112 Multiple choice questions
- Prickling sensations around the mouth or extremeties ("circumoral"/"peripheral" paresthesia). Twitching leading to tetany.
- Vena cava filter insertion, anti-coagulants, morphine, diuretics, fibrinolytics. Stockings.
- A ground glass appearance in the lungs. There is bilateral consolidation.
- This ailment is treated with early morning & bedtime chest percussion.
- High CA in urine. Positive Kveim-Silzbach Test.
- Nodules of inflamed tissue. Multisystemic. Effects 20-40 y.o. Resolves in 2 yrs.
- Sudden onset of dyspnea, tachypnea, crackles. Elevated temp if thrombophlebitis caused the clot.
- S/S: Pleural friction rub, sharp stabbing pain, bed rest. Thoracentesis.
- There is hole from the outside of the body which goes to the inside of the body, into the intrapleural space.
pain, arthralgia of wrists, ankles, elbows, erythema nodosum (sub q
skin noduls w/eruptions), uveitis/glaucoma, large spleen, hepatitis,
nerve palsies, meningitis. Blindness.
- There are two types of this: 1) Ventilatory Failure. 2) Oxygenation Failure.
- Large Cell.
- Breathe into a paper bag. This causes CO2 to increase.
- The term for interference w/respiration leading to cardiopulmonary arrest & death.
- Squamous cell/epidermoid.
- Negative pressure room.
- D/T reduced alveolar ventilation (the lungs are unable to remove the CO2 and the kidneys can't keep up either.).
- Fiber optic bronch. Xray.
- D/t: Exposure to zirconium, beryllium. Genetics, senstivity to bacteria, fungi, pine pollen.
- This happens when there is too much CO2 in the blood.
- Staff must wear a respirator w/high efficiency particulate air filter.
- There is a hole which goes from the lung to the intrapleural space.
- 1) Acute. 2) Chronic.
- Deficiency in alpha 1-antitrypsin, smoking.
- Nurses give pain meds to treat pain because pain prevent Pts from deep breathing, and lack of deep breathing leads to this.
- This person is called a "Pink Puffer".
- Small Cell.
- A result of blunt chest trauma.
- 3 types: 1) Cylindrical/fusiform. 2) Varicose. 3) Saccular/cystic.
- Low CA diet, corticosteroids, cytotoxics, high calorie nutritious diet, no exposure to sunlight for Pts w/hyper CA.
- Inflammation of the alveolar spaces. Increases in alveolar fluid.
accumulates in the pleural space d/t: 1) A rib lacerating lung tissue.
2) A rib lacerating an artery. 3) A rupture of a pulmonary blood vessel.
- Xrays show dilated pulmonary arteries & the diaphragm elevated on the effected side.
- Fluffy infiltrates, nodular lesions, spontaneous pneumothorax.
- An undissolved substance obstructs the flow of blood: Fat, air, thrombus, clot.
- Destruction of the walls of the bronchi.
- Ppl who recover from this may have zero or little lung damage.
is one of 3 types of COPD. "Pink Puffer". Recurrent pulmonary
inflammation damages then destroys alveolar walls L/T large spaces when
- 90% of HIV Pts get it. It kills them.
- This disease is due to acid fast bacilli.
is one of three types of COPD. Bronchial lining overreact, causing
episodic spasms and inflammation and severe restriction of the airways.
- Check Patient for a Homan's SIgn (pn in calf d/t a clot).
- 25% of COPD Pts get this condition.
- In this disease, an x-ray of the chest shows active or calcified lesions.
- Empyema (pus, blood, chyle, and necrotic tissue in the pleural space).
- Not enough CO2 in the blood.
- Also called 'Pleuritis'.
- Bacteria invade the alveoli then spread via the lymph system & into the circulatory system.
- There are 4 types of these.
- Squamous cell/epidermoid.
- Pus, blood, chyle, and necrotic tissue in the pleural space.
- Normal flora found in ppl. In immunosuppressed Pts it goes gangbusters.
- This is due to a bleb rupture.
- Night sweats & fever.
clot starts in the venous system, travels to the R side of the heart,
into the pulmonary artery, and obstructs small vessels & causes
pulm. htn. & in infarction.
- This can occur from an airway disease, suppressed breathing, obstruction (ie: Obesity, COPD, etc.), illegal drugs.
