79 Multiple choice questions
- 1)Regulates O2 and CO2 2)Eliminates H 3)Acid/Base Balance
- Water lost from body - no loss of electrolytes.
- Point at which hemoglobin is saturated by O2.
gain 2)weakness, fatigue 3)dyspnea with exertion 4)pitting edema 4)JVD
5)taut, shiny skin 6)bounding pulse 7)shallow, rapid respiration
8)crackles 9)high BP 10)fluid intake > outake
- Water moves out of cell and causes cell to shrink.
- hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, muscle tremors
- Extreme thirst, sticky tongue and mucous membranes, postural hypotension.
- Osteoperosis, hyperparathyroidism, immobilization
- pH > 7.45, PaCO2 normal or > 45, HCO3 > 26
- Water moves into cell and causes cell to swell. Fluid shift out of blood vessels into interstitial spaces.
- hypoactive reflexes, cardiac arrest
- 1)Filters blood 2)Excretes urine 3)Secretes aldosterone - reabsorbs Na, H2O and Cl and exceretes K.
- 1)7.35-7.45 2) 80-100 mm Hg 3) 22-27 mEq/L 4)35-45 mm Hg
- Excess aldosterone secretion, water deprivation or increased water loss.
- Bicarbonate (PCO2) concentration corresponds with pH.
- life threatening dysrhythmias
- 1) low blood volume 2)low serum Na 3) low BP 4)high serum K
5) low cardiac output
- 1.3 - 2.1 mEq/L
- serum sodium greater than 145 mEq/L
- Vegetables, nuts, fish
- Too much fluid to patient with kidney failure or CHF.
- chronic alcoholism, chronic renal failure, Vitamin D deficiency
- 4.5 - 5.5 mEq/L
- Primary system in regulating fluid and electrolyte balance.
- 135 - 145 mEq/L
- Released in response to decreased blood flow or decreased pressure in nephrons.
- pathological fractures, Trousseau's sign, Chvostek's sign
- 3.5 - 5 mEq/ L
- Continuous loss occurring through skin and lungs.
- Bicarbonate (PCO2) has opposite response of pH.
- personality change, postural hypotension
- Result of hyperventilation.
- pH < 7.35 , PaCO3 normal or < 35, HCO3 < 22
- Net gain of water or loss of Na-rich fluids.
- reverses dehydration.
- Renal failure, excess intake
- Distributes nutrients and water throughout the body.
- major electrolyte found in extracellular fluid
- Vomiting, diarrhea, abnormal drainage, excessive use of laxatives, enema, diuretics, blood loss, diaphoresis, burns
- Results from severe diarrhea or renal disease.
gain 2)High BP 3)shallow, rapid respirations 4)crackles 5)Fluid intake
> outake 6)weakness, fatigue, dyspnea 7)edema, taut shiny skin 8)JVD
- 1st line of defense of acid base balance. (immediate response, only small fluctuations)
- Expands ECF volume. (same concentrate as plasma.)
- serum Sodium level less than 135 mEq/L
- muscle weakness & cramps, irregular pulse
- concentration of solutes in a solution.
- Excessive retention of water and Na in extracellular fluid.
pulse and respirations 2)decreased BP 3)output > intake 4)dry oral
mucosa 5)increased thirst 6)weight loss (5lbs.) 7)scanty or concentrated
urine 8)collapsed neck veins
- Regulates O2 and CO2, Acid/Base Balance and eliminates H+.
- Hypothalamus controls thirst - thirst center.
- Blood, Lungs, Kidneys
- 3rd line of defense for acid base balance.
- electrolyte imbalance in which cardiovascular is always a concern.
- loss that is perceived or is measurable. (wound drainage, GI tract, urine)
- Major cation in the intracellular fluid.
- 2nd line of defense for acid base balance.
- Result of hypoventilation.
- potatoes, raisins, bananas, spinach, avacados, carrots
- hypoactive deep tendon reflexes
- Malnutrition, alcoholism, diarrhea, vomiting, polyuria
decreased intake 2) increased excretion 3) fluid shift 4) strenuous
exercise 5) extreme heat/dryness 6) fever (increased metabolic rate)
- Fluid Volume Deficit, Renal Failure, Acidosis
reabsorption of Na and water and excretion of K in kidneys. Causes
vasoconstriction, increases BP. (main Na-retaining hormone)
- Occurs through kidneys, skin, lungs and GI tract.
- Results from vomiting, gastric suction, K deficiency, increased renal excretion of acid.
- causes loss of potassium. (hypokalemia)
- pH < 7.35, PaCO2 > 45, HCO3 >26
- measures hydrogen ion concentration in the body fluids.
- renal disease,cancer
- Increases blood flow in the body and increases output.
- Excretes K and retains Na.
- Absorbs nutrients H2O.
- Diuretics (Lasix), Diarrhea, GI loss, polyuria
- 1)Lactaid Ringers 2) NS (0.9% NaCl) 3) 5% Dextrose
- pH > 7.45, PaCO2 < 35, HCO3 < 22
- GI loss - NG suction, vomit, diarrhea, Renal loss
- potassium has action with sodium.
- Body loses both water and electrolytes from the ECF.
- solution with greater concentration than plasma.