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90 True/False questions

  1. (L12) Explain the Earthquakes Intensity?-Intensity is subjective
    -Varies with distance from the epicenter

          

  2. (L9) Most clastic rocks are composed of?-Quartz
    -Feldspars
    -Mica
    -Clay minerals

          

  3. (L15) Define the Principle of Cross-Cutting-"The present is the key to the past"
    -Processes we see today also occurred in the past,at about the same rate
    -These processes responsible for features we see preserved in rocks

          

  4. (L15) Causes for pulses of evolution?-Joints: fractures in crust with NO displacement
    between rock on either side of the crack
    -Faults: fractures in crust with a distinct offset
    (displacement) between the two sides
    -Folds: rocks may be bent into a series of wavelike
    undulations
    -Foliations: layering due to mineral or grain
    flattening and/or alignment (tectonic foliation)

          

  5. (L9) What kind of Clastic Rock is
    -Grain size = medium (visible to naked eye & up to 2mm)
    -Sand-sized clasts; rounded clasts
    SANDSTONE
    -Quartz = most common mineral grain in sandstone
    -Grains rounded during transport (fracture)
    -Beach (water) or dune (wind) deposits

          

  6. (L12)How are Earthquakes Located?using the Use difference in arrival time of the P and S waves to find the epicenter

          

  7. (L15)Explain Stenos Law of Lateral Continuity?-In an undeformed sequence of layered rocks:
    -Each layer is older than the one above it
    -Each layer is younger than the one below it

          

  8. (L14) Why are most fossils found in sedimentary rocks?-Organisms die and are buried by sediment
    -Organisms travel over or through sediment and leave
    imprints

          

  9. (L14) Explain Rift Orogenesis?-Stretching causes crustal thinning and normal
    faulting
    -Fault-block mountains
    -Volcanic mountains due to decompression melting

          

  10. (L14) Type Of Fossils?- Body Fossils(whole bodies preserved)
    -Preserved or replaced bones/teeth/shells
    -Molds(Hole left behind in
    rock when shell is
    dissolved away) and casts (Mold filled by sediment
    that is lithified)
    -Carbonized impressions
    -Permineralization
    -Trace Fossils

          

  11. (L9) explain Rift Basin, Passive Margin Basin and Foreland Basin?-Sediments settle out of a fluid due to gravity
    -Sediments accumulate horizontally (parallel to
    surface of the Earth)
    -Thus, tilted sedimentary rocks must be
    deformed

          

  12. (L10)Uniform Stress vs Differential Stress?-Shearing
    -Surfaces slide past one another

          

  13. (L12) How are Earthquakes Measured?-Beneficial characteristics are passed onto each new
    generation => Natural Selection
    -Only organisms capable of surviving and
    reproducing can pass on their genes to
    successive generations
    -In each new generation, some individuals have
    characteristics that make them more "fit"

          

  14. (L9) Explain Shale?-Isostacy = equilibrium in the Earth's crust
    -Forces tending to elevate landmasses balance
    forces tending to depress landmasses

          

  15. (L15) Define the principle of Uniformitarianism?-"The present is the key to the past"
    -Processes we see today also occurred in the past,at about the same rate
    -These processes responsible for features we see preserved in rocks

          

  16. (L11) Explain the formation of a new fault?Rock bends, then breaks
    -Vibrations =>
    Earthquake
    More sudden movement
    on fault
    -Vibrations =>
    Earthquake
    Vibrations due to
    earthquake activity:
    -Seismic activity or
    seismicity

          

  17. (L10) Define Hydrothermal metamorphism?-Produces most metamorphic rocks => large areas
    -Associated with mountain building at convergent
    plate boundaries
    -Continental collisions most intense =>
    metamorphic core in mountain range
    -High P => foliated rocks

          

  18. (L13) Deformation results in one or more of
    the following?
    They are both surface waves but the L-wave travels side-side while the R-Wave travels up and down

          

  19. (L14) Conditions required of fossilization?-Creature dies, leaving behind body and/or footprints
    -Flesh rots away; bones and prints remain
    -Bones/prints covered by sediment
    -Sediment lithifies
    -Minerals in groundwater replace bone
    -Bones become rock-like (fossilize)
    -Uplift and erosion exposes fossils

          

  20. (L13) Explain the Rock behaviour factors? (temp and preasure)-Temperature - heat makes materials softer
    -Warmer rocks - ductile deformation
    -Cooler rocks - brittle deformation
    -Pressure - pressure prevents rocks from fragmenting
    -Lower pressure - brittle deformation
    -P and T increase with depth
    -Crust rocks generally brittle

          

  21. (L10) Define Contact metamorphism?-Meteor Impacts
    -Extreme compression (shock wave)
    -Causes phase change - more compact, dense
    mineral phase
    -Quartz => coesite or stishovite (shocked quartz)
    -Also caused by nuclear explosions

