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  • Classical Management Theory

    finding the best possible way for workers to perform & manage tasks; includes bureaucratic management, classical scientific management and classical administrative management (late 19th century during the Industrial Revolution)

    Bureaucracy Management Theory

    Max Weber's Theory of Impersonal Management


    non-personal view of organizations followed a formal structure where rules, formal legitimate authority and competence were characteristics of appropriate management practices

    Characteristics Of Bureaucratic Organizations

    1) A well-defined formal hierarchy and chain of command; 2) Management by rules and regulations; 3) Division of labor and work specialization; 4) Managers should maintain an impersonal relationship with employees; 5) Competence, not personality, is the basis for job appointment and 6) Formal written records.

    Division of labor and work specialization allow

    align employees with their organizational tasks

    Formal written records are used to maintain

    Consistency and accountability

    Management by rules and regulations

    provides a set of standard operating procedures that facilitate consistency in both organizational and management practices

    well-defined formal hierarchy and chain of command

    distinguishes the level of authority within an organization.

    Managers should maintain an_____ relationship with employees to promote _____ and _________ _________ of all employees so that _________ decisions can be made.

    Managers should maintain an impersonal relationship with employees to promote fair and equal treatment of all employees so that unbiased decisions can be made.

    Competence, not _________, is the basis for job appointment.

    Competence, not personality, is the basis for job appointment.

    Classical Scientific School of Management

    focused on the 'science' of creating specialized work processes and workforce skills to complete production tasks efficiently

    four principles of scientific management:

    - Management should provide workers with a precise, scientific approach for how to complete individualized tasks.
    - Management should carefully choose and train each employee on one specific task.
    - Management should communicate with employees to ensure the method used to complete the task is, in fact, the most productive and efficient.
    - Management should create the appropriate division of labor.

    division of labor

    allows the manager to take complex tasks and break them down into smaller, more precise tasks that the individual workers can complete.

    Contributors of the scientific management theory

    Frederick Taylor, Henry Gantt, and Frank and Lillian Gilbreth

    Henry Ford provides a good example of ______________ ______________ ______________ with his development of the ______________ ________ used to produce his Model T

    Henry Ford provides a good example of classical scientific management with his development of the assembly line used to produce his Model T

    Observations Of Frederick Taylor

    employees were underpaid, their potential was unused, and there was a great deal of waste and inefficiency of workers and work processes.

    Father of Scientific Management

    Frederick Taylor

    Time-and-motion studies

    various techniques for establishing time standards for the performance of manual work


    group discussion regarding the assigning of responsibility for a failure or mistake

    Henry Gantt

    associate of Frederick Taylor; created Gantt Chart & Task and Bonus System

    Gantt Chart

    scientific method that demonstrates a project schedule, showing terminal and summary elements from start to finish and the amount of time it takes to complete each task.

    Terminal Elements

    smaller more intricate tasks that need to be completed as part of a larger task

    Summary Elements

    made up of terminal elements to form the larger task

    Gantt chart was first used on large construction projects, such as

    the Hoover Dam in the 1930s and the Eisenhower interstate highway network in the 1950s

    Task & Bonus System

    paid employees based on how well they improved their performance at the organization (guaranteed a hourly work)

    Piecework Pay System

    Work paid according to the number of units produced (Frederick Taylor)

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