NAME

Question types


Start with


Question limit

of 25 available terms

Print test

25 True/False questions

  1. Insulin NPH (Novolin-N - Humulin-N - ReliOn N)Short acting insulin
    Onset: 30-60 minutes
    Peak: 2-4 hours
    Duration: 6-8 hours
    *Regular insulin can be administered intravenously, thus it is used in emergencies.
    *Can be used in insulin pump.

          

  2. What is the best treatment for Type 1 diabetes?-Prevent longterm complications by keeping blood glucose and lipids under tight control.
    1. Diet:
    -CHO and Mono-fats together = 60-70% cal
    -Protein= 10%
    -Saturated fat < 10%
    -Cholesterol < 300 mcg/day
    -Total caloric intake spread evenly with meals spaced 4-5 hours apart
    2. Regular exercise that includes monitoring blood glucose pre- and post-
    3. Insulin replacement

          

  3. Insulin - Aspart (Novolog)Rapid acting insulin
    Onset: 15-30 minutes
    Peak: 1-2 hours
    Duration: 3-4 hours

          

  4. What is the best treatment for Type 2 diabetes?-Prevent longterm complications by keeping blood glucose and lipids under tight control.
    -Diet & exercise (promotes glucose uptake by muscles)
    -Weight loss
    -drug therapy, if diet & exercise fail
    --oral hypoglycemic agents
    --insulin
    --injectable hypoglycemic agents (ie. Byetta)

          

  5. What is HHNS?Ex.: Sitagliptin (Januvia)
    MOA:
    -increases insulin release by enhancing the activity of incretins
    -Reduces glucagon release
    -Decreases hepatic glucose production
    onset: rapid, peak: 1-4 hr, duration: 24 hr

          

  6. Insulin Regular - Humulin R - Novolin RShort acting insulin
    Onset: 30-60 minutes
    Peak: 2-4 hours
    Duration: 6-8 hours
    *Regular insulin can be administered intravenously, thus it is used in emergencies.
    *Can be used in insulin pump.

          

  7. Insulin - Glulisine (Apidra)Rapid acting insulin
    Onset: 15-30 minutes
    Peak: 1-3 hours
    Duration: 3-5 hours
    *Can be used in insulin pump.

          

  8. Biguanides;
    Metformin (Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Fotamet, Riomet)
    same MOA as sulfonylureas
    *Requires functioning pancreatic beta cells.

          

  9. What are four major effects of insulin deficit?1. Impaired carbohydrate metabolism-glucose can't enter the cell, serum becomes hyperglycemic
    2. Impaired fat metabolism - fat broken down in cholesterol & phospholipids (ie. atherosclerosis) or ketone bodies (potential ketosis)
    3. Impaired protein metabolism - can't store or synthesize protein, but increased catabolism causes muscle wasting, elevated BUN, aminoacidemia and multiple organ dysfunction
    4. Fluid & electrolyte imbalance-increased serum glucose, inc. plasma osmotic P, fluid shift to intravascular compartment, intracellular dehydration (polydipsia)

          

  10. Thiazolidinediones aka glitazones;
    Rosiglitazone (Avandia)
    Pioglitazone (Actos)
    same MOA as sulfonylureas
    *Requires functioning pancreatic beta cells.

          

  11. What are s/s of hypoglycemia?weak, tired, polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, blurry vision, itchy dry skin, fruity-smelling breath

          

  12. What are lab values associated with DKA?Type 1 DM
    -Rapid onset- 1 to 24 hours
    -Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia
    -Dehydration
    --warm, dry skin
    --tachycardia, weak, thready pulse
    --acute weight loss
    --hypotension
    -Ketoacidosis
    --Nausea and vomiting, anorexia
    --Ketone breath -- sweet, fruity odor
    --Mental status changes
    ---lethargy, fatigue, stupor, coma
    COMPENSATION: Respiratory, Kussmaul's respirations (rapid, deep respirations)

          

  13. GliptinsEx.: Sitagliptin (Januvia)
    MOA:
    -increases insulin release by enhancing the activity of incretins
    -Reduces glucagon release
    -Decreases hepatic glucose production
    onset: rapid, peak: 1-4 hr, duration: 24 hr

          

  14. Insulin - Glargine (Lantus)
    Insulin - Detemir (Levemir)
    Long acting basal insulin
    Onset: 1-2 hours
    PeakLESS
    Duration: 24 hours
    *used overnight and between meals, 9am & 9pm
    *Do not mix with other insulin.

