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  1. Exchange system
  2. How to treat hyperglycemia
  3. S/S of both types of Diabetes
  4. Exercise in Type 2 Diabetes
  5. Type 2 Diabetes
  6. alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
  7. Food needs related to exercise
  8. Nutrient Balance
  9. Insulin
  10. Type 1 Diabetes
  11. Thiazolidinediones
  12. Qualitative Diabetic Diet
  13. Meglitinides & D-phenylalanines
  14. Alchohol occasional use is OK if
  15. Quantitative Diabetic Diet
  16. Long-Acting Insulins
  17. During Travel
  18. Diagnostic Tests for Diabetes
  19. Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes
  20. Oral Anti-diabetics
  21. Food distrubution
  22. Exercise benefits
  23. Sulfonylureas
  24. Fixed Combinations of Insulin
  25. S/S of Type 1 Diabetes
  26. When Dining Out
  27. During Illness
  28. During stress
  29. Short-Acting insulins
  30. Normal Blood Glucose Level before eating
  31. Biguanides
  32. Rapid-Acting Insulins
  33. S/S of Type 2 Diabetes
  34. Intermediate-Acting Insulins
  35. Normal Blood Glucose Level after eating
  1. a exercising muscles use glucose more effectively, increases sensitivity, and decreases BP/prevents hypertension. Exercising alone also helps lower blood glucose.
  2. b Body may take a flight or fight response which in diabetic patients there is not enough insulin to put the extra energy into cells . Insulin antagonism increases blood glucose.
  3. c Onset of 1-2 hours, peaks at 4-10 hours, and has a duration of 18-24 hours. They appear cloudy, examples include Humulin N and Novolin N.
  4. d Nocturia, Weakness/Fatigue, Blurred Vision, Dry Skin, Pruritus, Shiny Skin on Lower extremities due to poor circulation, Cold feet/legs, Impotence, Vaginal Infections, GI symptoms.
  5. e A class of antidiabetic drugs that are used in the management of type 2 diabetes. They act by increasing insulin release from the beta cells in the pancreas. Example: glyburide
  6. f Also called Juvenile Diabetes or IDDM (Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus). It is normally found in people under 30, there is Beta Cell Destruction and No Insulin production due to an autoimmune response. This is 10% of diabetes case.
  7. g Also called NIDDM (Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus). It is normally found in people over 30, Beta cells wear out and the body is not getiing the glucose due to overproduction of insulin or there is too little insulin production. This is 90% of diabetes cases.
  8. h onset of 15-30 min, peaks at 30-90 minuts and has a duration of 3-5 hours. they appear clear, examples include Humalog and Novolog
  9. i History of Hypertension, Fatigue, Decreased energy, Frequent Infections, Slower healing, and mild symptoms.
  10. j A class of antidiabetic drugs that are used in the management of type 2 diabetes. They act by preventing the digestion of carbohydrates which are normally converted into simple sugars, so it reduces the impact of carbs on blood sugar. Examples: acarbose, miglitol
  11. k A class of antidiabetic drugs that are used in the management of type 2 diabetes. They act by decreasing glucose production in the liver. Example: metformin
  12. l Diet Measure by amounts of food, 55-60% carbs, 10-20% protein, and up to 30% fats. Diabetic Exhange System and Weight Loss if appropriate.
  13. m Not an Oral Insulin, only for type 2 diabetes patients. contraindicated with no endogenous insulin production.
  14. n give oral carbs, glucagon, IV glucose
  15. o 80-140 mg/dl
  16. p Preplan and choose an appropriate site and request and appropriate prep method for your food
  17. q Unusual or extra exercise is dangerous without adjustments as there is an increased use of glucose. Increased breakdown of fatty acids leads to Ketosis. Avoid injection of insulin into muscle groups that will be exercised, also avoid exercise at peak times of insulin Snack before and during exercise and check BG before exercising, do not begin exercising until BG is under control..
  18. r Less structured diet that stresses moderation using the food pyramid reducing use of simple carbs, fats, and alchohol and even distribution throughout the day (Snacks if on insulin, or more food with exercise).
  19. s Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) or Glycosylated Hemoglobin
  20. t Extra food needed before, during, and after high physical activity especially in type 1
  21. u Carbs will be 60-70% of your total kcals, Protein will be 15-20% of your total kcals, Fats will be 25-30% of your total kcals
  22. v groups foods together because they are alike. Foods on each list have about the same amount of carbohydrate, protein, fat and calories. In the amounts given, all choices on each list are equal. Any food on the list can be exchanged or traded for any other food. The lists are grouped into three main groups: carbohydrate group; meat and meat substitute group; and fat group.
  23. w Already mixed insulin 50/50 (NPH/Regular) 70/30 (NPH/Regular) and 75/25 (Lispro Protamine or NPH/Lispro)
  24. x Onset of 1-4 hours, peaks effect is minimal, and has a duration of up to 24 hours. They appear clear, examples include Lantus and Levemir
  25. y Taken with food, not substituted for food. Insulin dose does not increase.
  26. z Rapid Onset, Fatigue, Increased Infections, Weight Loss, and the 3 Ps (Polyuria, Polydispia, and Polyphagia).
  27. aa Also known as glitazones, is class of antidiabetic drugs that are used in the management of type 2 diabetes. They act by increasing insulin sensitivity of the cells and increases glucose uptake in fat and muscle, also lowers production by liver. Examples: rosiglitazone, pioglitazone
  28. ab A class of antidiabetic drugs that are used in the management of type 2 diabetes. They act by Stimulating insulin secretion from the pancreas
  29. ac Lowers plasma glucose levels, increases sensitivity of insulin recpetors, decreases LDL and triglycerides. Aerobic exercise for 30-60 mins 3-4 times a week
  30. ad 70-110 mg/dl
  31. ae Spread out throughout the day with a usual pattern of either 4 or 6 meals a day. Factors determined by daily activity level, exercise times, and med types and times.
  32. af Onset of 30-60mins, peaks at 2-4 Hours, and has a duration of 5-8 hours. They appear clear, examples include Humulin R and Novolin R. Only Insulin used in an IV. also called regular insulin.
  33. ag maintain food intake, maintain medication regimen. If unable to eat replace with caloric beverages, have frequent intaker throughout the day and closely monitor Blood glucose.
  34. ah Research available foods, plan for snacks and time changes, carry a source of sugar, wear an ID, and have a physician's letter for insulin/syringes
  35. ai Hormone secreted by the pancreas for glucose metabolism, helps convert glucose to glycogen (glycogenesis),stimulates active transport of glucose into cells. It also promotes fatty acid synthesis and conversion into fat.