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54 Matching questions

  1. how long is the lifetime of serum albumin?
  2. where should random glucose readings be taken from?
  3. when does glycosuria occur? what values?
  4. two tests which measure long term glucose control?
  5. how can glycolysis be inhibited? does this cancel out the drop in glucose concentration?
  6. what test are the strips and tablets for testing ketone bodies based on? what is it?
  7. what type of conditions affect HbA1c?
  8. how is serum fructosamine usually measured?
  9. how far back does a serum fructosamine test reflect?
  10. what is serum cholesterol a risk factor for in diabetes?
  11. how much lower is whole blood glucose compared to plasma glucose? why?
  12. why is the glucose oxidase reaction measured?
  13. what are the problems with measuring urine glucose?
  14. what is a problem with continuous glucose monitoring?
  15. How much of the HbA1c value is from glucose control in the previous month?
  16. 3 ketone bodies which are measured in diabetes?
  17. what measurement of glucose do labs usually use?
  18. how are the ketone bodies formed in diabetes?
  19. what are the three main reasons for testing blood glucose in diabetes?
  20. what is the error rate of capillary glucose to plasma glucose?
  21. when was the clinitest first used to measure urine sugar?
  22. how is HbA1c measured?
  23. how much blood is take in a capillary glucose measurement?
  24. what isn't detected in ketone body test strips/tablets?
  25. How many times a day should patients with not empowered T1DM test?
  26. what are advantages to continuous glucose monitoring?
  27. what is the reaction catalysed by glucose oxidase?
  28. what is looked for when testing for renal function?
  29. what is fructosamine?
  30. what should levels of:
    LDL be?
  31. what patients might an HbA1c test be inaccurate?
  32. when is fructosamin testing particularly useful? example?
  33. what other substances are affected by diabetes?
  34. when was benedict's solution first used for measuring urine sugar?
  35. how much is spent in the UK per year on capillary glucose monitoring strips?
  36. what does 5% HbA1c equate to in the enw measurements?
  37. what does Fehling's test do? when was this used?
  38. how is the glucose oxidase reaction usually detected?
  39. what is the reference range for serum fructosamine?
  40. how does glycolysis in the RBC affect glucose concentration?
  41. How many times a day should patients with T2DM which is controlled by diet/metformin/glitazone test?
  42. what shape relationship does HbA1c have with the mean blood glucose over the life of RBC?
  43. How many times a day should patients with unstable blood glucose test?
  44. how did egyptians used to test glucose levels (1500BC)?
  45. what is the reference range of HbA1c in non- diabetic people?
  46. what samples can be taken to measure glucose? (6)
  47. what is the reaction catalysed by peroxidase?
  48. what measurement of glucose do meters usually take?
  49. how does glucose attach to Hb?
  50. How many times a day should patients with empowered T1DM test?
  51. what substances should be measured to gauge diabetic control?
  52. how far back does an HbA1c test reflect?
  53. what are the old and new measurements for HbA1c? when did it change? when will we stop co-reporting?
  54. how is continuous glucose monitoring carried out?
  1. a when renal threshold is exceeded
    about 10mmol/l
  2. b Rothera's test
    nitroprusside/glycine turns purple in the presence of acetoacetic acid/acetone
  3. c 4 times
  4. d 0.25ul
  5. e don't need to
  6. f HPLC= high performance liquid chromatography
  7. g veins or capillaries
  8. h 1-2 times
  9. i lack of insulin means triglycerides are broken down to fatty acids and glycerol.
    Fatty acids are converted to acetyl coA which is converted to acetoacetic acid which can then be converted to both acetone and 3 (-hydroxybutyric acid.
  10. j 3-hydroxybutyric acid
  11. k to monitor capillary glucose
  12. l haemoglobin variants
    HbS or HbC carriers
  13. m can have a alarm to warn of high/low blood sugars
    provides "real time" readings
  14. n falls by 0.5mmol over 3 hours
  15. o covalently
  16. p random glucose
    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c)
    lipid: triglycerides, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol
    renal function
    urine protein
  17. q HbA1c
    Serum fructosamine
  18. r fluoride oxalate
    no- there is still a 0.2-0.3 mmol/l drop
  19. s tasting urine
  20. t measures tissue glucose which lags behind blood glucose by 5- 15 minutes
  21. u 4-6%
  22. v Glucose + O₂--> gluconic acid + H₂O₂
  23. w when glucose control is changing quickly e.g. in diabetic pregnancy
  24. x 10-15%
  25. y -retrospective
    -renal threshold can differ between patients and also individually
    -fluid intake affects the urine concentration
  26. z coronary heart disease
  27. aa -to adjust therapy to maintain normal glucose levels
    -interpreting symptoms and signs
    -to assess risks of tissue complications
  28. ab glycated albumin
  29. ac proteinuria
    microalbuminuria (e.g. unrin albumin:creatinine)
    plasma creatinine
  30. ad 2 weeks
  31. ae urine
    whole blood
  32. af 1941
  33. ag over 4 times
  34. ah linear
  35. ai whole blood glucose but convert it to a plasma glucose equivalent
  36. aj 1907
  37. ak subcutaneously implanted enzyme electrode where glucose oxidase is immobilised
  38. al 10-15%
    it is affected by haematocrit
  39. am -acetone
    -3 (orß)-hydroxybutyric acid
    -acetoacetic acid
  40. an <4 mM
    <1.7 mM
    >1.1 mM
    <2 mM
  41. ao 2-3 months
  42. ap H₂O₂ + reduced dye --> oxidised dye (therefore coloured) + H₂O
  43. aq ones which affect RBC turnover
  44. ar CRP
  45. as plasma glucose
  46. at colorimetric assay
  47. au over £100 million
  48. av reduces CuSo₄ which precipitates as Cu₂O in the presence of an aldehyde in urine
  49. aw 6-8 weeks
    (or 2 weeks-lifetime span of albumin??)
  50. ax old (DCCT) = percentage
    new (IFCC) = mmol/Mmol
    June 2009
    stop in 2011
  51. ay 50%
  52. az electrochemically as current flow
  53. ba 200-285 umol/l
  54. bb 31mmol/Mmol
    86 mmol/Mmol