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79 True/False questions

  1. pHpotassium has action with sodium.

          

  2. Metabolic AcidosispH < 7.35 , PaCO3 normal or < 35, HCO3 < 22

          

  3. causes of HyponatremiaGI loss - NG suction, vomit, diarrhea, Renal loss

          

  4. causes of HypocalcemiaDiuretics (Lasix), Diarrhea, GI loss, polyuria

          

  5. Metabolic AlkalosisResults from severe diarrhea or renal disease.

          

  6. S&S of Hypocalcemiapathological fractures, Trousseau's sign, Chvostek's sign

          

  7. S&S of Hypernatremiapersonality change, postural hypotension

          

  8. HypovolemiaReleased in response to decreased blood flow or decreased pressure in nephrons.

          

  9. S&S of Hyponatremiapersonality change, postural hypotension

          

  10. Fluid Volume Excess1)weight gain 2)weakness, fatigue 3)dyspnea with exertion 4)pitting edema 4)JVD 5)taut, shiny skin 6)bounding pulse 7)shallow, rapid respiration 8)crackles 9)high BP 10)fluid intake > outake

          

  11. Hypertonic solutionWater moves out of cell and causes cell to shrink.

          

  12. Sensible LossContinuous loss occurring through skin and lungs.

          

  13. reciprocalReleased in response to decreased blood flow or decreased pressure in nephrons.

          

  14. Signs and symptoms of Fluid volume excess1)weight gain 2)High BP 3)shallow, rapid respirations 4)crackles 5)Fluid intake > outake 6)weakness, fatigue, dyspnea 7)edema, taut shiny skin 8)JVD 9)bounding pulse

          

  15. Postassium (K)Major cation in the intracellular fluid.

          

  16. S&S of Fluid Volume Deficitpathological fractures, Trousseau's sign, Chvostek's sign

          

  17. Respiratory AlkalosispH > 7.45, PaCO2 < 35, HCO3 < 22

          

  18. Hypertonic solutionsolution with greater concentration than plasma.

          

  19. causes of Hypokalemiachronic alcoholism, chronic renal failure, Vitamin D deficiency

          

  20. Foods high in potassiumpotatoes, raisins, bananas, spinach, avacados, carrots

          

  21. causes of HypomagnesemiaMalnutrition, alcoholism, diarrhea, vomiting, polyuria

          

  22. examples of Isotonic solutions1)Lactaid Ringers 2) NS (0.9% NaCl) 3) 5% Dextrose

          

  23. Sodium (Na)Released in response to decreased blood flow or decreased pressure in nephrons.

          

  24. serum Sodium level4.5 - 5.5 mEq/L

          

  25. DehydrationWater lost from body - no loss of electrolytes.

          

  26. Fluid Regulation of GI tract1)Filters blood 2)Excretes urine 3)Secretes aldosterone - reabsorbs Na, H2O and Cl and exceretes K.

          

  27. Insensible LossContinuous loss occurring through skin and lungs.

          

  28. OsmolalityBody loses both water and electrolytes from the ECF.

          

  29. Blood - BicarbonateVomiting, diarrhea, abnormal drainage, excessive use of laxatives, enema, diuretics, blood loss, diaphoresis, burns

          

  30. causes Hypervolemia - crackles, SOBFluid Volume Deficit, Renal Failure, Acidosis

          

  31. Respiratory AcidosisResult of hyperventilation.

          

  32. Fluid Regulation of Nervous SystemDistributes nutrients and water throughout the body.

          

  33. S&S of Hyperkalemiahypoactive reflexes, cardiac arrest

          

  34. Fluid Regulation of Cardiovascular systemAbsorbs nutrients H2O.

          

  35. S&S of Fluid Volume Excess1)weight gain 2)weakness, fatigue 3)dyspnea with exertion 4)pitting edema 4)JVD 5)taut, shiny skin 6)bounding pulse 7)shallow, rapid respiration 8)crackles 9)high BP 10)fluid intake > outake

          

  36. Hypotonic solutionWater moves into cell and causes cell to swell. Fluid shift out of blood vessels into interstitial spaces.

