in which a person acquiesces to the other party or shows concern for their interests without regard to one's own.
  41. A "firming up" of the new processes.
  42. Involves making special efforts to recruit and hire members of protected classes.
  43. A schedule of reinforcement based on behavior.
  44. Something has happened but the employee has not perceived it.
  45. By performing a small set of tasks, greater volume in productivity can be achieved.
  46. A time-based schedule of reinforcement.
  47. Decision-making process grounded in the view that the manager operates in the best economic interests of the organization.
  48. The speed at which information becomes available.
  49. The hardware and software that provides managers with needed and timely information.
  50. Means of handling conflict that is high on self-interest but also meets the other party's interests.
  51. One of the most common responsibility centers, where responsibility is maintained for staying under expense targets.
  52. A process of analysis that involves looking at...
    S - strengths
    W - weaknesses
    O - opportunities
    T - Threats
  53. Assure that organizational processes are doing what they were intended to do without excessive expenditures of resources.
  54. Organizations that delegate decision-making to lower levels.
  55. Pertains to equity theory and may include effort, education, skill, or training; the individual members and the knowledge and information they possess.
  56. Statement of tasks performed on the job and the conditions under which they were performed.
  57. Employees who do not directly assist in making the product but provide critical advice or information.
  58. Fourth stage of group development with roles readily shifting as other members take on these roles as needed; results in greater cooperation and more productive ways of problem solving.
  59. Once the lower-order needs are satisfied, then those above start to emerge as motivational factors.
  60. When a positive condition is presented following behavior.
  61. Making the plans and structures work as designed.
  62. A responsibility center that subtracts expenses from revenue.
  63. Focus on efficiency, meeting schedules, and task accomplishment.
  64. The absolute rights that people have such as freedom of consent, freedom of privacy, freedom of conscience, freedom of speech, and right to due process.
  65. Resolving conflict by utilizing a structural change.
  66. Final stage off group development where the work is completed but members still need a sense of closure so they can comfortably move on to new assignments.
  67. Temporary teams for a specific purpose; also referred to as ad hoc groups.
  68. Aversion to change, which brings uncertainty and discomfort.
  69. Products and services must be consistently produced with minimal errors; type of information that accurately portrays what is going on in the organization.
  70. Small volume and specific to customer needs.
  71. Links each employee to a manager who is linked to and other manager until the chain reaches the most senior manager, forming a clear and distinct line of authority.
  72. Often defined as the extent to which members are attracted and wish to remain with the group.
  73. Represents an attempt to resolve conflict by focusing on the issue, not the person.
  74. Context or situation in which an issue arose.
  75. When the capital budget is added to the profit center.
  76. Person is aware that his or her goals are block or potentially blocked by someone's action.
  77. Method that helps address concerns about change.
  78. Involves differences in how group work is performed.
  79. The amount of resources expended in accomplishing goals, often referred to as the ratio of inputs to outputs; measured in terms of how quickly information can be sent or how many people can receive the information.
  80. Groups that never meet but instead interact electronically; groups are geographically distributed, often around the globe.
  81. Emphasis on styles and behaviors of employees.
  82. A sub-optimal decision process whereby the available information is not shared and used in the decision-making process; dynamics within the group that limit or prevent synergy.
  83. Roles that help maintain good relationships among members so work can be accomplished; also known as maintenance roles.
  84. When resources are limited, they may need to be taken from somewhere else.
  85. Assumes that all should be treated with fairness and impartiality.
  86. Task roles address the content issues that the groups are working on.
  87. Achieving the right goals.
  88. Structure that can be based on products, geography, customers, or even materials.
  89. A cross-functional group with a permanent role that meets regularly to share information and make decisions.
  90. Most highly customized strategy whereby each product may have unique customized specifications and thus volumes are low.
  91. Principle best described as "the whole is greater than the sum of the parts."
  92. Landmark research study that investigated the impact of lighting on productivity in a manufacturing plant in suburban Chicago.
  93. A French mining executive who was instrumental in the development of the functions of management; identified fourteen principles of management that remain the bedrock of administrative practices.
  94. Reflects the link between performing and the outcomes associated with good performance; second component of expectancy theory.
  95. Set of activities that transform inputs into outputs.
  96. The broadest category of issues in the environment to which managers must pay attention; includes the economy and technology as well as legal-political and socio-cultural issues.
  97. Controls employed at the beginning of a process or the production cycle.
  98. Involves tension and friction between members of the group.
  99. Can readily adapt to changing conditions in the environment.
  100. Initial stage of group development when questions arise about the purpose of the group and if members will be able to attain it.
  101. Strategy that relies on inventory.
  102. Organization scheme that combines functional design with product teams.
  103. Teams that include a supervisor and several layers in the chain of command.
  104. A component of efficiency measures.
  105. A situation where the manager has full information about goals, options, and the outcomes associated with each alternative.
