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56 Multiple choice questions

  1. 10-15%
  2. 3-hydroxybutyric acid
  3. veins or capillaries
  4. reduces CuSo₄ which precipitates as Cu₂O in the presence of an aldehyde in urine
    1850
  5. 31mmol/Mmol
    86 mmol/Mmol
  6. 1907
  7. covalently
  8. 4-6%
  9. -to adjust therapy to maintain normal glucose levels
    -interpreting symptoms and signs
    -to assess risks of tissue complications
  10. -retrospective
    -renal threshold can differ between patients and also individually
    -fluid intake affects the urine concentration
  11. coronary heart disease
  12. over £100 million
  13. can have a alarm to warn of high/low blood sugars
    provides "real time" readings
  14. random glucose
    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c)
    ketones
    lipid: triglycerides, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol
    renal function
    urine protein
  15. 50%
  16. colorimetric assay
  17. HPLC= high performance liquid chromatography
  18. ones which affect RBC turnover
  19. H₂O₂ + reduced dye --> oxidised dye (therefore coloured) + H₂O
  20. electrochemically as current flow
  21. linear
  22. 200-285 umol/l
  23. -acetone
    -3 (orß)-hydroxybutyric acid
    -acetoacetic acid
  24. subcutaneously implanted enzyme electrode where glucose oxidase is immobilised
  25. 1-2 times
  26. Rothera's test
    nitroprusside/glycine turns purple in the presence of acetoacetic acid/acetone
  27. 10-15%
    it is affected by haematocrit
  28. glycated albumin
  29. 1941
  30. falls by 0.5mmol over 3 hours
  31. Glucose + O₂--> gluconic acid + H₂O₂
  32. over 4 times
  33. HbA1c
    Serum fructosamine
  34. urine
    whole blood
    plasma
    capillary
    arterial
    interstitial
  35. fluoride oxalate
    no- there is still a 0.2-0.3 mmol/l drop
  36. lack of insulin means triglycerides are broken down to fatty acids and glycerol.
    Fatty acids are converted to acetyl coA which is converted to acetoacetic acid which can then be converted to both acetone and 3 (-hydroxybutyric acid.
  37. tasting urine
  38. plasma glucose
  39. 4 times
  40. measures tissue glucose which lags behind blood glucose by 5- 15 minutes
  41. CRP
    homocysteine
    leptin
    adiponectin
    GLP-1
  42. whole blood glucose but convert it to a plasma glucose equivalent
  43. 4 times
  44. when glucose control is changing quickly e.g. in diabetic pregnancy
  45. haemoglobin variants
    HbS or HbC carriers
  46. don't need to
  47. 0.25ul
  48. to monitor capillary glucose
  49. 6-8 weeks
    (or 2 weeks-lifetime span of albumin??)
  50. 1-2 times
  51. proteinuria
    microalbuminuria (e.g. unrin albumin:creatinine)
    plasma creatinine
  52. old (DCCT) = percentage
    new (IFCC) = mmol/Mmol
    June 2009
    stop in 2011
  53. 2 weeks
  54. <4 mM
    <1.7 mM
    >1.1 mM
    <2 mM
  55. 2-3 months
  56. when renal threshold is exceeded
    about 10mmol/l