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  1. Fixed Combinations of InsulinAlready mixed insulin 50/50 (NPH/Regular) 70/30 (NPH/Regular) and 75/25 (Lispro Protamine or NPH/Lispro)

          

  2. Type 1 DiabetesAlso called NIDDM (Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus). It is normally found in people over 30, Beta cells wear out and the body is not getiing the glucose due to overproduction of insulin or there is too little insulin production. This is 90% of diabetes cases.

          

  3. Food distrubutionSpread out throughout the day with a usual pattern of either 4 or 6 meals a day. Factors determined by daily activity level, exercise times, and med types and times.

          

  4. SulfonylureasA class of antidiabetic drugs that are used in the management of type 2 diabetes. They act by increasing insulin release from the beta cells in the pancreas. Example: glyburide

          

  5. During TravelBody may take a flight or fight response which in diabetic patients there is not enough insulin to put the extra energy into cells . Insulin antagonism increases blood glucose.

          

  6. Meglitinides & D-phenylalaninesLess structured diet that stresses moderation using the food pyramid reducing use of simple carbs, fats, and alchohol and even distribution throughout the day (Snacks if on insulin, or more food with exercise).

          

  7. Exchange systemgroups foods together because they are alike. Foods on each list have about the same amount of carbohydrate, protein, fat and calories. In the amounts given, all choices on each list are equal. Any food on the list can be exchanged or traded for any other food. The lists are grouped into three main groups: carbohydrate group; meat and meat substitute group; and fat group.

          

  8. S/S of Type 1 DiabetesHistory of Hypertension, Fatigue, Decreased energy, Frequent Infections, Slower healing, and mild symptoms.

          

  9. S/S of both types of DiabetesNocturia, Weakness/Fatigue, Blurred Vision, Dry Skin, Pruritus, Shiny Skin on Lower extremities due to poor circulation, Cold feet/legs, Impotence, Vaginal Infections, GI symptoms.

          

  10. Exercise in Type 1 DiabetesLowers plasma glucose levels, increases sensitivity of insulin recpetors, decreases LDL and triglycerides. Aerobic exercise for 30-60 mins 3-4 times a week

          

  11. Oral Anti-diabeticsNot an Oral Insulin, only for type 2 diabetes patients. contraindicated with no endogenous insulin production.

          

  12. ThiazolidinedionesAlso known as glitazones, is class of antidiabetic drugs that are used in the management of type 2 diabetes. They act by increasing insulin sensitivity of the cells and increases glucose uptake in fat and muscle, also lowers production by liver. Examples: rosiglitazone, pioglitazone

          

  13. Normal Blood Glucose Level after eating70-110 mg/dl

          

  14. Intermediate-Acting InsulinsOnset of 1-2 hours, peaks at 4-10 hours, and has a duration of 18-24 hours. They appear cloudy, examples include Humulin N and Novolin N.

          

  15. alpha-glucosidase inhibitorsA class of antidiabetic drugs that are used in the management of type 2 diabetes. They act by preventing the digestion of carbohydrates which are normally converted into simple sugars, so it reduces the impact of carbs on blood sugar. Examples: acarbose, miglitol

          

  16. Qualitative Diabetic DietLess structured diet that stresses moderation using the food pyramid reducing use of simple carbs, fats, and alchohol and even distribution throughout the day (Snacks if on insulin, or more food with exercise).

          

  17. Short-Acting insulinsOnset of 1-4 hours, peaks effect is minimal, and has a duration of up to 24 hours. They appear clear, examples include Lantus and Levemir

          

  18. Exercise in Type 2 DiabetesUnusual or extra exercise is dangerous without adjustments as there is an increased use of glucose. Increased breakdown of fatty acids leads to Ketosis. Avoid injection of insulin into muscle groups that will be exercised, also avoid exercise at peak times of insulin Snack before and during exercise and check BG before exercising, do not begin exercising until BG is under control..

          

  19. Diagnostic Tests for DiabetesGlucose Tolerance Test (GTT) or Glycosylated Hemoglobin

          

  20. Food needs related to exerciseExtra food needed before, during, and after high physical activity especially in type 1

          

  21. BiguanidesA class of antidiabetic drugs that are used in the management of type 2 diabetes. They act by decreasing glucose production in the liver. Example: metformin

          

  22. How to treat hyperglycemiagive oral carbs, glucagon, IV glucose

          

  23. During IllnessBody may take a flight or fight response which in diabetic patients there is not enough insulin to put the extra energy into cells . Insulin antagonism increases blood glucose.

          

  24. Nutrient BalanceCarbs will be 60-70% of your total kcals, Protein will be 15-20% of your total kcals, Fats will be 25-30% of your total kcals

          

  25. During stressBody may take a flight or fight response which in diabetic patients there is not enough insulin to put the extra energy into cells . Insulin antagonism increases blood glucose.

          

  26. Alchohol occasional use is OK ifA class of antidiabetic drugs that are used in the management of type 2 diabetes. They act by preventing the digestion of carbohydrates which are normally converted into simple sugars, so it reduces the impact of carbs on blood sugar. Examples: acarbose, miglitol

          

  27. InsulinHormone secreted by the pancreas for glucose metabolism, helps convert glucose to glycogen (glycogenesis),stimulates active transport of glucose into cells. It also promotes fatty acid synthesis and conversion into fat.

          

  28. Quantitative Diabetic DietLess structured diet that stresses moderation using the food pyramid reducing use of simple carbs, fats, and alchohol and even distribution throughout the day (Snacks if on insulin, or more food with exercise).

          

  29. Long-Acting InsulinsOnset of 30-60mins, peaks at 2-4 Hours, and has a duration of 5-8 hours. They appear clear, examples include Humulin R and Novolin R. Only Insulin used in an IV. also called regular insulin.

          

  30. Normal Blood Glucose Level before eating70-110 mg/dl

          

  31. When Dining OutPreplan and choose an appropriate site and request and appropriate prep method for your food

          

  32. Exercise benefitsBody may take a flight or fight response which in diabetic patients there is not enough insulin to put the extra energy into cells . Insulin antagonism increases blood glucose.

          

  33. Rapid-Acting InsulinsOnset of 30-60mins, peaks at 2-4 Hours, and has a duration of 5-8 hours. They appear clear, examples include Humulin R and Novolin R. Only Insulin used in an IV. also called regular insulin.

          

  34. S/S of Type 2 DiabetesRapid Onset, Fatigue, Increased Infections, Weight Loss, and the 3 Ps (Polyuria, Polydispia, and Polyphagia).

          

  35. Type 2 DiabetesAlso called Juvenile Diabetes or IDDM (Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus). It is normally found in people under 30, there is Beta Cell Destruction and No Insulin production due to an autoimmune response. This is 10% of diabetes case.