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  1. -Organisms die and are buried by sediment
    -Organisms travel over or through sediment and leave
  2. -Loss of habitat
    -Disruption of food supply
    -appearance of new predator and competitor?
    -if species can't adapt they'll die out
  3. Seismometer - instrument that measures ground
    motion from an earthquake
    Seismogram - record produced by seismometer
    -Time on horizontal axis
    -Wave amplitude (height) on vertical axis
  4. -Gradualism : idea that evolution occurs at a
    constant, slow rate
    -Punctuated equilibrium : evolution occurs slowly at
    some times, then rapidly at others
  5. -Quartz
    -Clay minerals
  6. Transitional zone from terrestrial to marine
  7. -"The present is the key to the past"
    -Processes we see today also occurred in the past,at about the same rate
    -These processes responsible for features we see preserved in rocks
  8. -Mini collisions (too buoyant
    to subduct)
    -Terrane becomes sutured/
    welded to continent
  9. -Hydrothermal fluid (hot water) reacts chemically
    with country rock
    -Addition of water changes minerals to new forms
    -Source of hydrothermal fluids:Surface water, Regional metamorphic
    reactions, Magma
  10. -Seismic Waves
    Classified by:
    -Where they move (through or along the Earth's surface
    -How they move (compressional wave, or shear wave)
  11. One of either
    -Oxygen Poor
    -Rapid Burial
    -Presence of hard parts
  12. - Rift Basin - thinning of crust; low area
    - Passive Margin Basin - thinned crust at edge
    of ocean basin
    - Foreland Basin- mountain-building causes
  13. -Younger geologic features cut or truncate older geologic features
    -Examples: dikes, faults, erosional surfaces
  14. - Terrestrial (a.k.a. Continental) like Clastic Rocks
    - Coastal (a.k.a. Transitional)
    - Marine
  15. -An igneous intrusion metamorphoses (bakes) the
    country rock it intrudes into
    -The country rock is older than the intrusion
    -The metamorphic "rind" is younger than the
    country rock
  16. -Beneficial characteristics are passed onto each new
    generation => Natural Selection
    -Only organisms capable of surviving and
    reproducing can pass on their genes to
    successive generations
    -In each new generation, some individuals have
    characteristics that make them more "fit"
  17. -Composition of parent rock
    -Temperature (T) - heat
    -Pressure (P) - uniform or differential
    -Hot fluids (chemically active)
  18. Metamorphism
    -Rocks don't stay the same forever!
    -Meta = change Morph = form or shape
    -Metamorphism - altering rocks by changing:
    1) Pressure (P)
    2) Temperature (T)
    3) Chemical conditions
    -Rock that changes = protolith or parent rock
  19. -Shearing
    -Surfaces slide past one another
  20. -the remnants or traces (impressions)
    of ancient living organisms, now preserved in
    - Paleontology is the study of fossils (and ancient life)
  21. Glaciers, High mountain streams, alluvial ice, desert, river"fluvial" and Lakes
  22. -Aka thermal metamorphism (heat from magma)
    -Affects rocks surrounding an igneous intrusion =>
    cool wall rock is metamorphosed
    -Contact aureole
    -No increase in P => forms non-foliated rocks
    -Anywhere magma is generated
    -Quartz = most common mineral grain in sandstone
    -Grains rounded during transport (fracture)
    -Beach (water) or dune (wind) deposits
  24. Uniform Stress:
    -Retains features of protolith
    -Non-foliated rocks
    -Deep burial
    Differential Stress:
    -Deformation of bedding or
    other features of protolith
    -Foliated rocks
    -Plate collision
  25. using the Use difference in arrival time of the P and S waves to find the epicenter
  26. -Compressional Waves(Movement is parallel direction wave is travelling
    -Shear waves (movement is perpendicular wave is traveling
  27. -Inclusions are always older than the enclosing
    -Weathered clasts
  28. the result of extension
    -Hanging wall block (above fault) moves down
    -Footwall block (below fault) moves up
    >Relative motion
  29. Main earthquake is called the main shock:
    -May be followed by aftershocks
    -Much less powerful
    -Due to small movements along to fault
    -Rocks on either side adjust to their
    new position/new stresses
  30. -Fossils are generally preserved in sedimentary rocks
    -Certain species lived at certain times in Earth's past
    -Fossils found in a rock unit is the fossil assemblage
    -As we go up, rocks (and fossil species)
    become younger (superposition)
    -99.9% of all species that ever lived areextinct
  31. -Sediments settle out of a fluid due to gravity
    -Sediments accumulate horizontally (parallel to
    surface of the Earth)
    -Thus, tilted sedimentary rocks must be
  32. -Shortening or contracting
    -Object is squeezed
    -Collision zones
    -Crust is shortened and thickened
  33. -Changes over many generations is evolution
    -Offspring can differ from their parents and new
    traits can be passed down to future generations
    -Many changes can accumulate over many
  34. Strike-slip Fault - horizontal displacement
    -No hanging wall or footwall block
    >Tend to be vertical or near-vertical
  35. -Main earthquake (main shock) can be
    followed by aftershocks, which are much
    less powerful.
