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  • CSS is a crucial tool for achievement of much of the ___

    appearance and even behavior of modern mobile applications as well as Web sites.

    you need to understand CSS well and how CSS co-operates with other tools including ___

    HTML and JavaScript.

    «Cascading Style Sheets» (CSS) is a language that defines ___

    style of HTML elements.

    One of the original principles of HTML is that the appearance of an element is controlled not only by CSS but also by the way the end user configures his or her ___

    browser or desktop.

    HTML's responsibility is ___

    to structure content;

    CSS's responsibility is ___

    to format that content.

    CSS3 is the version of CSS that corresponds to ___

    HTML5

    CSS3 generally adds features and functionality rather than changing how ___

    CSS has always been used.

    Some of the significant additions to CSS3 are ___

    selectors, the box model, 2D and 3D transformations, animations, and multiple column layout.

    CSS3 also lets you create ___

    rounded borders, add shadows to boxes and text, use multiple images in a background, and use any font you like, whether it's on the user's computer or not.

    You can create CSS files entirely from a simple text editor like ___

    Notepad.

    The <link> element links an ___

    HTML file to a CSS file.

    When you create an HTML page and want to pull styles from a CSS file, you must include a ___

    <link> element to the CSS file in the HTML page.

    An example of correct syntax for a <link> is as follows:

    <link href = "filename.css" rel = "stylesheet" type = "text/css">

    An HTML file might have a name like myproject.html or file1.htm; a typical CSS filename is myproject.css. Their contents also look quite different: HTML source is organized around tags, while, as you'll see below, CSS is a sequence of ___

    rules.

    if you misspell the CSS file name, or "stylesheet," or "text/css" within the HTML page markup, the resulting Web page doesn't apply any of the ___

    styles in the CSS file.

    You can specify color using a name or ___

    a hexadecimal value.

    to use the standard blue color, the color name is "blue" and the hexadecimal value is ___

    #0000FF.

    In HTML documents, it's standard practice to maintain HTML files, which contain content, and simply reference a separate CSS file, which contains code for ___

    styling the content in the HTML files.

    "Separation of content and style" ? ___

    Separating HTML and CSS into different files

    Content is managed as HTML and style as ___

    CSS

    The separation of HTML and CSS helps make it possible for two people to work ___

    simultaneously without interfering with each other.

    Separation of content and presentation helps you conform more closely with HTML5, which is becoming the new standard for ___

    Web pages and applications.

    A CSS file typically contains a sequence of style specifications or rules and might include an initial ___

    @import rule.

    Each individual rule has two primary parts: ___

    a «selector» and one or more «declarations».

    The «selector» is usually the ___

    HTML element you want to style.

    The «declaration» is the style for a specific selector. A declaration has a ___

    property (which is a style attribute) and a value.

    The general syntax of a «declaration» consists of a «property» keyword followed by a colon and space, and then a ___

    «value» followed by a semi-colon terminator.

    A declaration is within ___

    curly brackets.

    Content between / and / in a CSS file is called a ___

    comment.

    This example has two rules, one for "p" and one for #slogan. The first rule applies to all content within all paragraph tags (or type) <p> on the Web page. The second rule applies only to the unique HTML element with ID "slogan." : ___

    /* This is the content of the file e1.css. */
    p {color: brown;}
    #slogan {
    font-size:20px;
    color: green;
    font-style: italic;
    }

    For now, think of selectors as one of the following three: ___

    • HTML tags, like <p>...
    • ID selectors, like #slogan ...
    • Class selectors, ...

    «Class» is an attribute a Web author uses to provide ___

    structure to a document beyond the meaning HTML builds in with elements such as paragraph, header, and so on.

    the prefix for a class is period (.), the prefix for an ID is a ___

    '#'

    Be careful with IDs. You probably understand that they need to be unique within your HTML. They can also appear in ___

    JavaScript and CSS.

    Typography has to do with the ___

    appearance of letters, numbers, and other characters.

    A «font» is a set of ___

    characters of a particular size and style.

