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56 True/False questions

  1. how can glycolysis be inhibited? does this cancel out the drop in glucose concentration?falls by 0.5mmol over 3 hours

          

  2. what shape relationship does HbA1c have with the mean blood glucose over the life of RBC?-to adjust therapy to maintain normal glucose levels
    -interpreting symptoms and signs
    -to assess risks of tissue complications

          

  3. how long is the lifetime of serum albumin?2 weeks

          

  4. what patients might an HbA1c test be inaccurate?2-3 months

          

  5. what is a problem with continuous glucose monitoring?measures tissue glucose which lags behind blood glucose by 5- 15 minutes

          

  6. what measurement of glucose do labs usually use?plasma glucose

          

  7. where should random glucose readings be taken from?plasma glucose

          

  8. what is the reference range for serum fructosamine?200-285 umol/l

          

  9. what should levels of:
    cholesterol
    triglyceride
    HDL
    and
    LDL be?
    <4 mM
    <1.7 mM
    >1.1 mM
    <2 mM

          

  10. what are the three main reasons for testing blood glucose in diabetes?-to adjust therapy to maintain normal glucose levels
    -interpreting symptoms and signs
    -to assess risks of tissue complications

          

  11. when was benedict's solution first used for measuring urine sugar?1907

          

  12. what is the error rate of capillary glucose to plasma glucose?H₂O₂ + reduced dye --> oxidised dye (therefore coloured) + H₂O

          

  13. when is fructosamin testing particularly useful? example?when glucose control is changing quickly e.g. in diabetic pregnancy

          

  14. what is the reaction catalysed by peroxidase?H₂O₂ + reduced dye --> oxidised dye (therefore coloured) + H₂O

          

  15. how is serum fructosamine usually measured?HPLC= high performance liquid chromatography

          

  16. two tests which measure long term glucose control?measures tissue glucose which lags behind blood glucose by 5- 15 minutes

          

  17. what are the old and new measurements for HbA1c? when did it change? when will we stop co-reporting?old (DCCT) = percentage
    new (IFCC) = mmol/Mmol
    June 2009
    stop in 2011

          

  18. what are advantages to continuous glucose monitoring?measures tissue glucose which lags behind blood glucose by 5- 15 minutes

          

  19. what type of conditions affect HbA1c?glycated albumin

          

  20. How many times a day should patients with empowered T1DM test?4 times

          

  21. how does glucose attach to Hb?covalently

          

  22. How many times a day should patients with unstable blood glucose test?over 4 times

          

  23. how much is spent in the UK per year on capillary glucose monitoring strips?over £100 million

          

  24. how are the ketone bodies formed in diabetes?lack of insulin means triglycerides are broken down to fatty acids and glycerol.
    Fatty acids are converted to acetyl coA which is converted to acetoacetic acid which can then be converted to both acetone and 3 (-hydroxybutyric acid.

          

  25. when was the clinitest first used to measure urine sugar?1941

          

  26. what is serum cholesterol a risk factor for in diabetes?CRP
    homocysteine
    leptin
    adiponectin
    GLP-1

          

  27. How much of the HbA1c value is from glucose control in the previous month?50%

          

  28. what other substances are affected by diabetes?CRP
    homocysteine
    leptin
    adiponectin
    GLP-1

          

  29. what does 5% HbA1c equate to in the enw measurements?
    10%
    urine
    whole blood
    plasma
    capillary
    arterial
    interstitial

          

  30. what samples can be taken to measure glucose? (6)1941

          

  31. what does Fehling's test do? when was this used?reduces CuSo₄ which precipitates as Cu₂O in the presence of an aldehyde in urine
    1850

          

  32. How many times a day should patients with not empowered T1DM test?1-2 times

          

  33. what is fructosamine?HPLC= high performance liquid chromatography

          

  34. How many times a day should patients with T2DM on insulin and suphonyureas test?over 4 times

          

  35. how much lower is whole blood glucose compared to plasma glucose? why?10-15%
    it is affected by haematocrit

          

  36. how far back does a serum fructosamine test reflect?6-8 weeks
    (or 2 weeks-lifetime span of albumin??)

          

  37. what substances should be measured to gauge diabetic control?random glucose
    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c)
    ketones
    lipid: triglycerides, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol
    renal function
    urine protein

          

  38. how is HbA1c measured?glycated albumin

          

  39. when does glycosuria occur? what values?when renal threshold is exceeded
    about 10mmol/l

          

  40. what is the reference range of HbA1c in non- diabetic people?200-285 umol/l

          

  41. what is the reaction catalysed by glucose oxidase?Glucose + O₂--> gluconic acid + H₂O₂

          

  42. how far back does an HbA1c test reflect?2-3 months

          

  43. what test are the strips and tablets for testing ketone bodies based on? what is it?Rothera's test
    nitroprusside/glycine turns purple in the presence of acetoacetic acid/acetone

          

  44. How many times a day should patients with T2DM which is controlled by diet/metformin/glitazone test?1-2 times

          

  45. how is the glucose oxidase reaction usually detected?to monitor capillary glucose

          

  46. how much blood is take in a capillary glucose measurement?10-15%

          

  47. how does glycolysis in the RBC affect glucose concentration?falls by 0.5mmol over 3 hours

          

  48. what are the problems with measuring urine glucose?-retrospective
    -renal threshold can differ between patients and also individually
    -fluid intake affects the urine concentration

          

  49. what isn't detected in ketone body test strips/tablets?3-hydroxybutyric acid

          

  50. what is looked for when testing for renal function?200-285 umol/l

          

  51. how is continuous glucose monitoring carried out?subcutaneously implanted enzyme electrode where glucose oxidase is immobilised

          

  52. 3 ketone bodies which are measured in diabetes?lack of insulin means triglycerides are broken down to fatty acids and glycerol.
    Fatty acids are converted to acetyl coA which is converted to acetoacetic acid which can then be converted to both acetone and 3 (-hydroxybutyric acid.

          

  53. how did egyptians used to test glucose levels (1500BC)?covalently

          

  54. How many times a day should patients with unstable T2DM test?4 times

          

  55. why is the glucose oxidase reaction measured?to monitor capillary glucose

          

  56. what measurement of glucose do meters usually take?colorimetric assay