  106. Derived from knowledge and information.
  107. The application of specific, learned knowledge.
  108. Activities for attracting, retaining, and enhancing the performance of managers and workers in organizations.
  109. Fredrick Taylor's systematic approach to studying work in order to find a more rational way of conducting business.
  110. Informal rules that guide behavior.
  111. Conflict between different units or groups.
  112. Third stage of group development whereby members realize that all will contribute in different ways.
  113. Changes are made in work, people, structure, technology, and relationships.
  114. Giving an opinion leader or resistor a prominent role in the change process.
  115. Value of outcomes; third component of expectancy theory.
  116. The beliefs about appropriate behavior in the work-place.
  117. Characterized by layers of decision-making, which takes longer decisions and communication to move up and down the hierarchy and slows adaptability.
  118. Focuses on the outcomes or consequences of decisions and is based primarily on costs and benefits.
  119. Controls are employed during the process.
  120. With a matrix scheme, workers have both a functional and product manager, which may result in conflicting requests from each of the managers.
  121. To make needed changes, ties to the old way must be loosened.
  122. Structures where the authority for making decisions is at the lower levels.
  123. Emotional quality that drives people to achieve.
  124. Data made useful for management.
  125. System developed by Toyota to solve a problem with defective parts.
  126. Situation in which the tasks that are performed by units or individuals rely heavily on one another.
  127. Communication that comes from employees and is directed upward toward senior management.
  128. Specifying desired organizational results, or outcomes, as well as identifying the means for achieving those results.
  129. Looks at the means and intentions of decisions; the ends are not most important but rather the duties and obligations followed in getting there.
  130. Provide guidelines for the greater good of the community.
  131. Evaluation of business activities or processes to eliminate unneeded steps.
  132. A member of the administrative school who believes organizations had to create positive inducements and minimize negative inducements in order to encourage cooperation.
  133. People on the periphery of the organization who spend a portion of their time looking out into the environment.
  134. Suits filed when the employer does not carefully review prior histories.
  135. Critical components of a job that readily determine whether a disability would prevent someone from actually performing the job.
  136. A plan that is put in place to address unexpected events.
  137. Traditional form of authority.
  138. Components that have a specific and direct impact on the business; may also be referred to as stakeholders; includes customers, competitors, suppliers, labor organizations, and the community.
  139. A situation where the goals and options are known but the outcomes are not; willingness to take a chance.
  140. Once the internal ranking of jobs is done, then the prevailing pay rates in other companies are examined.
  141. Models that combine information based on historical relationships.
  142. Ways to achieve coordination without going to a full-blown matrix design; examples include direct contact, the use of liaisons, and task forces.
  143. Strategies that create more customized products from a limited number of options.
  144. Refers to the information needed to make decisions.
  145. A contingency for organizing based on growth and shrinkage.
  146. Lateral exchange between individuals.
  147. Update the database automatically, assuring greater timeliness and accuracy.
  148. Type of situational factor whereby the amount of structure in the task itself influences directive behaviors.
  149. Communication from senior management that is efficient but can cause ambiguity if not written clearly.
  150. Leadership style in which the manager asks questions and encourages the subordinate.
  151. Hershey-Blanchard's Life Cycle or Situational Theory based on whether or not the subordinate is ready for delegation; determined by education or experience, confidence and motivation, or willingness to assume responsibility.
  152. Process of providing feedback and offering suggestions for improvement more frequently.
  153. Situation in which groups may have doubts, but fail to raise them.
  154. Tasks are divided and employees become specialized in performing certain tasks.
  155. Idea that people search for a minimally acceptable, not optimal solution, when making decisions.
  156. Rate at which customers want products delivered.
  157. Studying jobs to create a job description and job specifications.
  158. Plans that may only be used once.
  159. All jobs are categorized or ranked on the level of responsibility, skill required, and amount of supervision given and received.
  160. Based on the concept of bounded rationality, which asserts that decision makers have limited time and mental capacities with which to make decisions and are forced to take shortcuts.
  161. Term that refers to the integrated information systems that support all business functions and their data storage needs.
  162. Max Weber's creation of files that provided written documentation of actions taken and rules to govern all routine office functions.
  163. Statement of desired results.
  164. Employees are paid more for each additional skill that they learn on the job.
  165. Method of explaining away disconfirming data.
  166. A list of skills, knowledge, and abilities needed to perform the job.
  167. Result of the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act, pertaining to employees who can perform essential job functions.
  168. When something aversive or negative happens following a behavior.
  169. All employment practices are based on merit and not race, religion, color, sex, or national origin.
  170. Specific statements of intended outcomes.
  171. Controls employed at the end of a process or the production cycle; asking subordinates to repeat a message to check for accuracy.
  172. A series of steps that get progressively more severe in their consequences for the employee.
  173. The number of subordinates reporting to one manager.
  174. Tries to extract knowledge from humans and codify it into decision rules or trees.
  175. Refers to whether or not subordinates are willing to trust and follow the leader.
  176. Influential writer from the human perspective who explained that workers responded to the attitudes of their managers, creating a self-fulfilling prophecy.
  177. The person experiencing conflict takes some action and the other person often responds in kind.
  178. Decision contexts that do not have an objective set of criteria and priorities; the determination of what is valued and viewed as important is based on political processes.
