Pulmonary System: Disorders list #1 flashcards |

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Acute Respiratory Failure

inadequate gas exchange due to damage to lungs

Acute Respiratory Distress

life-threatening lung condition that prevents enough oxygen from getting into the blood.

Pulmonary Embolus

a blockage of an artery in the lungs by fat, air, a blood clot, or tumor cells; Fat Emboli,Air Emboli

COPD

progressive disease that makes it hard to breathe; Chronic bronchitis-Inflammation of Bronchi(lung infection),
Emphysema-overdistention of the airspaces of the lungs,
Asthma

Therapeutic Range for Aminophylline

10-20 mcg/mL (Bronchodilator)

Pneumonia

Inflammation of the lungs caused by infection. Bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites can cause pneumonia.

Pleurisy

Inflammation of the lining of the lungs and chest (the pleura) that leads to chest pain (usually sharp) when you take a breath or cough. Also called pleuritis.

Tuberculosis

Highly contagious infection caused by Mycobaterium TB. Transmitted by Droplet and use Airborne Precautions.

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

acute viral respiratory infection that begins like the flu but quickly progresses to severe dyspnea, high fatality rate;Coronavirus.

Legionnaries Disease

Severe form of Pneumonia โ€” lung inflammation usually caused by infection. Legionnaires' disease is caused by a bacterium known as legionella. Bacterial growth stored in water.

CBC

the measure of the concentration of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets in the blood.

Chest Xray

Diagnostic radiology procedure used to examine the chest and the organs and structures located in the chest; used to assess the lungs, as well as the heart (either directly or indirectly) by looking at the heart itself.

Pulmonary Function Test

a group of tests that measure how well the lungs take in and release air and how well they move gases such as oxygen from the atmosphere into the body's circulation;(ex: Spirometry)

Lung Scan

nuclear scanning test used to detect a blood clot that is preventing normal blood flow to part of a lung (pulmonary embolism);(Ex: Ventilation Scan/Perfusion Scan)

Bronchoscopy

To view airways and diagnose the lung disease; a device used to see the inside of the lungs. It can be flexible or rigid. Usually, a flexible bronchoscope is used. The flexible bronchoscope is a tube less than 1/2 inch wide and about 2 feet long. NPO for 8-12 hours before test;NPO after test until Gag Reflex return.

Arterial Blood Gas

analysis provides information on the following:
1] Oxygenation of blood through gas exchange in the lungs. 2] Carbon dioxide (CO2) elimination through respiration. 3] Acid-base balance or imbalance in extra-cellular fluid (ECF).

HCO3

24-26 mEq/L; Calculated value of the amount of bicarbonate in the bloodstream

CO2

35-45 mEq/L; measures the amount of carbon dioxide in the liquid part of your blood, called the serum.

PaO2

80%-90%; partial pressure of oxygen that is dissolved in arterial blood.
Born - Acceptable range 40-70 mm Hg. Elderly: Subtract 1 mm Hg from the minimal 80 mm Hg level for every year over 60 years of age: 80 - (age- 60) (Note: up to age 90)

SaO2

> 95%; The arterial oxygen saturation.

pH

7.35- 7.45; a measurement of acidity or alkalinity

ROME

Respiratory Opposite; Metabolic Equal

Respiratory Acidosis

pH down, CO2 up, and HCO3 up;

Metabolic Acidosis

pH down, CO2 down, and HCO3 down

Respiratory Alkalosis

pH up, CO2 down, and HCO3 down

Metabolic Alkalosis

pH up, CO2 up, and HCO3 up

PaCO2

35-45 mm Hg; The amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in arterial blood.

Nursing Interventions

High fowlers Position, Pursed lip breathing, Administer O2,

Thoracentesis

Used to remove fluid from the chest cavity. Pt in sitting position resting over bedside table.

Sputum AFB test

TB is suspected

Pneumothorax

partial or complete collapse of a lung as a result of accumulation of Air in the interpleural space; mediastinal shift

Hemothorax

partial or complete collapse of a lung as a result of accumulation of Blood in the interpleural space.

Bronchodilators

Relax smooth muscle and increase respiration; EX: epinephrine/albuterol

Anti-Cholinergic Bronchodilators

Prevents bronchospasms caused by acetylcholine; EX: ipratropium bromide/atropine

Methylaxanthine Bronchodilators

Relaxes smooth muscles of the Tracheobrachial tree; EX: aminophylline/theophyline

Side Effects of Methylaxanthine Bronchodilators

Tachycardia, Hypotension, Arrhythmias, GI distress, Tremors, Anxiety, Headache

Anti-Inflammatory Agents

reducing inflammation; EX: Intal/Beclovent

Order of Inhalation Use

Bronchodilator First, than Corticosteroids second.

Anti-Tuberculosis Agents

EX: Isoniazid/Rifampin/Ethambutol; Side Effects-Turns urine, saliva, sweat, sputum orange in color.

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