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  • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) uses markup to describe content for display on a ___

    Web page.

    An «element» is the ___

    combination of tags and the content they enclose.

    You may need to use «special characters» on a Web page, which requires ___

    character encoding.

    every Web page requires the «doctype declaration» at the ___

    top of the page.

    Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is called a markup language because ___

    you use it to describe (mark up) pieces of content to display on a Web page.

    A Web page with markup means it includes tags, which are ___

    keywords that help to give an HTML page structure.

    You can easily identify an HTML document because it has an ___

    .htm or .html file extension.

    When a Web browser or mobile device such as a smartphone opens an HTML file, it ___

    renders (interprets and reproduces) the content of the page.

    Every HTML page includes ___

    tags.

    A tag is a ___

    keyword surrounded by angled brackets.

    Most tags come in pairs; one tag is called the ___, and the other is the
    closing or end tag.

    opening or start tag

    Most tags come in pairs; one tag is called the opening or start tag, and the other is the
    ___

    closing or end tag.

    A closing tag is identical to an opening tag except the closing tag includes a ___

    slash before the keyword.

    Tags surround content and give it ___

    definition.

    this markup creates a first-level heading: ___

    <h1>Pet Care 101</h1>

    HTML also uses some single tags, like <br /> for a ___ and <hr /> for a horizontal line.

    line break

    HTML also uses some single tags, like <br /> for a line break and <hr /> for a ___

    horizontal line.

    In HTML 4, «single tags» are called «empty tags» because they don't require an ___

    end tag.

    HTML5 is less restrictive than ___

    HTML 4.

    HTML5 is less restrictive than HTML 4. You don't have to ___ for all elements (although some elements still require start and end tags), and you can enter tags in uppercase or lowercase.

    include end tags

    HTML5 is less restrictive than HTML 4. You don't have to include end tags for all elements (although some elements still require start and end tags), and you can enter tags in ___

    uppercase or lowercase.

    These four tags <html>, <head>, <title>, and <body> are required on ___

    every Web page.

    These four tags ___ are required on every Web page.

    <html>, <head>, <title>, and <body>

    <html> ? ___

    Identifies the page as an HTML document.

    The <html> tag encompasses everything on the page other than the ___

    doctype declaration at the top.

    <head> ? ___

    Contains markup and code used by the browser, such as scripts that add interactivity, and keywords to help search engines find the page. Content in the <head> tag can also include formatting styles for the page.

    <head>, contains markup and code used by the browser, such as ___

    scripts that add interactivity, and keywords to help search engines find the page.

    Content in the ___ can also include formatting styles for the page.

    <head> tag

    <title> ? ___

    Displays the title of the Web page, which appears at the top of the Web browser, usually on the page's tab in a tabbed browser.

    <body>? ___

    Surrounds content that's visible on the Web page when viewed in a Web browser.

    <a href=URL> ? ___

    Generally used to «anchor» a URL to text or an image; can also create a named «anchor» within a document to allow for linking to sections of the document.

    <b> ? ___

    Applies boldface to text.

    <hx> ? ___

    Creates a heading, which can be first level (h1) through sixth level (h6).

    <img> ? ___

    Inserts an image from a file or another Web site.

    <p> ? ___

    Defines text as a paragraph.

    A tag pair or an empty tag is also called an ___

    element. An element can describe content, insert graphics, and create hyperlinks.

    Not all tags describe data on their own or at least not in enough detail for rendering, so some elements must include ___

    «attributes», which are modifiers of HTML elements that provide additional information.

    «attributes» ? ___

    are modifiers of HTML elements that provide additional information.

    Attributes are easy to use and are just ___

    extensions of elements.

    You add attributes to elements according to this basic syntax: ___

    <tag attribute="value">

    Notice that the attribute and its value are both ___

    inside a tag.

    You must include an attribute within a tag so that the Web browser knows how to handle ___

    the attribute.