          

  22. (L10)Define regression?-A rise in seal level
    -Shallow-water sediments end up above deep-water sediments

          

  23. (L12) Explain the Main shock and after shock?Main earthquake is called the main shock:
    -May be followed by aftershocks
    -Much less powerful
    Aftershocks:
    -Due to small movements along to fault
    -Rocks on either side adjust to their
    new position/new stresses

          

  24. (L13) Explain Shear Stress?-Shearing
    -Surfaces slide past one another

          

  25. (L10) Three Non-Foliated metamorphic Rocks?Marble, Quartzite and Hornfels

          

  26. (L12) Explain the magnitude of the Earthquake?-Magnitude = maximum amplitude of
    ground motion
    -Measured by a seismometer at a standard distance
    from the epicenter
    -Magnitude doesn't vary with distance (standardized
    measurement)

          

  27. (L9) What kind of Clastic Rock is
    -Grain size = fine to very fine (not visible to naked eye)
    -Silt- and clay-sized clasts
    ARKOSE (aka Feldspathic Sandstone)
    -Feldspar = short transport (close to source)
    -Moderate to low weathering = arid climate

          

  28. (L13) What processes that form folds?-A fracture or break in the Earth's crust along
    which movement occurs
    -No movement => not a fault (just a fracture)

          

  29. (L10) Four Foliated metamorphic Rocks?Marble, Quartzite and Hornfels

          

  30. (L10) 4 Controlling Factors -
    that affect final metamorphic rock produced?
    -Composition of parent rock
    -Temperature (T) - heat
    -Pressure (P) - uniform or differential
    stress
    -Hot fluids (chemically active)

          

  31. (L13) Brittle vs. Ductile Deformation?-Joints: fractures in crust with NO displacement
    between rock on either side of the crack
    -Faults: fractures in crust with a distinct offset
    (displacement) between the two sides
    -Folds: rocks may be bent into a series of wavelike
    undulations
    -Foliations: layering due to mineral or grain
    flattening and/or alignment (tectonic foliation)

          

  32. (L13) Explain Tensional Stress?-Stretching or elongating
    -Object is pulled apart
    -Rift zones
    -Crust is stretched and thinned

          

  33. (L10) Define Transgression?-faults don't slip forever; friction will
    slow and stop movement; friction is
    resistance to sliding on a surface

          

  34. (L12) Where do body waves, and surface waves travel?-Compression
    -Tension
    -Shear

          

  35. (L13) Types of deformation?-Joints: fractures in crust with NO displacement
    between rock on either side of the crack
    -Faults: fractures in crust with a distinct offset
    (displacement) between the two sides
    -Folds: rocks may be bent into a series of wavelike
    undulations
    -Foliations: layering due to mineral or grain
    flattening and/or alignment (tectonic foliation)

          

  36. (L9) Define Angularity, Sphericity, Sorting and Cement type?-An igneous intrusion metamorphoses (bakes) the
    country rock it intrudes into
    -The country rock is older than the intrusion
    -The metamorphic "rind" is younger than the
    country rock

          

  37. (L13) Explain the Rock behaviour factors? (composition)-Temperature - heat makes materials softer
    -Warmer rocks - ductile deformation
    -Cooler rocks - brittle deformation
    -Pressure - pressure prevents rocks from fragmenting
    -Lower pressure - brittle deformation
    -P and T increase with depth
    -Crust rocks generally brittle

          

  38. (L9) Describe the Coastal Depositional Environments?-Inclusions are always older than the enclosing
    material
    -Weathered clasts
    -Xenoliths

          

  39. (L13) Define Deformation?bending/stretching/breaking/
    flowing of rock in response to stress (apply a
    force)

          

  40. (L10) Explain Diagenesis?-All of the chemical, physical and biological
    processes that:
    -Transform sediment into sedimentary rock, and...-Alter the characteristics of the sedimentary rock
    after it is formed

          

  41. (L15) Reasons for extinction?-faults don't slip forever; friction will
    slow and stop movement; friction is
    resistance to sliding on a surface

          

  42. (L11) Define Thrust Fault?Strike-slip Fault - horizontal displacement
    -No hanging wall or footwall block
    >Tend to be vertical or near-vertical

          

  43. (L14)Expliain Collision Orogenesis?-Mini collisions (too buoyant
    to subduct)
    -Terrane becomes sutured/
    welded to continent

          

  44. (L10 The three types of directed pressure?-Compression
    -Tension
    -Shear

          

  45. (L15) What are the 5 Fundamental Geologic Events?-Deposition of sedimentary beds
    -Erosion of the land surface
    -Intrusion/extrusion of igneous rocks
    -Deformation (folding/faulting)
    -Episode of metamorphism
    (Can happen in ANY order!)

