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  1. Aldosterone
  2. Potassium (K)
  3. pH
  4. Hypertonic solution
  5. S&S of Hyperkalemia
  6. Blood gas values - pH, PO2, HCO3, PCO2
  7. Istotonic solution
  8. Fluid Regulation of Thyroid Gland
  9. Foods high in Magnesium
  10. causes of Hyponatremia
  11. Insensible Loss
  12. S&S of Fluid Volume Deficit
  13. Renal System (kidneys)
  14. S&S of Hypocalcemia
  15. Fluid Regulation of Lungs
  16. serum Sodium level
  17. S&S of Hypercalcemia
  18. Hypotonic solution
  19. Renin
  20. causes of Hypermagnesemia
  21. Renin-Angiotensin mechanism initiates
  22. Fluid Volume Excess
  23. causes of Hypomagnesemia
  24. Fluid Regulation of GI tract
  25. causes of Hypernatremia
  26. Fluid Excretion
  27. Fluid Regulation of Nervous System
  28. Metabolic Acidosis
  29. Fluid Regulation of Cardiovascular system
  30. Respiratory system (lungs)
  31. Hypernatremia value
  32. Metabolic Alkalosis
  33. causes of Hypercalcemia
  34. Lasix (diuretic)
  35. S&S of Hypernatremia
  36. Dehydration
  37. Respiratory Alkalosis
  38. Hypovolemia
  39. causes of Hypocalcemia
  40. causes of Hyperkalemia
  41. Blood - Bicarbonate
  42. Foods high in potassium
  43. Sodium (Na)
  44. S&S of Hypomagnesemia
  45. Hyponatremia
  46. Fluid Output
  47. S&S of Fluid Volume Excess
  48. Signs and symptoms of Fluid volume excess
  49. S&S of Hypermagnesemia
  50. causes of Fluid Volume Deficit
  51. Osmolality
  52. Renal system (kidneys)
  53. S&S of Hypokalemia
  54. Oxygen Saturation
  55. Metabolic Imbalance
  56. serum Magnesium level
  57. reciprocal
  58. causes of Hypokalemia
  59. Fluid Regulation of Kidneys
  60. Acid Base regulatory mechanisms
  61. cause of decreased excretion
  62. Effects of Aldosterone
  63. S&S of Hyponatremia
  64. serum Calcium level
  65. Respiratory Acidosis
  66. causes Hypervolemia - crackles, SOB
  67. serum Potassium level
  68. Postassium (K)
  69. examples of Isotonic solutions
  70. Sensible Loss
  71. Respiratory Imbalance
  1. a causes loss of potassium. (hypokalemia)
  2. b Results from vomiting, gastric suction, K deficiency, increased renal excretion of acid.
  3. c potassium has action with sodium.
  4. d Occurs through kidneys, skin, lungs and GI tract.
  5. e Bicarbonate (PCO2) has opposite response of pH.
  6. f Body loses both water and electrolytes from the ECF.
  7. g 1.3 - 2.1 mEq/L
  8. h Regulates O2 and CO2, Acid/Base Balance and eliminates H+.
  9. i reverses dehydration.
  10. j hypoactive reflexes, cardiac arrest
  11. k 1)7.35-7.45 2) 80-100 mm Hg 3) 22-27 mEq/L 4)35-45 mm Hg
  12. l potatoes, raisins, bananas, spinach, avacados, carrots
  13. m Water moves out of cell and causes cell to shrink.
  14. n 4.5 - 5.5 mEq/L
  15. o pH > 7.45, PaCO2 < 35, HCO3 < 22
  16. p hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, muscle tremors
  17. q serum sodium greater than 145 mEq/L
  18. r Increases blood flow in the body and increases output.
  19. s Hypothalamus controls thirst - thirst center.
  20. t concentration of solutes in a solution.