          

  15. Hemoglobin A1CA serum blood test which reflects glucose level over the preceding 2-3 months that is a better indicator of glycemic control over time than the FBS
    6% reflects pretty good control

          

  16. What are s/s of DKA?-Impaired cerebral function
    -H/A, altered emotional behavior
    -Difficulty problem solving, feelings of vagueness,
    -Slurred speech, impaired motor function,
    -Seizures, coma
    -Nervous, shaky, dizzy, confused, hunger, cold & clammy skin, tachycardia, irritability

          

  17. Meglitinides;
    Repaglinide (Prandin)
    Nateglinide (Starlix)
    same MOA as sulfonylureas
    *Requires functioning pancreatic beta cells.

          

  18. Incretin memetic exenatide injectionNew injectable drug for DM
    MOA: amylin (peptide hormone in the pancreas, released with insulin) mimetic, delays gastric emptying & suppresses glucagon secretion, decrease postprandial levels of glucose; lowers calorie intake by increasing satiety
    Therapeutic use: supplement mealtime insulin (SC injection)
    Adverse effects: hypoglycemia, nausea, injection site reaction

          

  19. GlucagonEx.: Sitagliptin (Januvia)
    MOA:
    -increases insulin release by enhancing the activity of incretins
    -Reduces glucagon release
    -Decreases hepatic glucose production
    onset: rapid, peak: 1-4 hr, duration: 24 hr

          

  20. Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors;
    Acarbose (Precose)
    Miglitol (Glyset)
    same MOA as sulfonylureas
    *Requires functioning pancreatic beta cells.

          

  21. Sulfonylureas- Oral hypoglycemic agents;
    1st Generation:
    Tolbutamide (Orinase)
    Tolazamide (Tolinase)
    Chlorpropamide (Diabinese)
    2nd Generation:
    Glipizide (Glucotrol)
    Glyburide (Diabeta, Micronase, Glynase)
    Gimepiride (Amaryl)
    Lower blood glucose by:
    1. stimulating secretion of insulin from the pancreas
    2. increasing the body's sensitivity or response to insulin
    3. reducing the release of glucose from the liver
    -Classified by generations based on potency, duration and drug interactions/SE
    -Adverse effects: hypoglycemia (most likely with kidney or liver dysfxn), effects potentiated by ETOH, NSAIDs, Tagamet
    *Safe with Metformin.
    *Not used for gestational diabetes.
    *Primary site of action: Pancreas

          

  22. Insulin Novolog Mix 70/30 (Neutral Protamine aspart and aspart)Mixed insulin
    Onset: 15-30 minutes
    Peak: 2-10 hours
    Duration: 12-16 hours
    *70% NPH, 30% Regular

          

  23. Pramlintide (Symlin)New injectable drug for DM
    MOA: amylin (peptide hormone in the pancreas, released with insulin) mimetic, delays gastric emptying & suppresses glucagon secretion, decrease postprandial levels of glucose; lowers calorie intake by increasing satiety
    Therapeutic use: supplement mealtime insulin (SC injection)
    Adverse effects: hypoglycemia, nausea, injection site reaction

          

  24. Insulin - Lispro (Humalog)Rapid acting insulin
    Onset: 15-30 minutes
    Peak: 1-2 hours
    Duration: 3-4 hours

          

  25. What are s/s of hyperglycemia?-Impaired cerebral function
    -H/A, altered emotional behavior
    -Difficulty problem solving, feelings of vagueness,
    -Slurred speech, impaired motor function,
    -Seizures, coma
    -Nervous, shaky, dizzy, confused, hunger, cold & clammy skin, tachycardia, irritability