    «Monospace» is often used for ___

    technical material such as formulas, numbers, codes

    Serifs are the details at the ___

    ends of particular letters;

    «Sans serif» fonts are simply type styles drawn without ___

    serifs, such as the Arial font.

    The font-family property can declare either a specific font, like ___

    Garamond or Arial, or a wider family that includes many different fonts, such as "serif."

    when you include «font-family: monospace» in a CSS file, you tell the browser to choose characters where each letter occupies the same width on a line, whether the letter itself is as wide as "m" or as narrow as "i." You aren't specifying a specific monospace font; you are specifying only the ___

    monospace family.

    Prior to CSS3, developers had to use Web-safe fonts and/or fonts the developer knew was installed on a ___

    Web page visitor's system.

    CSS3 provides the «@font-face rule», which enables developers to use ___

    any font they choose.

    The font must be located on your Web server, or you can include a ___

    URL to where the font is located if it's on a different Web server.

    Here's an example of a rule for a font named Euphemia that's located on your own Web server : ___

    @font-face {
    font-family: TrustyHomePage;
    src: url('Euphemia.ttf');
    }

    With CSS3, websites can finally use fonts other than the pre selected ___

    "web-safe" fonts.

    In the new «@font-face rule» you must first define a name for the font (e.g. myFirstFont), and then ___

    point to the font file.

    You can manage the flow of content in an HTML document using ___

    «inline flow» and «block flow» properties in CSS.

    «Inline flow» "fits." It forces ___

    no new lines before or after the inlined element, but simply places the element between the content before and after the inlined element.

    In «block flow», in contrast to inline flow, an element is separated from other elements by ___

    new lines above and below, and fills from left to right the horizontal extent where it appears.

    HTML and CSS support a number of ways to specify where individual HTML elements appear within a display. The two most important for our purposes are ___

    «float positioning» and «absolute positioning».

    The default positioning method for all elements is ___

    "static", that is, immediately after the document's previous element.

    «Float positioning» often is useful when a layout is in columns, at least in part. To float an element is to have it move as far as possible either to the right or left; text then "wraps" ___

    around the element.

    The "Lorem ipsum" text is called filler or ___

    dummy text, commonly used in design circles.

    It's easy to generate dummy text in Word, for example, by typing ___

    =lorem() into a blank document and pressing the Enter key.

    With «absolute positioning», an element is removed from its position within the body of a document and placed at ___

    a geometric position in the display.

    "Geometric position" here means a location a definite distance from ___

    two sides of the display—the top and the right-hand sides, for example.

    For mobile applications, in contrast to the majority of Web applications, it is relatively common to use ___

    absolute positioning.

    When you view letters and characters on a page, look at them as marks rather than letters. Each HTML element occupies a ___

    rectangle.

    CSS makes it possible to limit the ___

    width of an element.

    CSS makes it possible to limit the width of an element. What happens if the element doesn't fit in the space CSS defines for it? ___

    CSS's «overflow» rule controls this.

    When an element overflows its box, and its overflow is set to scroll, all the content of the element stays within the box; none of the overflow appears outside the box. This is referred to as __

    «scrolling overflow».

    Visible overflow writes over ___

    the content that follows it.

    scrollbars give the user a chance to see all the ___

    content without taking up additional display space.

    «Visible» is the default ___

    value of «overflow».

    background-color does not apply to the ___

    to the overflow content

    With «hidden» overflow, the overflow simply becomes ___

    invisible.

    «Hidden» overflow keeps a design under control: it guarantees that overflow won't ___

    "pollute" a nice design with pieces out of place.

    When working on a small, standalone HTML file in which the styles probably won't change, it's acceptable to include CSS styling code ___

    within the HTML file itself.

    The HTML «bounding box» is a rectangle that includes ___

    all the letters of a block of text along with its background. CSS styling is expressed in terms of this box. The «bounding box» is not visible on Web pages by default.

    the symbol # is a prefix that determines that ___

    selection is by ID.

    Notice that an ID should be ___

    unique within a particular HTML instance.

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