          

  46. (L15) Why does evolution occur?bending/stretching/breaking/
    flowing of rock in response to stress (apply a
    force)

          

  47. (L14) Define Orogenesis?-The process of Mountain Formation driven by plate tectonics
    - This process happens to due the deformation of,Subduction zones, Continental collisions zones, and Continental rifts

          

  48. (L15) Define gradualism and punctuated equilibrium?-Gradualism : idea that evolution occurs at a
    constant, slow rate
    -Punctuated equilibrium : evolution occurs slowly at
    some times, then rapidly at others

          

  49. (L14) Explain Fossils and paleontology?-Stretching or elongating
    -Object is pulled apart
    -Rift zones
    -Crust is stretched and thinned

          

  50. (L11) Define Normal Fault?the result of extension
    -Hanging wall block (above fault) moves down
    -Footwall block (below fault) moves up
    >Relative motion

          

  51. (L13)Explain the Rock behaviour factors? (rate of deformation)-Composition - some rock types/minerals
    softer than others
    -Some minerals very brittle: quartz,
    feldspar
    -Some minerals more ductile: halite, mica,
    calcite, clay minerals

          

  52. (L10) Two types of metamorphic rocks classification?Slate, Phyllite, Schist and Gneiss

          

  53. (L14)Explain Subduction Orogenesis?-Stretching causes crustal thinning and normal
    faulting
    -Fault-block mountains
    -Volcanic mountains due to decompression melting

          

  54. (L10) Define Burial metamorphism?-Produces most metamorphic rocks => large areas
    -Associated with mountain building at convergent
    plate boundaries
    -Continental collisions most intense =>
    metamorphic core in mountain range
    -High P => foliated rocks

          

  55. (L13) Explain Compressional Stress?-Shortening or contracting
    -Object is squeezed
    -Collision zones
    -Crust is shortened and thickened

          

  56. (L15) Explain Evolution?-Isostacy = equilibrium in the Earth's crust
    -Forces tending to elevate landmasses balance
    forces tending to depress landmasses

          

  57. (L9) What kind of Clastic Rock is
    - Grain size = Very coarse to coarse (>2mm)
    - Rounded clasts
    CONGLOMERATE
    -Clasts rounded during transport (farther from source)
    -Large clasts = high velocity; e.g. fast moving river channel

          

  58. (L11) Define Reverse Fault?the result of compression
    -Hanging wall block (above fault) moves up
    -Footwall block (below fault) moves down
    >Relative motion

          

  59. (L10) Explain Metamorphism?-Changes over many generations is evolution
    -Offspring can differ from their parents and new
    traits can be passed down to future generations
    -Many changes can accumulate over many
    generations

          

  60. (L10) Define Metamorphism?Protolith undergoes a solid state change
    as a result of a change in its environment
    1) Solid state - no melting
    2) Change - new minerals (not in protolith)
    and/or texture change (different from
    protolith)
    3) Change in environment - change in T and/or
    P; reactions with hydrothermal fluids

          

  61. (L9) Explain Sedimentary Basins?-Thick accumulations of sediment only
    occur in certain places
    -Surface of lithosphere sinks
    -Room to collect sediments

          

  62. (L11) What is a fault?the result of compression
    -Hanging wall block (above fault) moves up
    -Footwall block (below fault) moves down
    >Relative motion

          

  63. (L13) characteristics of brittle structures?-Joints
    -Veins
    -Faults

          

  64. (L15) Define the Principle of Inclusions?-An igneous intrusion metamorphoses (bakes) the
    country rock it intrudes into
    -The country rock is older than the intrusion
    -The metamorphic "rind" is younger than the
    country rock

          

  65. (L9) Terrestrial Sedimentary Environments include?-Thick accumulations of sediment only
    occur in certain places
    -Surface of lithosphere sinks
    -Room to collect sediments

          

  66. (L11) What is an Earthquake? and what is its cause?- An episode of ground shaking
    -What causes Earthquakes?
    -Almost all significant earthquakes are
    caused by:
    1) Formation of a new fault
    2) Sudden movement along an existing fault

          

  67. (L11) Define Friction?-faults don't slip forever; friction will
    slow and stop movement; friction is
    resistance to sliding on a surface

          

  68. (L9) What kind of Clastic Rock is
    -Grain size = coarse to medium
    -Sand- and small pebble-sized clasts with abundant feldspar
    -Angular clasts common (cleavage)
    ARKOSE (aka Feldspathic Sandstone)
    -Feldspar = short transport (close to source)
    -Moderate to low weathering = arid climate

          

  69. (L10) Define Regional metamorphism?-Produces most metamorphic rocks => large areas
    -Associated with mountain building at convergent
    plate boundaries
    -Continental collisions most intense =>
    metamorphic core in mountain range
    -High P => foliated rocks

          

  70. (L11) Define Main shocks and Aftershocks?-Main earthquake (main shock) can be
    followed by aftershocks, which are much
    less powerful.
    -Aftershocks are due to small movements
    along to fault as the rocks on either side
    adjust to their new position (new stresses
    may be placed on the rocks in there new
    position).

