Foundational knowledge about HTML5


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  • 3 core technologies in HTML5

    Markup, JavaScript APIs, and CSS

    Syntax for html container

    <!DOCTYPE html><html></html>

    Command to attach an external style sheet (called 'mystyles.css' to a web page

    <link rel="stylesheet" href="mystyles.css">

    Command to attach an external JavaScript (called 'myscripts.js' to a web page

    <script src="myscripts.js"></script>

    Character coding that has support for many alphabets, including non-western ones


    Command to establish the characters that compose a page

    <meta charset="UTF-8">


    Application Programming Interfaces

    Sockets, Canvas, Video, Web Workers, and Local Storage are examples of ___________ ______

    JavaScript APIs

    Expected year when the HTML5 standard will be a 'final recommendation' by the W3C



    World Wide Web Consortium

    Expected year when the HTML5 standard will be 'stable'


    Chrome, Safari, Firefox and Internet Explorer are examples of _________


    Chrome, Safari and the Android and iPhone mobile browsers are based on



    An open source browser engine

    Essential coding language in HTML5


    JavaScript is at least ____ times faster than it was a decade ago


    JavaScript method (function) that places string information into the body of a web page


    HTML5's new elements are a _____ of HTML 4 elements, which means older pages will continue to work in modern browsers


    Browser's internal representation of a web page


    Version of HTML that preceded HTML5


    New _____ in HTML add semantics and structure



    Search Engine Optimization

    'http://' is the _______ of a URL


    Useful site to check a browser's current ratings

    _____ refers to the qualities that make a web site accessible to users, esp disabled users


    Making sure a page looks good on multiple browsers of various vintages

    Cross-browser compatibility

    Safari and Chrome both use the _____ rendering engine



    Local Area Network (intranet)


    Wide Area Network (connects two or more LANs with a router)

    The Internet consists of many


    To deploy (publish) a website to the Internet, you transfer your files with a(n) ____ program

    FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

    An HTML document consists of two parts:

    DOCTYPE declaration and document tree

    Two parts of the document tree:

    head and body

    The html element is the _____ element of the tree


    HTML code elements should be in _____ case except for the document type which is in _____ case

    lower, upper

    An element without content or a closing tag

    empty tag

    Two common examples of empty tags

    <br> and <img>

    Identify the error: <p>What's wrong now?<p>

    Closing tag does not have a /

    Identify the error: <p>We <i>love the web</p></i>

    Incorrect nesting: the <i> pair must be fully enclosed in the <p> pair

    In the command: <li>bag of apples</li> the phrase 'bag of apples' is called the _____ of the element


    Attribute values are delimited by ______

    double quotes

    Multiple attributes are separated by a(n) ______


    <input type="checkbox" name="mailList" checked> In this element, 'checked' is a _____ attribute


    Comment structure

    <!-- blah blah blah -->

    Tabs, line returns and extra spaces are ____


    As of June 2012, the 5 top browers in order from best to worst in terms of their HTML5 ratings

    Chrome, Opera, Firefox, Safari, Internet Explorer (IE)

    A free text editor that can be used to edit HTML or CSS code


    Running an HTML file on all of the browsers your clients may use

    test an HTML file

    Discover/correct problems in an HTML file

    debug an HTML file

    To see if an HTML file passes a standard of compliance

    validate an HTML file

    Provides information about the contents of a web document


    Three common attributes for the meta tag

    charset, name, and content

    Tag used for metadata


    True or false: charset metadata is required for HTML5 validation


    True or false: Heading tags are the preferred way to size text.


    Three tags for special types of text

    pre, blockquote, address

    Six primary HTML5 semantic elements used for structuring a page (and are supported by the modern browsers)

    header, section, article, nav, aside, footer

    Five inline elements for formatting text

    i, b, sub, sup, br

    Ten inline elements for identifying content

    abbr, cite, code, dfn, em, kbd, q, samp, strong, var

    You should use ____ to control the space between block elements


    To display special characters (often those without keyboard values, such as a 'smiley'), use ____ _____

    character entities

    Character entities begin with a(n) ____ and end with a ______

    ampersand (&), semicolon(;)

    Four core HTML attributes

    id, class, title, lang

    Attribute used to provide "tooltips" when a user hovers the mouse over the element


    The attribute used to help a screen reader pronounce words correctly


    Always code the _____ attribute on the html element to identify the language of the page


    True or false: id and class names are case sensitive


    Block element that lets you divide a page into divisions that can be formatted and positioned with CSS


    Inline element that lets you identify text that can be formatted with CSS


    Div and span elements should only be used...

