54 Matching questions
- how long is the lifetime of serum albumin?
- where should random glucose readings be taken from?
- when does glycosuria occur? what values?
- two tests which measure long term glucose control?
- how can glycolysis be inhibited? does this cancel out the drop in glucose concentration?
- what test are the strips and tablets for testing ketone bodies based on? what is it?
- what type of conditions affect HbA1c?
- how is serum fructosamine usually measured?
- how far back does a serum fructosamine test reflect?
- what is serum cholesterol a risk factor for in diabetes?
- how much lower is whole blood glucose compared to plasma glucose? why?
- why is the glucose oxidase reaction measured?
- what are the problems with measuring urine glucose?
- what is a problem with continuous glucose monitoring?
- How much of the HbA1c value is from glucose control in the previous month?
- 3 ketone bodies which are measured in diabetes?
- what measurement of glucose do labs usually use?
- how are the ketone bodies formed in diabetes?
- what are the three main reasons for testing blood glucose in diabetes?
- what is the error rate of capillary glucose to plasma glucose?
- when was the clinitest first used to measure urine sugar?
- how is HbA1c measured?
- how much blood is take in a capillary glucose measurement?
- what isn't detected in ketone body test strips/tablets?
- How many times a day should patients with not empowered T1DM test?
- what are advantages to continuous glucose monitoring?
- what is the reaction catalysed by glucose oxidase?
- what is looked for when testing for renal function?
- what is fructosamine?
- what should levels of:
- what patients might an HbA1c test be inaccurate?
- when is fructosamin testing particularly useful? example?
- what other substances are affected by diabetes?
- when was benedict's solution first used for measuring urine sugar?
- how much is spent in the UK per year on capillary glucose monitoring strips?
- what does 5% HbA1c equate to in the enw measurements?
- what does Fehling's test do? when was this used?
- how is the glucose oxidase reaction usually detected?
- what is the reference range for serum fructosamine?
- how does glycolysis in the RBC affect glucose concentration?
- How many times a day should patients with T2DM which is controlled by diet/metformin/glitazone test?
- what shape relationship does HbA1c have with the mean blood glucose over the life of RBC?
- How many times a day should patients with unstable blood glucose test?
- how did egyptians used to test glucose levels (1500BC)?
- what is the reference range of HbA1c in non- diabetic people?
- what samples can be taken to measure glucose? (6)
- what is the reaction catalysed by peroxidase?
- what measurement of glucose do meters usually take?
- how does glucose attach to Hb?
- How many times a day should patients with empowered T1DM test?
- what substances should be measured to gauge diabetic control?
- how far back does an HbA1c test reflect?
- what are the old and new measurements for HbA1c? when did it change? when will we stop co-reporting?
- how is continuous glucose monitoring carried out?
- a when renal threshold is exceeded
- b Rothera's test
nitroprusside/glycine turns purple in the presence of acetoacetic acid/acetone
- c 4 times
- d 0.25ul
- e don't need to
- f HPLC= high performance liquid chromatography
- g veins or capillaries
- h 1-2 times
- i lack of insulin means triglycerides are broken down to fatty acids and glycerol.
Fatty acids are converted to acetyl coA which is converted to acetoacetic acid which can then be converted to both acetone and 3 (-hydroxybutyric acid.
- j 3-hydroxybutyric acid
- k to monitor capillary glucose
- l haemoglobin variants
HbS or HbC carriers
- m can have a alarm to warn of high/low blood sugars
provides "real time" readings
- n falls by 0.5mmol over 3 hours
- o covalently
- p random glucose
Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c)
lipid: triglycerides, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol
- q HbA1c
- r fluoride oxalate
no- there is still a 0.2-0.3 mmol/l drop
- s tasting urine
- t measures tissue glucose which lags behind blood glucose by 5- 15 minutes
- u 4-6%
- v Glucose + O₂--> gluconic acid + H₂O₂
- w when glucose control is changing quickly e.g. in diabetic pregnancy
- x 10-15%
- y -retrospective
-renal threshold can differ between patients and also individually
-fluid intake affects the urine concentration
- z coronary heart disease
- aa -to adjust therapy to maintain normal glucose levels
-interpreting symptoms and signs
-to assess risks of tissue complications
- ab glycated albumin
- ac proteinuria
microalbuminuria (e.g. unrin albumin:creatinine)
- ad 2 weeks
- ae urine
- af 1941
- ag over 4 times
- ah linear
- ai whole blood glucose but convert it to a plasma glucose equivalent
- aj 1907
- ak subcutaneously implanted enzyme electrode where glucose oxidase is immobilised
- al 10-15%
it is affected by haematocrit
- am -acetone
-3 (orß)-hydroxybutyric acid
- an <4 mM
- ao 2-3 months
- ap H₂O₂ + reduced dye --> oxidised dye (therefore coloured) + H₂O
- aq ones which affect RBC turnover
- ar CRP
- as plasma glucose
- at colorimetric assay
- au over £100 million
- av reduces CuSo₄ which precipitates as Cu₂O in the presence of an aldehyde in urine
- aw 6-8 weeks
(or 2 weeks-lifetime span of albumin??)
- ax old (DCCT) = percentage
new (IFCC) = mmol/Mmol
stop in 2011
- ay 50%
- az electrochemically as current flow
- ba 200-285 umol/l
- bb 31mmol/Mmol