    -Aftershocks are due to small movements
    along to fault as the rocks on either side
    adjust to their new position (new stresses
    may be placed on the rocks in there new
  36. - An episode of ground shaking
    -What causes Earthquakes?
    -Almost all significant earthquakes are
    caused by:
    1) Formation of a new fault
    2) Sudden movement along an existing fault
  37. low-angle reverse fault
    -Hanging wall block (above fault) moves up
    -Footwall block (below fault) moves down
    >45° or less from horizontal down to fault plane
  38. - Body Fossils(whole bodies preserved)
    -Preserved or replaced bones/teeth/shells
    -Molds(Hole left behind in
    rock when shell is
    dissolved away) and casts (Mold filled by sediment
    that is lithified)
    -Carbonized impressions
    -Trace Fossils
  39. -Intensity is subjective
    -Varies with distance from the epicenter
  40. the result of compression
    -Hanging wall block (above fault) moves up
    -Footwall block (below fault) moves down
    >Relative motion
  41. -Composition - some rock types/minerals
    softer than others
    -Some minerals very brittle: quartz,
    -Some minerals more ductile: halite, mica,
    calcite, clay minerals
  42. 1) Geologic catastrophe => many species go extinct; ecological
    niche for new species
    2) Sudden climate change => organisms are put under stress; they
    evolve to survive or go extinct
    3) Formation of new environments => e.g. rifting splits a
    continent, creating new ocean and coastlines
    4) Isolation of a particular population => event that cuts off part
    of a population from the rest
  43. -Shortening/Compression
    -Thrust-faulting - rock
    layers in hanging wall
    bend as it is pushed up
    and over footwall
    -Faulting at depth -
    overlying rock layers
    bend into a monocline
  44. -A fracture or break in the Earth's crust along
    which movement occurs
    -No movement => not a fault (just a fracture)
  45. They are both surface waves but the L-wave travels side-side while the R-Wave travels up and down
  46. -Topography = the surface features of an area
    (natural and man-made)
    -Their position and elevation
    -Features can be shown on a topographic map
    -Uplift is the creation of topography by raising the surface of the earth to a higher elevation
  47. Marble, Quartzite and Hornfels
  48. Foliated
    -Parallel alignment of platy/elongate
    -Presence of bands of light/dark minerals

    Non-foliated (a.k.a. Massive)
    -Mineral crystals have random orientation
    -Often single mineral (mono-mineralic)
  49. -Anticline (a up fold, shaped like an "A"
    -Syncline (a down fold, shapes like a trough or a sink)
    -Dome (an over-turned bowl, sedimentary layers get pushed up)
    -Basin (an upright bowl, sedimentary layers subside)
    -Monocline (an step-like fold, often draped over and underlying fault)
  50. -A rise in sea level
    -Deep-water sediments end up above shallow-water
  51. -Produces most metamorphic rocks => large areas
    -Associated with mountain building at convergent
    plate boundaries
    -Continental collisions most intense =>
    metamorphic core in mountain range
    -High P => foliated rocks
  52. Rock bends, then breaks
    -Vibrations =>
    More sudden movement
    on fault
    -Vibrations =>
    Vibrations due to
    earthquake activity:
    -Seismic activity or
    -Clasts rounded during transport (farther from source)
    -Large clasts = high velocity; e.g. fast moving river channel
  54. -faults don't slip forever; friction will
    slow and stop movement; friction is
    resistance to sliding on a surface
  55. -Deposition of sedimentary beds
    -Erosion of the land surface
    -Intrusion/extrusion of igneous rocks
    -Deformation (folding/faulting)
    -Episode of metamorphism
    (Can happen in ANY order!)
