Foundational knowledge about HTML5

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  • 3 core technologies in HTML5

    Markup, JavaScript APIs, and CSS

    Syntax for html container

    <!DOCTYPE html><html></html>

    Command to attach an external style sheet (called 'mystyles.css' to a web page

    <link rel="stylesheet" href="mystyles.css">

    Command to attach an external JavaScript (called 'myscripts.js' to a web page

    <script src="myscripts.js"></script>

    Character coding that has support for many alphabets, including non-western ones

    UTF-8

    Command to establish the characters that compose a page

    <meta charset="UTF-8">

    API

    Application Programming Interfaces

    Sockets, Canvas, Video, Web Workers, and Local Storage are examples of ___________ ______

    JavaScript APIs

    Expected year when the HTML5 standard will be a 'final recommendation' by the W3C

    2022

    W3C

    World Wide Web Consortium

    Expected year when the HTML5 standard will be 'stable'

    2014

    Chrome, Safari, Firefox and Internet Explorer are examples of _________

    browsers

    Chrome, Safari and the Android and iPhone mobile browsers are based on

    WebKit

    WebKit

    An open source browser engine

    Essential coding language in HTML5

    JavaScript

    JavaScript is at least ____ times faster than it was a decade ago

    100

    JavaScript method (function) that places string information into the body of a web page

    document.write()

    HTML5's new elements are a _____ of HTML 4 elements, which means older pages will continue to work in modern browsers

    superset

    Browser's internal representation of a web page

    DOM

    Version of HTML that preceded HTML5

    XHTML

    New _____ in HTML add semantics and structure

    elements

    SEO

    Search Engine Optimization

    'http://' is the _______ of a URL

    protocol

    Useful site to check a browser's current ratings

    www.html5test.com

    _____ refers to the qualities that make a web site accessible to users, esp disabled users

    Accessibility

    Making sure a page looks good on multiple browsers of various vintages

    Cross-browser compatibility

    Safari and Chrome both use the _____ rendering engine

    WebKit

    LAN

    Local Area Network (intranet)

    WAN

    Wide Area Network (connects two or more LANs with a router)

    The Internet consists of many

    WANs

    To deploy (publish) a website to the Internet, you transfer your files with a(n) ____ program

    FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

    An HTML document consists of two parts:

    DOCTYPE declaration and document tree

    Two parts of the document tree:

    head and body

    The html element is the _____ element of the tree

    root

    HTML code elements should be in _____ case except for the document type which is in _____ case

    lower, upper

    An element without content or a closing tag

    empty tag

    Two common examples of empty tags

    <br> and <img>

    Identify the error: <p>What's wrong now?<p>

    Closing tag does not have a /

    Identify the error: <p>We <i>love the web</p></i>

    Incorrect nesting: the <i> pair must be fully enclosed in the <p> pair

    In the command: <li>bag of apples</li> the phrase 'bag of apples' is called the _____ of the element

    content

    Attribute values are delimited by ______

    double quotes

    Multiple attributes are separated by a(n) ______

    space

    <input type="checkbox" name="mailList" checked> In this element, 'checked' is a _____ attribute

    Boolean

    Comment structure

    <!-- blah blah blah -->

    Tabs, line returns and extra spaces are ____

    whitespace

    As of June 2012, the 5 top browers in order from best to worst in terms of their HTML5 ratings

    Chrome, Opera, Firefox, Safari, Internet Explorer (IE)

    A free text editor that can be used to edit HTML or CSS code

    Aptana

    Running an HTML file on all of the browsers your clients may use

    test an HTML file

    Discover/correct problems in an HTML file

    debug an HTML file

    To see if an HTML file passes a standard of compliance

    validate an HTML file

    Provides information about the contents of a web document

    metadata

    Three common attributes for the meta tag

    charset, name, and content

    Tag used for metadata

    meta

    True or false: charset metadata is required for HTML5 validation

    true

    True or false: Heading tags are the preferred way to size text.

    false

    Three tags for special types of text

    pre, blockquote, address

    Six primary HTML5 semantic elements used for structuring a page (and are supported by the modern browsers)

    header, section, article, nav, aside, footer

    Five inline elements for formatting text

    i, b, sub, sup, br

    Ten inline elements for identifying content

    abbr, cite, code, dfn, em, kbd, q, samp, strong, var

    You should use ____ to control the space between block elements

    CSS

    To display special characters (often those without keyboard values, such as a 'smiley'), use ____ _____

    character entities

    Character entities begin with a(n) ____ and end with a ______

    ampersand (&), semicolon(;)

    Four core HTML attributes

    id, class, title, lang

    Attribute used to provide "tooltips" when a user hovers the mouse over the element

    title

    The attribute used to help a screen reader pronounce words correctly

    lang

    Always code the _____ attribute on the html element to identify the language of the page

    lang

    True or false: id and class names are case sensitive

    true

    Block element that lets you divide a page into divisions that can be formatted and positioned with CSS

    div

    Inline element that lets you identify text that can be formatted with CSS

    span

    Div and span elements should only be used...