  179. Objectives that are...
    S - specific
    M - measurable
    A - attainable
    R - relevant
    T - time-based
  180. Results when subordinates identify with managers and want to be like them.
  181. Communicating information up and down the hierarchy.
  182. Fundamental values that societies impart to their members about right and wrong.
  183. Occurs when managers tell employees that changes are vital and they must accept them and become involved; failure to do so will result in sanctions and punishments.
  184. Holding each other responsible for a successful team performance.
  185. Belief that whatever the group does must be right.
  186. Situational factor in which the ability, skill levels, needs, and motivations impact the choice of leadership style.
  187. "Hot" or strong emotional response, which can result in anger or hostility.
  188. Involves differences in opinion about the task facing the group.
  189. Amount of information that is available for making decision.
  190. Involve cooperative agreements between firms.
  191. A competitive strategy that identifies a specific consumer group, or niche, in the marketplace that the company will serve.
  192. Uses computer hardware and software programs to store and make information readily retrievable to managers, as they need it to make decisions.
  193. Leaders who are in touch with their own emotions and internal states.
  194. Looks at issues in the organization that could be improved with training.
  195. Services produced in large volumes.
  196. Occurs when the budget becomes the ultimate goal, not profit-ability or doing more business.
  197. Belief that effort will lead to performance; first component of expectancy theory.
  198. Another type of responsibility center that is focused more externally and establishes, within the center, a set responsibility for generating revenue targets.
  199. Dimension of leadership pertaining to tasks.
  200. The process of getting finished products to customers.
  201. Tendency to persuade others by using emotional arguments.
  202. When individuals share thoughts, one person's ideas stimulate another to think of isues that would not have arisen if working alone.
  203. The components before any transformation by the company; includes steel, wire, and fabric.
  204. A system set up based on job rankings and ratings.
  205. Maintaining supplies of raw materials and products and coordinating their movements through the value chain.
  206. The pieces that will be assembled into the final product.
  207. Concept developed in science and later applied to management; organizations should be viewed as open systems that require energy, people, ideas, raw materials, capital, and information as inputs from the environment.
  208. Sows the seeds for future conflicts, which may lead to more consequential and costly actions.
  209. Ability to respond according to emotional needs to others.
  210. Individuals who are permanently assigned to a team to do their work.
  211. The set of activities designed to help an organization or business achieve its goals; an organizational contingency factor that revolves around choices and focuses on some areas instead of others.
  212. Term used by Fiedler to describe a situational, or contingency, approach to leadership; also referred to as LPC.
  213. Type of leader behavior that tells the subordinate how to perform, specifying steps with details on how to accomplish them.
  214. Legitimate disagreement with the nature of the proposed changes.
  215. Someone currently performing the job.
  216. Release of information to the public, often coordinated through a media campaign, to influence public opinion on a particular issue.
  217. New approach to performance management that elicits feedback from different perspectives.
  218. The pattern of relationships among workers.
  219. Serves the functions of communicating and working with non-union employees.
  220. Little or no faith in the person making the changes.
  221. Involves a manager or team of employees going to other companies and observing their processes.
  222. Workers who make a product or deliver a service.
  223. Occurs when opposing views are presented.
  224. Style of handling conflict where individuals act in their own self-interest without concern for the interest of the other party.
  225. Premature assumption that consensus has been achieved.
  226. Involves formal authority and the ability to reward, punish, and fire.
  227. Sets of behaviors that members engage in at the expense of the group.
  228. Selective use of information and structuring of events; highly risky.
  229. Addressing conflict through the use of training or replacement.
  230. Conflict among members of a team or group.
  231. A onetime set of activities with a definite beginning and ending point.
  232. Second stage of group development in which members notice that others seem to have slightly different agendas or goals.
  233. When rewards and goals are at odds with one another.
  234. Owning or identifying with the goals and intended results of a team.
  235. Relates to whether the tasks performed by the group are defined and clear.
  236. Situation in which the repeated actions of a coworker or supervisor create an environment whereby the employee cannot advance or work comfortably.
  237. Conflict between two individuals.
  238. A mental map of the organization and what impacts it.
  239. Plans that are used over and over: also known as recurring plans.
  240. The forces that drive people to behave in ways that energize, direct, and sustain their work behavior and performance.
  241. A strategy of separation based on price.
  242. A style of leadership that involves behavior that helps subordinates set higher, more challenging goals.
  243. A method of rapidly throwing out ideas with the goal of generating more ideas using the principle of synergy.
  244. The ability to relate with others, communicate well, and make requests in a manner that will motivate employees rather than offend them.
  245. Managers communicate decisions and need to document the actions taken.
  246. Content-related factors that excite workers such as responsibility, advancement, and personal growth.
  247. A set of behaviors that inspire and direct employees in the performance of their tasks.
  248. The economic value of the skills, abilities, and competencies of a company's workforce.
  249. Specify the means, or activities, that are chosen to reach the goals.
  250. Relates to equity theory; can be extrinsic (pay, promotions, bonuses, or recognition plaques) or intrinsic (satisfaction and a sense of achievement); results that should occur at the end of a group's activities.