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79 Multiple choice questions

  1. 1)Regulates O2 and CO2 2)Eliminates H 3)Acid/Base Balance
  2. Water lost from body - no loss of electrolytes.
  3. Point at which hemoglobin is saturated by O2.
  4. 1)weight gain 2)weakness, fatigue 3)dyspnea with exertion 4)pitting edema 4)JVD 5)taut, shiny skin 6)bounding pulse 7)shallow, rapid respiration 8)crackles 9)high BP 10)fluid intake > outake
  5. Water moves out of cell and causes cell to shrink.
  6. hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, muscle tremors
  7. Extreme thirst, sticky tongue and mucous membranes, postural hypotension.
  8. Osteoperosis, hyperparathyroidism, immobilization
  9. pH > 7.45, PaCO2 normal or > 45, HCO3 > 26
  10. Water moves into cell and causes cell to swell. Fluid shift out of blood vessels into interstitial spaces.
  11. hypoactive reflexes, cardiac arrest
  12. 1)Filters blood 2)Excretes urine 3)Secretes aldosterone - reabsorbs Na, H2O and Cl and exceretes K.
  13. 1)7.35-7.45 2) 80-100 mm Hg 3) 22-27 mEq/L 4)35-45 mm Hg
  14. Excess aldosterone secretion, water deprivation or increased water loss.
  15. Bicarbonate (PCO2) concentration corresponds with pH.
  16. life threatening dysrhythmias
  17. 1) low blood volume 2)low serum Na 3) low BP 4)high serum K
    5) low cardiac output
  18. 1.3 - 2.1 mEq/L
  19. serum sodium greater than 145 mEq/L
  20. Vegetables, nuts, fish
  21. Too much fluid to patient with kidney failure or CHF.
  22. chronic alcoholism, chronic renal failure, Vitamin D deficiency
  23. 4.5 - 5.5 mEq/L
  24. Primary system in regulating fluid and electrolyte balance.
  25. 135 - 145 mEq/L
  26. Released in response to decreased blood flow or decreased pressure in nephrons.
  27. pathological fractures, Trousseau's sign, Chvostek's sign
  28. 3.5 - 5 mEq/ L
  29. Continuous loss occurring through skin and lungs.
  30. Bicarbonate (PCO2) has opposite response of pH.
  31. personality change, postural hypotension
  32. Result of hyperventilation.
  33. pH < 7.35 , PaCO3 normal or < 35, HCO3 < 22
  34. Net gain of water or loss of Na-rich fluids.
  35. reverses dehydration.
  36. Renal failure, excess intake
  37. Distributes nutrients and water throughout the body.
  38. major electrolyte found in extracellular fluid
  39. Vomiting, diarrhea, abnormal drainage, excessive use of laxatives, enema, diuretics, blood loss, diaphoresis, burns
  40. Results from severe diarrhea or renal disease.
  41. 1)weight gain 2)High BP 3)shallow, rapid respirations 4)crackles 5)Fluid intake > outake 6)weakness, fatigue, dyspnea 7)edema, taut shiny skin 8)JVD 9)bounding pulse
  42. 1st line of defense of acid base balance. (immediate response, only small fluctuations)
  43. Expands ECF volume. (same concentrate as plasma.)
  44. serum Sodium level less than 135 mEq/L
  45. muscle weakness & cramps, irregular pulse
  46. concentration of solutes in a solution.
  47. Excessive retention of water and Na in extracellular fluid.
  48. 1)Increased pulse and respirations 2)decreased BP 3)output > intake 4)dry oral mucosa 5)increased thirst 6)weight loss (5lbs.) 7)scanty or concentrated urine 8)collapsed neck veins
  49. Regulates O2 and CO2, Acid/Base Balance and eliminates H+.
  50. Hypothalamus controls thirst - thirst center.
  51. Blood, Lungs, Kidneys
  52. 3rd line of defense for acid base balance.
  53. electrolyte imbalance in which cardiovascular is always a concern.
  54. loss that is perceived or is measurable. (wound drainage, GI tract, urine)
  55. Major cation in the intracellular fluid.
  56. 2nd line of defense for acid base balance.
  57. Result of hypoventilation.
  58. potatoes, raisins, bananas, spinach, avacados, carrots
  59. hypoactive deep tendon reflexes
  60. Malnutrition, alcoholism, diarrhea, vomiting, polyuria
  61. 1) decreased intake 2) increased excretion 3) fluid shift 4) strenuous exercise 5) extreme heat/dryness 6) fever (increased metabolic rate)
  62. Fluid Volume Deficit, Renal Failure, Acidosis
  63. Increases reabsorption of Na and water and excretion of K in kidneys. Causes vasoconstriction, increases BP. (main Na-retaining hormone)
  64. Occurs through kidneys, skin, lungs and GI tract.
  65. Results from vomiting, gastric suction, K deficiency, increased renal excretion of acid.
  66. causes loss of potassium. (hypokalemia)
  67. pH < 7.35, PaCO2 > 45, HCO3 >26
  68. measures hydrogen ion concentration in the body fluids.
  69. renal disease,cancer
  70. Increases blood flow in the body and increases output.
  71. Excretes K and retains Na.
  72. Absorbs nutrients H2O.
  73. Diuretics (Lasix), Diarrhea, GI loss, polyuria
  74. 1)Lactaid Ringers 2) NS (0.9% NaCl) 3) 5% Dextrose
  75. pH > 7.45, PaCO2 < 35, HCO3 < 22
  76. GI loss - NG suction, vomit, diarrhea, Renal loss
  77. potassium has action with sodium.
  78. Body loses both water and electrolytes from the ECF.
  79. solution with greater concentration than plasma.