    A good example of an attribute is when creating a hyperlink, as follows: ___

    <a href="http://www.xpto.com">This is a link.</a>

    HTML5 includes several «global attributes», which you can use with any HTML5 element. Examples of global attributes include ___

    id, lang, and class, etc

    Nesting means ___

    to place one element inside another.

    example of correct nesting: ___

    <p>Make sure your pet has plenty of <i><b>fresh water</b></i> during hot weather.</p>

    When two or more elements apply to the same block of text, you should nest tag pairs appropriately so that ___

    they do what you intended.

    The rule for nesting is that nested tags must be closed before ___

    their parent tags.

    An «entity» is a special character, such as the ___

    dollar symbol, the registered trademark (a capital R within a circle), and accented letters.

    character encoding ? ___

    The process of incorporating entities in a Web page.

    Each «special character» that can be reproduced in a Web page has an ___

    «entity» name and a numerical code.

    An «entity» begins with an ampersand (&) and ends with a ___

    semicolon (;).

    the «entity» &reg; represents the ___

    registered trademark symbol (®), and its numerical code is &#174;

    the «entity» &copy; represents the ___

    Copyright symbol (©), and its numerical code is &#169;

    the «entity» &deg; represents the ___

    Degree symbol (°), and its numerical code is &#176;

    the «entity» &dollar; represents the ___

    Dollar symbol ($), and its numerical code is &#36;

    the «entity» &percnt; represents the ___

    Percent symbol (%), and its numerical code is &#37;

    the «entity» &euro; represents the ___

    Euro symbol (€), and its numerical code is &#8364;

    Another important thing to know about character encoding in HTML5 is that you should use UTF-8 encoding whenever possible, because ___

    most browsers use UTF-8.

    you should use UTF-8 encoding whenever possible, because most browsers use UTF-8. That means you add the following declaration to the head element: ___

    <meta charset="UTF-8">

    The HTML5 specification requires that the whole meta element fits in the first 1,024 bytes of the document, which is why you include it at ___

    the top of the page in the head element.

    The «doctype» is a declaration that is found at the ___

    very top of almost every HTML document.

    When a Web browser reads a doctype declaration, the browser assumes that everything on the Web page uses the ___

    language or rules specified in the declaration.

    In HTML 4, all <!DOCTYPE> declarations require a reference to a ___

    DTD

    DTD, which stands for ___ ( html4)

    Document Type Definition.

    The DTD is simply a set of rules that help a Web browser turn tags and content into ___ ( html4)

    the pages you see on the Web.

    Because of how HTML5 was created, it doesn't require ___

    a reference to a DTD.

    In HTML 4, the doctype declaration specifies the ___

    HTML page's language and DTD

    The new HTML5 doctype, in comparison, is very simple: ___

    <!doctype html>

    The HTML5 doctype is case-insensitive, so ___

    the keyword "doctype" can be uppercase or lowercase.

    This simplified doctype is partially responsible for why HTML5 pages easily lend themselves for viewing in a ___

    Web browser on a computer or a mobile device.

    The blank lines between parts of the page, such as between the doctype declaration and the <html> tag, don't ___

    appear on a Web page.

    Blank lines and indents simply help you read the markup more ___

    easily in an editing tool.

    you can use the W3C's validation service at http://validator.w3.org to ___

    check and validate HTML code.

    Notepad+++ offers features that make it easier to ___

    create and edit HTML documents.

    In Internet Explorer 9, you can press F12 to open browser mode. This mode enables you to edit pages without leaving the browser. In addition, you can click «Document Mode» on the menu bar and then ___

    select an older version of the browser to see how a page renders.

    it's best to use a variety of Web browsers to ensure your markup ___

    renders as expected for the widest audience.

    HTML5 also includes many new elements that increase the ___

    functionality of Web pages or streamline the markup.

    Some HTML 4 text-related elements now have slightly different ___

    meaning or functionality in HTML5.

    The <b> element should now be used to ___

    offset text without conveying importance, such as for keywords or product names.

    The <i> element now indicates content in an ___

    alternate voice or mood, like spoken text.

    The <strong> element indicates strong ___

    importance.

    the <em> element indicates ___

    emphatic stress/Emphasized text.