          

  71. (L12) Difference between the L wave and the R wave?They are both surface waves but the L-wave travels side-side while the R-Wave travels up and down

          

  72. (L11) Define the Hypercenter and Epicener?bending/stretching/breaking/
    flowing of rock in response to stress (apply a
    force)

          

  73. (L15) Explain Stenos Law of Original Horizontality?-Sediments settle out of a fluid due to gravity
    -Sediments accumulate horizontally (parallel to
    surface of the Earth)
    -Thus, tilted sedimentary rocks must be
    deformed

          

  74. (L9) What kind of Clastic Rock is
    -Grain size = Very coarse to coarse (>2mm)
    -Angular clasts?
    BRECCIA
    -Size and angularity => deposited close to source
    (little transport)

          

  75. (L14) Steps in fossilization?- Body Fossils(whole bodies preserved)
    -Preserved or replaced bones/teeth/shells
    -Molds(Hole left behind in
    rock when shell is
    dissolved away) and casts (Mold filled by sediment
    that is lithified)
    -Carbonized impressions
    -Permineralization
    -Trace Fossils

          

  76. (L14) Macro Vs Micro Fossils?-While macro fossils can be seen with the naked eye, microfossils can't

          

  77. (L14) Explain Mountain Topography and Uplift?-Topography = the surface features of an area
    (natural and man-made)
    -Their position and elevation
    -Features can be shown on a topographic map
    -Uplift is the creation of topography by raising the surface of the earth to a higher elevation

          

  78. (L13) Describe the type of ductile structure folds?-Anticline (a up fold, shaped like an "A"
    -Syncline (a down fold, shapes like a trough or a sink)
    -Dome (an over-turned bowl, sedimentary layers get pushed up)
    -Basin (an upright bowl, sedimentary layers subside)
    -Monocline (an step-like fold, often draped over and underlying fault)

          

  79. (L12) Energy that Travels through rock/sediment in the
    form of waves known as? and how are they classified?
    -Shortening/Compression
    -Shear
    -Thrust-faulting - rock
    layers in hanging wall
    bend as it is pushed up
    and over footwall
    -Faulting at depth -
    overlying rock layers
    bend into a monocline

          

  80. (L10) Define Shock metamorphism?Protolith undergoes a solid state change
    as a result of a change in its environment
    1) Solid state - no melting
    2) Change - new minerals (not in protolith)
    and/or texture change (different from
    protolith)
    3) Change in environment - change in T and/or
    P; reactions with hydrothermal fluids

          

  81. (L15)Explain Stenos Law of Superposition?-In an undeformed sequence of layered rocks:
    -Each layer is older than the one above it
    -Each layer is younger than the one below it

          

  82. (L15) Three domains of a fossils life?-Loss of habitat
    -Disruption of food supply
    -appearance of new predator and competitor?
    -if species can't adapt they'll die out

          

  83. (L12) How do Compressional and shear waves move?-Compressional Waves(Movement is parallel direction wave is travelling
    -Shear waves (movement is perpendicular wave is traveling

          

  84. (L9) The Three Categories of sedimentary
    environments?
    -Compression
    -Tension
    -Shear

          

  85. (L11) What are the steps of the rock cycle?Rock is not permanent
    -Weathering breaks down rock
    -Melting destroys rock
    -Metamorphism
    changes rock
    -Ongoing change from
    one rock type to
    another

          

  86. (L11) Explain the Rock Cycle?-Isostacy = equilibrium in the Earth's crust
    -Forces tending to elevate landmasses balance
    forces tending to depress landmasses

          

  87. (L15) Define the Principle of Baked Contacts?-Inclusions are always older than the enclosing
    material
    -Weathered clasts
    -Xenoliths

          

  88. (L15) Explain the Principle of Fossil Succession?-Fossils are generally preserved in sedimentary rocks
    -Certain species lived at certain times in Earth's past
    -Fossils found in a rock unit is the fossil assemblage
    -As we go up, rocks (and fossil species)
    become younger (superposition)
    -99.9% of all species that ever lived areextinct

          

  89. (L11) Define Slip-Strike Fault?the result of extension
    -Hanging wall block (above fault) moves down
    -Footwall block (below fault) moves up
    >Relative motion

          

  90. (L14) Explain Isostacy?-Changes over many generations is evolution
    -Offspring can differ from their parents and new
    traits can be passed down to future generations
    -Many changes can accumulate over many
    generations