    ...when more specific tags don't apply

    Four other HTML5 semantic elements

    hgroup, time, figure, figcaption

    '/login.html' is an example of a(n) ____ path


    'images/logo.gif' is an example of a(n) ____ path


    '' is an example of a(n) _____ path


    Prefix on a path that navigates up from a child to a parent folder


    A website should (must) be contained in a folder called the _____


    HTML tag to code a hyperlink


    <a> is an example of a(n) _______ element


    Attribute with the <a> tag that specifies the address you want to link to


    The two main kinds of lists in HTML

    ordered and unordered

    Tag for ordered lists


    Tag for unordered lists


    Tag for an item within a list (either ordered or unordered)


    An unordered list is often called a(n) ____ list


    It's a best practice to code a series of links within a(n) _______ list


    Tag for creating an image on a web page


    Five common attributes for an image tag

    src, alt, height, width, title

    Three image formats supported by most browsers

    jpeg (jpg), gif, png

    For images with useful content, always code a(n) _____ attribute that describes the image


    For images that are used solely for decoration, use this attribute, which is known as a(n) ______ attribute

    alt="" empty (no space)

    Image attribute that provides a screen (tool) tip


    True or false: The height and width attributes may be used to 'stretch' an image to a given dimension.


    True or false: The height and width attributes are primarily used to fit an image into a given space on a page.


    A very important element in the head of a page that provides search engine information


    Approximate max number of characters in a title element


    Common use of a link element that provides a 'custom' feel to your web page

    'favicon' adornment in the address bar

    Extension used for a custom icon


    In addition to the required 'charset' metadata attribute, _____ and ______ attributes should be provided as well for SEO

    description, keywords

    Image type used for photographs and scans

    jpeg (jpg)

    Image type used for small illustrations and logos


    Image type used for high quality (many colors, gradients) where transparency is required


    Name of the '|' symbol


    Symbol often used to delimit phrases within a title tag's content


    Description lists are used to list ____ and their _____

    terms ... descriptions

    Three elements used to make descriptions lists

    <dl>, <dt>, <dd>

    True or false: description terms (<dt>) can only contain text and inline elements


    Description lists were called _____ lists in HTML4, but they were renamed because you can code more than one _____ element for each ____ element

    definition ...<dd>...<dt>

    Fancy word to describe a code feature that has been phased out or shelved


    Links that jump to a location on the same page use _____, created with the ____ element with the ____ attribute


    Write a hyperlink, nested in a paragraph, that jumps to a placeholder with an id of 'top' on the same page as the link. The link should read "Return to top"

    <p><a href="#top">Return to top</a></p>

    Write a hyperlink, that jumps to a placeholder with an id of 'top' on the home page of the site (assume you are not on that page now). The link should read "Return to Home"

    <a href="index.html#top">Return to Home</a>

    The '#' symbol is called the _____ or ____ or ____symbol; it's fancy name is ______


    The HTML for a navigation list is best coded as a series of ____ elements within the ___ elements of an ____ list

    <a> ... <li> ... unordered (<ul>)

    A ____ is a location on a page that can be linked to


    If an ___ element links to a ____ file, the browser tries to display or play it by using the right ____ _____. To help the browser find the right one, you can use the ____ attribute to specify a ____ type

    <a> ... media ... media player ... type .... MIME

    MIME type for a PDF


    MIME type for a WAV


    MIME type for a MP3

    audio/mpeg or audio/x-mpeg

    MIME type for a MPG/MPEG


    MIME type for a SWF



    MIME means Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, and refers to an official Internet standard that specifies how messages must be formatted so that they can be exchanged between different email systems. MIME is a very flexible format, permitting one to include virtually any type of file or document in an email message. Specifically, MIME messages can contain text, images, audio, video, or other application-specific data.

    Birthed in 2005, this language was created to expedite web development and is central to making web pages look good on mobile devices



    In computing, a uniform resource locator (URL) is a specific character string that constitutes a reference to an Internet resource. A URL is technically a type of uniform resource identifier (URI) but in many technical documents and verbal discussions URL is often used as a synonym for URI

    To say that a browser "_______" supports a media type means that the browser doesn't require a plug-in for it.


    Apple's plug-in for video


    Windows' plug-in for video

    Media Player

    Adobe's plug-in for video

    Flash Player


    Advanced Audio Coding

    Software components used to 'decode' video files so they may be played


    'codec' stands for...


    Three common video codecs

    H.264, Theora, VP8

    One of the most widely-used media types for audio


    One of the most common media types and is also the encoding standard for audio; currently used on all Apple products



    Windows Media Audio

    A ___ type describes the contents of a media file and helps a browser determine what player to use to open it


    A free product that can convert one type of media to another

    Miro Converter (

    Regarding media for a web page: If you are having trouble getting the <object> & <param> elements to work properly, ______ is supported by HTML5 and may be a useful alternative


    When you use the ____ element for media, you code all parameters as _____, not as <param> elements


    If you don't specify the MIME type for a file, it will be opened in the browser's _____ media player for that media type


    Using the _____ element is a good way to display YouTube videos in your web pages


    Easiest way to add video to an HTML5 page

    <video src="fileName.mp4"></video>

    Easiest way to add audio to an HTML5 page

    <audio src="fileName.mp3"></audio>

    For browsers that don't support video or audio elements, you can ____ an object element within the video or audio element to play a ______ file


    In the code for a video element, the _____ attribute lets you specify an image file to be used as a static image in place of the video that would otherwise begin playing automatically.


    An HTML element that only has one tag (such as img or br) is sometimes known as a _______ tag


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