- A buildup of air in the pleural space.
negative bacteria causes bronchopneumonia & inflammation. Occurs in
late Summer & early Fall. Mild to 15% mortality Fluorescent.
- This disease is d/t an increased PVR which leads to an increase in R ventricular pressure.
- Lactate dehydrogenase levels.
- This is an all around failure of the respiratory system.
CPAP, bronchodilators, intubation, dialysis (to remove the illegal
drugs that are causing the reduced ventilation), coughing, deep
- This is one of three types of COPD. It develops from irritants & infections.
- Collapse of the lung from a loss of negative intrapleural pressure d/t a hole poking thru & air getting in.
occurs when blood flows to lung tissue that's experiencing reduced
ventilation, or ventilation to lung tissue that's experiencing reduced
blood flow, or shunting from the R side of the heart to the L side of
>3L of fluid intake/day, pursed lip breathing, incentive spirometer.
Use only low flow oxygen as Pts are hypercapnic & have a hypoxic
resp. drive. Intubation may become necessary.
- This disease requires oxygen therapy of 24%-40%.
- When the Resp. System can't supply the body w/the O2 it needs or it can't remove CO2.
- Unregulated cell growth & division L/T a tumor.
post-op Pts cough, deep breathe, hold a pillow over their chest while
they cough/deep breathe, get 'em walking, use an incentive spirometer
prevents this from occuring.
- Drink 3L of fluid/day. Perform pursed lipped breathing.
- When Pt coughs up several cupfuls of foul smelling gunk they are suffering from this.
- Increases mucous production, impairs airway clearance, causes irreversible narrowing of the small airways. CO2 is retained.
- A fracture of a long, flat bone.
- Also known as 'Pleurisy'
- This disease of the lungs causes the enlargement of the R ventricle of the heart.
- Asia. 2003. Corona virus. It is atypical pneumonia.
- Finger clubbing, hyperinflation, tachycardia, R sided heart failure w/JVD.
- Is now called 'Pneumocystis jirovecii".
- S/S: Unilateral diminshed breath sounds, sharp pain
- This is due to alveolar hypoventilation.
- Xray of the chest shows a mediastinal shift.
- Finish the entire course of meds (6-18 months!).
- Limit fluid intake to to 1-2L/day. Low Na diet to trt this disease/condition.
- A disorder in which fluid builds up in the lungs causing them to stiffen.
- This disease paralyzes the resp. muscles.
- In this disease, 3-6 wks after invasion, cell mediated immunity contains then arrests the disease.
expansion of the lung/alveoli clusters ("lobules") or lung segments.
This may in turn cause a partial or a complete collapse of the lung."
- Elimination of CO2 by the lungs exceeds production of CO2 at the cellular level.
rapid breathing is the cardinal sign (+40 resp./min.) w/dizziness.
PACO2 is less than 35 mm Hg. Increased pH. Bicarb is normal.
- pH is below normal. CO2 is higher than 45 mm Hg.
- Expirational wheezes.
- Inflammation of the membranes which envelop the lungs/line the inside of the thoracic cage (the visceral and parietal pleurae).
- This occurs when the PaO2 is >50 mm Hg, PaCO2 is 50 mm Hg or more, and pH is 7.25 or less.
this disease, when the infection reactivates, necrotic tissue turns
cheesy,undergoes fibrosis, or form cavities lined w/multiplying
tubercule which spreads thru the lungs & into the tracheobronchial
- This resp. condition is usually found in the lower lobes.
- Chronic Bronchitis.
- "Chronic abnormal dilation of the bronchi."
- S/S: Spasms of the wrists & feet ("carpopedal spasms").
- An excess of fluid in the pleural space.
- Fluid: 3L/day, steroids, Vit C, diet: High protein/calories, Vit C., low flow O2, intubation. alpha-1 antitrypsin therapy.
condition is D/T: Gas inhalation, gastric juices in lungs, obstruction,
or recurrent lung infections that are poorly treated.
- Intervention: Chest tube to a water seal drainage. Or, a needle thoracotomy.
- Coagulation issues.
- pH is normal. Bicarb is below normal.
is d/t: Anxiety, asthma. Lots of resps blow off CO2 faster than the
body can make CO2. A decrease in CO2 causes the blood to be less acidic
and more alkalinic, thus the 'alkalosis' is caused by respirations.