  56. ARKOSE (aka Feldspathic Sandstone)
    -Feldspar = short transport (close to source)
    -Moderate to low weathering = arid climate
  57. -Rate of Deformation
    -Rapid application of stress
    -sudden change in shape causes
    brittle defromation
    -Small amounts of stress over long
    geologic time
    -slow change in shape causes ductile deformation => atomic and molecular
    bonds have time to accommodate stress
  58. bending/stretching/breaking/
    flowing of rock in response to stress (apply a
  59. -While macro fossils can be seen with the naked eye, microfossils can't
  60. -Occurs in deep sedimentary basins (subsiding)
    -Rocks become more dense, but not deformed
    -Depth for burial metamorphism varies
    (geothermal gradient varies from place to place)
    -Usually occurs b/w 8 -15 km depth (200-400°C)
  61. -Isostacy = equilibrium in the Earth's crust
    -Forces tending to elevate landmasses balance
    forces tending to depress landmasses
  62. -Archaea
  63. -Stretching causes crustal thinning and normal
    -Fault-block mountains
    -Volcanic mountains due to decompression melting
  64. -Joints: fractures in crust with NO displacement
    between rock on either side of the crack
    -Faults: fractures in crust with a distinct offset
    (displacement) between the two sides
    -Folds: rocks may be bent into a series of wavelike
    -Foliations: layering due to mineral or grain
    flattening and/or alignment (tectonic foliation)
  65. -Angularity - how rounded a clast is / how
    angular a clast is
    -Sphericity - how equidimensional a clast is
    (how near to a sphere shape)
    -Sorting is the uniformity of grain size
    -Cement type is what mineral fills the pores
    between clasts
  66. -Stretching or elongating
    -Object is pulled apart
    -Rift zones
    -Crust is stretched and thinned
  67. -Compression
  68. -Magnitude = maximum amplitude of
    ground motion
    -Measured by a seismometer at a standard distance
    from the epicenter
    -Magnitude doesn't vary with distance (standardized
  69. Protolith undergoes a solid state change
    as a result of a change in its environment
    1) Solid state - no melting
    2) Change - new minerals (not in protolith)
    and/or texture change (different from
    3) Change in environment - change in T and/or
    P; reactions with hydrothermal fluids
  70. Place within Earth where rock moves (vibrations
    -Hypocenter or focus of the earthquake

    Point on surface of Earth directly above focus:
  71. Igneous Rock to Sedimentary Rock to metamorphic Rock and repeat
  72. -Body waves(through interior of Earth)
    -Surface waves (along the surface of the Earth)
  73. -Temperature - heat makes materials softer
    -Warmer rocks - ductile deformation
    -Cooler rocks - brittle deformation
    -Pressure - pressure prevents rocks from fragmenting
    -Lower pressure - brittle deformation
    -P and T increase with depth
    -Crust rocks generally brittle
  74. -A rise in seal level
    -Shallow-water sediments end up above deep-water sediments
  75. -Thick accumulations of sediment only
    occur in certain places
    -Surface of lithosphere sinks
    -Room to collect sediments
  76. -In an undeformed sequence of layered rocks:
    -Each layer is older than the one above it
    -Each layer is younger than the one below it
  77. -The process of Mountain Formation driven by plate tectonics
    - This process happens to due the deformation of,Subduction zones, Continental collisions zones, and Continental rifts
  78. -Meteor Impacts
    -Extreme compression (shock wave)
    -Causes phase change - more compact, dense
    mineral phase
    -Quartz => coesite or stishovite (shocked quartz)
    -Also caused by nuclear explosions
    - Mostly composed of clay minerals and minor quartz
    - Shale is fissile (splits into thin layers); Silt/claystone not fissile
    - A.k.a "mudstones" or "mudrocks"
    - Calm water deposition (lake, deeper ocean)
  80. -Intense compression
    -Folding and faulting
    -Metamorphism (tectonic foliation)
    -Crustal thickening
    -Fold-thrust belts develop on both sides of
    collision zone
  81. -All of the chemical, physical and biological
    processes that:
    -Transform sediment into sedimentary rock, and...-Alter the characteristics of the sedimentary rock
    after it is formed
  82. -Joints
  83. -Brittle deformation: rock breaks by
    -Ductile deformation - change shape without
    visible breaking; rocks flow and fold (solid state)
  84. -Sedimentary strata often form laterally extensive
    horizontal sheets
    -Sediments tend to be deposited over large areas
    -Erosion can dissect once-continuous layers
  85. Slate, Phyllite, Schist and Gneiss
  86. - May contain fossils
    - Fine sediment =
    fine detail
    - Calm water = low
    - Calm water = less
  87. -Creature dies, leaving behind body and/or footprints
    -Flesh rots away; bones and prints remain
    -Bones/prints covered by sediment
    -Sediment lithifies
    -Minerals in groundwater replace bone
    -Bones become rock-like (fossilize)
    -Uplift and erosion exposes fossils
    -Size and angularity => deposited close to source
    (little transport)
  89. -Displacement - change in location
    -Rotation - change in orientation
    -Distortion - change in shape
  90. Rock is not permanent
    -Weathering breaks down rock
    -Melting destroys rock
    changes rock
    -Ongoing change from
    one rock type to