    The <small> element should be used for ___

    small print, like a copyright line.

    "replace the «italic» and «bold» tags with the ___

    «strong» element"

    Note that the strong element will look like the bold element. The W3C prefers that you use <strong> over ___

    <b>, although they seem to produce nearly identical results.

    New text-related elements in HTML5 include ___

    <command>, <mark>, and <time>, <meter> and <progress>..

    <command>: The command element is used to define a command button that ___

    users click to invoke a command.

    <mark>: The mark element is very handy for ____

    highlighting text on a page.

    <time>: The time element indicates content that is a ___

    time or date, which can be made machine-readable with the «datetime» attribute.

    <time>: The time element indicates content that is a time or date, which can be made machine-readable with the ___

    «datetime» attribute.

    One benefit of making times and dates machine-readable on your Web page is that it helps ___

    search engines produce better
    search results.

    The «meter» element indicates content that's a ___

    fraction of a known range.

    The «progress» element indicates the progress of ___

    a task towards completion.

    <mark> element example: ___

    <p>Your dog is a <mark style="background-color:orange;"> friend for life</mark>.

    <time> element examples: ___

    <time datetime="2013">
    <time datetime="2013-04">
    <time datetime="04-15">

    Removing elements from the
    list of available HTML elements is referred to as ___

    deprecation. (The same thing applies
    to attributes.)

    Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) : ___

    to change the look and feel of text, images, and other Web content separates style from content.

    The following HTML elements are considered deprecated and are not supported in HTML5 pages: ___

    <acronym>, <applet>, <basefont>, <big>, <center>, <dir>, <font>, <frame>, <frameset>, <noframes>, <strike>, <tt>

    <acronym> element is considered deprecated so use ___

    the <abbr> tag instead.

    <applet> element is considered deprecated so use ___

    the <object> tag instead.

    <dir> element is considered deprecated so use ___

    the <ul> tag instead.

    <strike> element is considered deprecated so use ___

    the <del> tag instead for small amounts of text, or use CSS for large blocks of text.

    <tt> element is considered deprecated so use ___

    the <code> tag or CSS instead.

    <center>, <basefont>, <big>, <font> element is considered deprecated so use ___

    CSS instead.

    a best practice is to create pages assuming Web page visitors use a current or near-current browser, which means using ___

    the latest HTML elements.

    if you need to apply a lot of formatting to any Web page, it's best to use ___

    CSS for efficiency.

    The following attributes are not used in HTML5, although these attributes are not actually part of any HTML specification: ___

    bgcolor, bordercolor, bordercolorlight, bordercolordark

    Use the img element to display linked ___

    images in a Web page.

    The «figure» and «figure caption» elements are new to HTML5, and give you more ___

    control of the type of image you are displaying and the ability to include captions.

    The «canvas» element is used for ___

    drawing, rendering, and manipulating images and graphics dynamically in HTML5.

    Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) enables you to create ___

    scalable objects that resize to best fit the screen on which they're viewed, whether a PC screen or a smartphone.

    You can display different kinds of images on a Web page, most of which fall into two main categories: ___

    raster (or bitmap) and vector

    A «raster image» is made up of ___

    pixels.

    A «vector image» is made up of ___

    lines and curves based on mathematical expressions.

    A photograph is a type of raster image and is most often in JPG format. Other raster file formats that work well on Web pages are ___

    PNG, GIF, and BMP

    raster images lose quality (they become pixelated) as you enlarge them, but vector images ___

    maintain quality even when enlarged.

    The primary way to add images to an HTML document is with the ___

    img element.

    to insert an image named redball.jpg that's in a subfolder called images, type this element: ___

    <img src="images/redball.jpg" alt="Red ball graphic" />

    The W3C requires the «alt attribute» for accessibility by ___

    people with disabilities. People with limited vision may use a screen reader, which reads aloud the alternate text for each image.

