Hypo & hyper: K, CA, Na, etc. S & S. flashcards |

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Hyponatremia

Fluid balances

Hyperkalemia

Muscle cramps (unsure)

Hypokalemia

Muscle weakness

Hypercalcemia

Muscle weakness

Hypocalcemia

Osteoporosis

Hyponatremia

Mental status changes

Hyperkalemia

irregular heart rate.

Hypokalemia

weak pulse.

Hypercalcemia

kidney stones.

Hypocalcemia

hyperactive reflexes.

Hyponatremia

< 135 m/Eq/L

Hyponatremia

Dehydration

Hyponatremia

Disoriented

Hyponatremia

Confusion

Hyponatremia

Personality changes

Hyponatremia

nausea/vomiting

Hyponatremia

diarrhea

Hypernatremia

>145 mEq/L

Hypernatremia

Thirsty

Hypernatremia

Mental status changes

Hypernatremia

Agitation.

Hypernatremia

Confusion.

Hypernatremia

Personality changes

Hypernatremia

Seizures.

Hypernatremia

Muscle twitching.

Hypernatremia

Unusual contractions.

Hypernatremia

Skeletal muscle weakness that can effect the diaphragm & lead to resp. failure. (not sure)

This is a mineral & is primarily stored in bones & teeth:

Calcium.

A small amount of this mineral is found in extra-cellular fluid:

Calcium.

The normal value for serum Ca is this:

4.5-5.5 mEq/L.

Minimal changes in Ca level can do this:

Have major negative effects in the body.

This mineral is needed for the proper functioning of excitable tissues (especially cardiac muscle):

Calcium.

Hypocalcemia occurs when the serum Ca level falls below this:

4.5 mEq/L.

A woman who is postmenopausal is most at risk for this:

Hypocalcemia.

As a woman ages, intake of this mineral typically declines:

Calcium.

Most patients develop hypocalcemia slowly d/t these:

Chronic disease or poor intake.

What gland recognizes a decrease in Ca?

The Parathyroid gland.

What gland stimulates the bone to release some of it's stored Ca?

The Parathyroid gland.

Hypocalcemia can occur as a result of this:

Inadequate absorption of Ca from the intestines (ie: Crohn's Disease).

What disease of the intestines can lead to a decrease in Ca absorbtion?

Crohn's Disease.

What disease of the intestines can lead to a decrease in Ca absorbtion?

Chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

Hypocalcemia can occur as a result of this:

Chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

Insufficient intake of Vit D can prevent this:

Calcium absorption.

Calcium absorption can be insufficient d/t insufficient intake of this:

Vitamin D.

What Vitamin aids in Ca absorption?

Vitamin D.

Hypocalcemia can occur as a result of this:

Conditions that interfere w/the production of Parathyroid Hormone.

These are conditions which can interfere with the production of Parathyroid Hormone:

Partial or complete surgical removal of the Thyroid.

These are conditions which can interfere with the production of Parathyroid Hormone:

Partial or complete surgical removal of the Parathyroids.

Post-menopausal women lack this hormone that helps prevent bone loss:

Estrogen.

Pts w/hyperphosphatemia often experience this:

Hypocalcemia.

Low CA in Pts d/t Hyperphosphatemia are typically those who have this problem:

Renal failure.

Renal failure causes this:

Hyperphosphatemia, l/t hypocalcemia.

Ca and this mineral have an inverse relationship:

Phosphate.

Phostphate and this mineral have an inverse relationship:

Calcium.

When Ca levels go up:

Phosphate levels go down.

When Ca levels go down:

Phosphate levels go up.

When Phosphate levels go up:

Ca levels go down.

When Phosphate levels go down:

Ca levels go up.

Tums is high in this:

Calcium.

Acute hypocalcemia can occur d/t this:

Surgery.

Acute hypocalcemia can occur d/t this:

Acute Pancreatitis.

These are the two simple classic tests to assess for hypocalcemia:

Trousseau's Sign, Chvostek's Sign.

This is a simple classic way to assess for hypocalcemia:

Trousseau's Sign.

This is a simple classic way to assess for hypocalcemia:

Chvostek's Sign.

The CHeek tapping CHeek twitCHing test to CHeck for hypocalcemia is:

Chvostek's Sign.

Jacque's Cousteau used depth & air gauges. You use a blood pressure gauge to check for this hypocalcemia sign:

Trousseau's Sign.

'Trousseau' rhymes with this body part where it is done to check for hypocalcemia:

Elbow.

This is how many mins to leave the BP cuff on the elbow during a Trousseau's Test (to check for hypoCa):

1-4 mins.

If the face twitches/cheek twitches during a Chvotsek's test the test is:

Positive.

If the fingers and hand spasms and the hand goes into palmar flexion during the Trousseau's test, the result is:

Positive.

Hyponatremia

Increased heart rate.

Hyponatremia

Increase and irregular heart rate.

Hyponatremia

Mental status changes.

Hyponatremia

Hyperactive deep tendon reflexes.

Hyponatremia

Increased GI motility.

Hyponatremia

Diarrhea and abdominal cramping.

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