  21. u 1)weight gain 2)High BP 3)shallow, rapid respirations 4)crackles 5)Fluid intake > outake 6)weakness, fatigue, dyspnea 7)edema, taut shiny skin 8)JVD 9)bounding pulse
  22. v Vegetables, nuts, fish
  23. w Major cation in the intracellular fluid.
  24. x 1) decreased intake 2) increased excretion 3) fluid shift 4) strenuous exercise 5) extreme heat/dryness 6) fever (increased metabolic rate)
  25. y Absorbs nutrients H2O.
  26. z muscle weakness & cramps, irregular pulse
  27. aa 1)Lactaid Ringers 2) NS (0.9% NaCl) 3) 5% Dextrose
  28. ab Diuretics (Lasix), Diarrhea, GI loss, polyuria
  29. ac 1)Filters blood 2)Excretes urine 3)Secretes aldosterone - reabsorbs Na, H2O and Cl and exceretes K.
  30. ad 1)Increased pulse and respirations 2)decreased BP 3)output > intake 4)dry oral mucosa 5)increased thirst 6)weight loss (5lbs.) 7)scanty or concentrated urine 8)collapsed neck veins
  31. ae Excretes K and retains Na.
  32. af 1st line of defense of acid base balance. (immediate response, only small fluctuations)
  33. ag Excessive retention of water and Na in extracellular fluid.
  34. ah Results from severe diarrhea or renal disease.
  35. ai hypoactive deep tendon reflexes
  36. aj electrolyte imbalance in which cardiovascular is always a concern.
  37. ak Distributes nutrients and water throughout the body.
  38. al serum Sodium level less than 135 mEq/L
  39. am 3.5 - 5 mEq/ L
  40. an measures hydrogen ion concentration in the body fluids.
  41. ao Released in response to decreased blood flow or decreased pressure in nephrons.
  42. ap Result of hypoventilation.
  43. aq major electrolyte found in extracellular fluid
  44. ar 1) low blood volume 2)low serum Na 3) low BP 4)high serum K
    5) low cardiac output
  45. as 1)weight gain 2)weakness, fatigue 3)dyspnea with exertion 4)pitting edema 4)JVD 5)taut, shiny skin 6)bounding pulse 7)shallow, rapid respiration 8)crackles 9)high BP 10)fluid intake > outake
  46. at Excess aldosterone secretion, water deprivation or increased water loss.
  47. au Extreme thirst, sticky tongue and mucous membranes, postural hypotension.
  48. av Water lost from body - no loss of electrolytes.
  49. aw pathological fractures, Trousseau's sign, Chvostek's sign
  50. ax loss that is perceived or is measurable. (wound drainage, GI tract, urine)
  51. ay Increases reabsorption of Na and water and excretion of K in kidneys. Causes vasoconstriction, increases BP. (main Na-retaining hormone)
  52. az Expands ECF volume. (same concentrate as plasma.)
  53. ba Osteoperosis, hyperparathyroidism, immobilization
  54. bb Vomiting, diarrhea, abnormal drainage, excessive use of laxatives, enema, diuretics, blood loss, diaphoresis, burns
  55. bc Malnutrition, alcoholism, diarrhea, vomiting, polyuria
  56. bd 2nd line of defense for acid base balance.
  57. be Fluid Volume Deficit, Renal Failure, Acidosis
  58. bf personality change, postural hypotension
  59. bg Continuous loss occurring through skin and lungs.
  60. bh Bicarbonate (PCO2) concentration corresponds with pH.
  61. bi Blood, Lungs, Kidneys
  62. bj 3rd line of defense for acid base balance.
  63. bk 135 - 145 mEq/L
  64. bl Point at which hemoglobin is saturated by O2.
  65. bm life threatening dysrhythmias
  66. bn Too much fluid to patient with kidney failure or CHF.
  67. bo chronic alcoholism, chronic renal failure, Vitamin D deficiency
  68. bp GI loss - NG suction, vomit, diarrhea, Renal loss
  69. bq renal disease,cancer
  70. br Renal failure, excess intake
  71. bs Primary system in regulating fluid and electrolyte balance.