    Search engines also use the «alt attribute» to identify types of images and what's in them, since search engines can't ___

    "see" pixels in images.

    to insert an image named bluelogo.png that's accessible from another Web site, type the following element: ___

    <img src="http://www.example.com/mrkt/images/bluelogo.png" alt="Company XYZ blue logo" />

    The «img» element uses several attributes: ___

    src, alt, height, width, ismap, usemap

    The «figure» element specifies ___

    the type of figure you want to use in an HTML document, such as an illustration or photo.

    The «figcaption element» provides ___

    a caption for the figure.

    The «figure» element specifies the type of figure you're adding, such as an image, diagram, photo, and so on. This element provides a major benefit: ___

    the ability to easily add multiple images side by side.

    The «figcaption element» is optional. It adds a caption to an image on a Web page, and you can display the caption ___

    before or after the image.

    The following markup uses the figure element, specifies the width and height of the image, and adds a caption: ___

    <figure>
    <img src="doghappy.jpg" alt="Happy dog" width="100" height="125" />
    <figcaption>Happy dogs are good dogs</figcaption>
    </figure>

    The following markup is for a figure with multiple images that share a single caption, the results of which are: ___

    <figure>
    <img src="x.jpg" alt="xxx" width="100" height="125"/>
    <img src="y.jpg" alt="yyy" width="100" height="125"/>
    <img src="z.jpg" alt="zzz" width="100" height="125"/>
    <figcaption>xxx yyy zzz ytytytt</figcaption>
    </figure>

    The «canvas» element is new in HTML5 and creates a container for ___

    graphics, and uses JavaScript to draw the graphics dynamically.

    With canvas, the Web page becomes a drawing pad, and you use JavaScript commands to ___

    draw pixel-based shapes on a canvas that include color, gradients, and pattern fills.

    Canvas also enables you to render ___

    text with various embellishments, and animate objects by making them move, change scale, and so on.

    The basic syntax for the canvas element is as follows: ___

    <canvas id="smlRectangle" height="100" width="200"></canvas>
    <!-- This element creates your drawing pad. -->

    The canvas element requires the «id» attribute to reference the canvas in ___

    JavaScript and to add it to the Document Object Model (DOM).

    You can include JavaScripts inside the ___

    head element of your HTML document, or in an external file.

    The «onload» attribute causes the JavaScript function in the script to run: ___

    <body onload = "f1();">

    This script first finds the element with the id smlRectangle: ___

    var canvas = document.getElementById("smlRectangle");

    The context.fillStyle method fills the rectangle with a blue color using the RGB values 0, 0, 255 : ___

    context.fillStyle = "rgb(0,0,255)";

    JavaScript works with the two-dimensional (2D) application programming interface (API) to actually draw items on the canvas: ___

    context = canvas.getContext("2d");

    The context.fillRect method creates a 200-pixel wide x 100-pixel tall rectangle, positioned 10 pixels down and 20 pixels over from the upper-left corner of the canvas and fills it using the color specified by fillStyle: ___

    context.fillRect(10, 20, 200, 100);

    To create an outline of a rectangle without a fill color, use the context.strokeRect method: ___

    context.strokeStyle = "red";
    context.strokeRect(10,20,200,100);

    Some older browsers cannot render canvas drawings or animation. Therefore, you should add an ___

    image, text, or some other HTML content within the canvas element that will display if the drawing cannot.

    The "backup" content, also referred to as fallback content, won't display if ___

    canvas is supported.

    The "backup" content, also referred to as ___

    fallback content

    To add a fallback to your HTML document, replace the canvas element with the text (e.g.): ___

    <canvas id="smlRectangle" height="100" width="200"> Your browser does not support the canvas tag. </canvas>

    Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) is a language for describing ___

    2D graphics in Extensible Markup Language (XML).

    SVG technology is not new, but HTML5 now enables SVG objects to be embedded in Web pages without ___

    using the <object> or <embed> tags.

    The main purpose of SVG, as its name implies, is to create ___

    scalable vector graphic shapes, but you can create images and text as well.

    You can also use SVG ___

    anywhere you would insert a PNG, JPG, or GIF

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