    ...when more specific tags don't apply

    Four other HTML5 semantic elements

    hgroup, time, figure, figcaption

    '/login.html' is an example of a(n) ____ path

    root-relative

    'images/logo.gif' is an example of a(n) ____ path

    document-relative

    'http://www.yahoo.com/movies.html' is an example of a(n) _____ path

    absolute

    Prefix on a path that navigates up from a child to a parent folder

    ../

    A website should (must) be contained in a folder called the _____

    root

    HTML tag to code a hyperlink

    <a>

    <a> is an example of a(n) _______ element

    inline

    Attribute with the <a> tag that specifies the address you want to link to

    href

    The two main kinds of lists in HTML

    ordered and unordered

    Tag for ordered lists

    <ol>

    Tag for unordered lists

    <ul>

    Tag for an item within a list (either ordered or unordered)

    <li>

    An unordered list is often called a(n) ____ list

    bulleted

    It's a best practice to code a series of links within a(n) _______ list

    unordered

    Tag for creating an image on a web page

    <img>

    Five common attributes for an image tag

    src, alt, height, width, title

    Three image formats supported by most browsers

    jpeg (jpg), gif, png

    For images with useful content, always code a(n) _____ attribute that describes the image

    alt

    For images that are used solely for decoration, use this attribute, which is known as a(n) ______ attribute

    alt="" empty (no space)

    Image attribute that provides a screen (tool) tip

    title

    True or false: The height and width attributes may be used to 'stretch' an image to a given dimension.

    true

    True or false: The height and width attributes are primarily used to fit an image into a given space on a page.

    false

    A very important element in the head of a page that provides search engine information

    title

    Approximate max number of characters in a title element

    65

    Common use of a link element that provides a 'custom' feel to your web page

    'favicon' adornment in the address bar

    Extension used for a custom icon

    ico

    In addition to the required 'charset' metadata attribute, _____ and ______ attributes should be provided as well for SEO

    description, keywords

    Image type used for photographs and scans

    jpeg (jpg)

    Image type used for small illustrations and logos

    gif

    Image type used for high quality (many colors, gradients) where transparency is required

    png

    Name of the '|' symbol

    pipe

    Symbol often used to delimit phrases within a title tag's content

    |

    Description lists are used to list ____ and their _____

    terms ... descriptions

    Three elements used to make descriptions lists

    <dl>, <dt>, <dd>

    True or false: description terms (<dt>) can only contain text and inline elements

    true

    Description lists were called _____ lists in HTML4, but they were renamed because you can code more than one _____ element for each ____ element

    definition ...<dd>...<dt>

    Fancy word to describe a code feature that has been phased out or shelved

    deprecated

    Links that jump to a location on the same page use _____, created with the ____ element with the ____ attribute

    placeholders...<a>...id

    Write a hyperlink, nested in a paragraph, that jumps to a placeholder with an id of 'top' on the same page as the link. The link should read "Return to top"

    <p><a href="#top">Return to top</a></p>

    Write a hyperlink, that jumps to a placeholder with an id of 'top' on the home page of the site (assume you are not on that page now). The link should read "Return to Home"

    <a href="index.html#top">Return to Home</a>

    The '#' symbol is called the _____ or ____ or ____symbol; it's fancy name is ______

    pound...hash...number...octothorpe

    The HTML for a navigation list is best coded as a series of ____ elements within the ___ elements of an ____ list

    <a> ... <li> ... unordered (<ul>)

    A ____ is a location on a page that can be linked to

    placeholder

    If an ___ element links to a ____ file, the browser tries to display or play it by using the right ____ _____. To help the browser find the right one, you can use the ____ attribute to specify a ____ type

    <a> ... media ... media player ... type .... MIME

    MIME type for a PDF

    application/pdf

    MIME type for a WAV

    audio/x-wave

    MIME type for a MP3

    audio/mpeg or audio/x-mpeg

    MIME type for a MPG/MPEG

    video/mpeg

    MIME type for a SWF

    application/x-shockwave-flash

    MIME

    MIME means Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, and refers to an official Internet standard that specifies how messages must be formatted so that they can be exchanged between different email systems. MIME is a very flexible format, permitting one to include virtually any type of file or document in an email message. Specifically, MIME messages can contain text, images, audio, video, or other application-specific data.

    Birthed in 2005, this language was created to expedite web development and is central to making web pages look good on mobile devices

    jQuery

    URL

    In computing, a uniform resource locator (URL) is a specific character string that constitutes a reference to an Internet resource. A URL is technically a type of uniform resource identifier (URI) but in many technical documents and verbal discussions URL is often used as a synonym for URI

    To say that a browser "_______" supports a media type means that the browser doesn't require a plug-in for it.

    natively

    Apple's plug-in for video

    QuickTime

    Windows' plug-in for video

    Media Player

    Adobe's plug-in for video

    Flash Player

    AAC

    Advanced Audio Coding

    Software components used to 'decode' video files so they may be played

    codecs

    'codec' stands for...

    COder/DECoder

    Three common video codecs

    H.264, Theora, VP8

    One of the most widely-used media types for audio

    mp3

    One of the most common media types and is also the encoding standard for audio; currently used on all Apple products

    aac

    wma

    Windows Media Audio

    A ___ type describes the contents of a media file and helps a browser determine what player to use to open it

    MIME

    A free product that can convert one type of media to another

    Miro Converter (www.mirovideoconverter.com)

    Regarding media for a web page: If you are having trouble getting the <object> & <param> elements to work properly, ______ is supported by HTML5 and may be a useful alternative

    <embed>

    When you use the ____ element for media, you code all parameters as _____, not as <param> elements

    attributes

    If you don't specify the MIME type for a file, it will be opened in the browser's _____ media player for that media type

    default

    Using the _____ element is a good way to display YouTube videos in your web pages

    <embed>

    Easiest way to add video to an HTML5 page

    <video src="fileName.mp4"></video>

    Easiest way to add audio to an HTML5 page

    <audio src="fileName.mp3"></audio>

    For browsers that don't support video or audio elements, you can ____ an object element within the video or audio element to play a ______ file

    nest...Flash

    In the code for a video element, the _____ attribute lets you specify an image file to be used as a static image in place of the video that would otherwise begin playing automatically.

    poster

    An HTML element that only has one tag (such as img or br) is sometimes known as a _______ tag

    singleton

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