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  • Management

    the use of people and resources to accomplish organizational objectives.

    Top-level managers

    responsible for direction and control of the organization as a whole (CEO, CFO, etc)

    Middle-level managers

    the head of major departments and their specialized units; spend most of their time developing and implementing strategic action plans to achieve organization goals (directors)

    Low-level managers

    work most closely with the greater workforce to ensure that individual employees are meeting their performance goals in a way that aligns with the organizational goals.

    organizational goal

    a goal at the highest level, focusing on broad statements of what the entire operation wants to achieve

    Managerial Skills

    what the manager uses to assist the organization in accomplishing its goals

    technical skills

    those skills needed to accomplish a specific task. It is the 'how to' skill set that allows a manager to complete his or her job (formal education, training, and on-the-job experience)

    human skills

    interpersonal skills are what a manager will use to work with his or her employees (empathizing, positive feedback)

    conceptual skills

    the manager's ability to think analytically about the organization and how to most effectively accomplish its goals (increasingly more important the higher the management level)

    Managers with good human skills understand

    their role inside the manager/employee relationship and how important things, like trust, cohesion, fairness, empathy, and good will, are to the overall success of the organization.


    complete business person (strategic, tactical and operational responsibilities)

    Henry Mintzberg Managerial Roles

    interpersonal, informational and decisional roles.

    interpersonal roles

    allow a manager to interact with his or her employees for the purpose of achieving organizational goals (figure-head, leader & liason)


    as a source of inspiration and authority to his employees


    direct and manage the performance of his employees


    communicates with internal and external members of the organization

    informational roles

    roles in which a manager must generate and share knowledge to successfully achieve organizational goals (monitor, disseminator and spokesperson)


    stay abreast to current industry standards and changes occurring in both the internal and external business environments


    take the information he gathered as a monitor and forward it on to the appropriate individuals


    communicates information about the organization to outside parties.

    Decision roles

    All of these roles involve the process of using information to make decisions (entrepreneur, disturbance-handler, resource-allocator and negotiator)


    looks for ways to improve productivity and efficiency within his organization and directs the change process from development to implementation.


    taking corrective action during times of dispute to remove any barriers toward organizational success.


    determines what gets done and when, creates a schedule, makes a budget


    acts as a representative whereby he looks out for the best interests of the party he represents

    Four Functions Of Managers

    planning, organizing, leading, and controlling


    manager will create a detailed action plan aimed at some organizational goal.


    determine how she will distribute resources and organize her employees according to the plan (delegate authority, assign work, and provide direction)


    connecting with her employees on an interpersonal level


    manager evaluates the results against the goals


    evaluating, recruiting, selecting, training, and placing appropriate individuals into defined job roles.

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