          

  37. Lasix (diuretic)causes loss of potassium. (hypokalemia)

          

  38. Metabolic AcidosisResults from severe diarrhea or renal disease.

          

  39. HyponatremiaNet gain of water or loss of Na-rich fluids.

          

  40. Fluid ExcretionWater lost from body - no loss of electrolytes.

          

  41. Hypotonic solutionsolution with greater concentration than plasma.

          

  42. S&S of Hypercalcemiahypoactive reflexes, cardiac arrest

          

  43. S&S of Hypokalemiamuscle weakness & cramps, irregular pulse

          

  44. Acid Base regulatory mechanismsBlood, Lungs, Kidneys

          

  45. Blood gas values - pH, PO2, HCO3, PCO2potatoes, raisins, bananas, spinach, avacados, carrots

          

  46. Fluid Regulation of LungsAbsorbs nutrients H2O.

          

  47. causes of HypernatremiaExcess aldosterone secretion, water deprivation or increased water loss.

          

  48. Metabolic ImbalanceBicarbonate (PCO2) concentration corresponds with pH.

          

  49. Renin-Angiotensin mechanism initiates1) low blood volume 2)low serum Na 3) low BP 4)high serum K
    5) low cardiac output

          

  50. HyponatremiaBody loses both water and electrolytes from the ECF.

          

  51. ReninWater lost from body - no loss of electrolytes.

          

  52. Fluid Regulation of Lungs1)Filters blood 2)Excretes urine 3)Secretes aldosterone - reabsorbs Na, H2O and Cl and exceretes K.

          

  53. serum Calcium level135 - 145 mEq/L

          

  54. Fluid OutputOccurs through kidneys, skin, lungs and GI tract.

          

  55. causes of HypermagnesemiaMalnutrition, alcoholism, diarrhea, vomiting, polyuria

          

  56. causes of HyperkalemiaFluid Volume Deficit, Renal Failure, Acidosis

          

  57. Foods high in MagnesiumVegetables, nuts, fish

          

  58. Respiratory AcidosisResult of hyperventilation.

          

  59. Respiratory ImbalancepH > 7.45, PaCO2 < 35, HCO3 < 22

          

  60. causes of HypercalcemiaOsteoperosis, hyperparathyroidism, immobilization

          

  61. Fluid Regulation of Thyroid GlandIncreases blood flow in the body and increases output.

          

  62. Renal system (kidneys)3rd line of defense for acid base balance.

          

  63. causes of Fluid Volume Deficit1)Increased pulse and respirations 2)decreased BP 3)output > intake 4)dry oral mucosa 5)increased thirst 6)weight loss (5lbs.) 7)scanty or concentrated urine 8)collapsed neck veins

          

  64. serum Potassium level3.5 - 5 mEq/ L

          

  65. Potassium (K)Major cation in the intracellular fluid.

          

  66. Respiratory system (lungs)Bicarbonate (PCO2) has opposite response of pH.

          

  67. Effects of AldosteroneExcretes K and retains Na.

          

  68. Respiratory AlkalosisResult of hypoventilation.

          

  69. Istotonic solutionreverses dehydration.

          

  70. S&S of Hypermagnesemiahypoactive deep tendon reflexes

          

  71. Hypernatremia valuesolution with greater concentration than plasma.

          

  72. serum Magnesium level4.5 - 5.5 mEq/L

          

  73. Oxygen SaturationPoint at which hemoglobin is saturated by O2.

          

  74. S&S of Hypomagnesemiahyperactive deep tendon reflexes, muscle tremors

          

  75. Renal System (kidneys)Major cation in the intracellular fluid.

          

  76. Metabolic AlkalosispH > 7.45, PaCO2 normal or > 45, HCO3 > 26

          

  77. AldosteroneIncreases reabsorption of Na and water and excretion of K in kidneys. Causes vasoconstriction, increases BP. (main Na-retaining hormone)

          

  78. cause of decreased excretionchronic alcoholism, chronic renal failure, Vitamin D deficiency

          

  79. Fluid Regulation of KidneysRegulates O2 and CO2, Acid/Base Balance and eliminates H+.