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31 True/False questions

  1. blockIn the context of igneous materials, a block is a chunk of igneous rock blasted out of a volcano.

          

  2. a'a'Ash that falls to the ground out of an ash cloud.

          

  3. dormant volcanoA volcano that has not erupted for hundreds to thousands of years but does have the potential to erupt again in the future.

          

  4. effusive eruptionAn eruption that yields mostly lava, not ash.

          

  5. fissure trackAsh that falls to the ground out of an ash cloud.

          

  6. CraterA large circular depression with steep walls and a fairly flat floor, formed after an eruption as the center of the volcano collapses into the drained magma chamber below.

          

  7. flood basaltVast sheets of basalt that spread from a volcanic vent over an extensive surface of land; they may form where a rift develops above a continental hot spot, and where lava is particularly hot and has low viscosity.

          

  8. stratovolcanoA volcano that has not erupted for hundreds to thousands of years but does have the potential to erupt again in the future.

          

  9. lava tubeThe empty space left when a lava tunnel drains; this happens when the surface of a lava flow solidifies while the inner part of the flow continues to stream downslope.

          

  10. tuffA pyroclastic igneous rock composed of volcanic ash and fragmented pumice, formed when accumulations of the debris cement together.

          

  11. pyroclastic flowFragmented material that sprayed out of a volcano and landed on the ground or sea floor in solid form.

          

  12. bombsIn the context of igneous materials, a block is a chunk of igneous rock blasted out of a volcano.

          

  13. vesicles(1) A vent from which melt from inside the Earth spews out onto the planet's surface; (2) a mountain formed by the accumulation of extrusive volcanic rock.

          

  14. pyroclastic debrisA fast-moving avalanche that occurs when hot volcanic ash and debris mix with air and flow down the side of a volcano.

          

  15. lapilliA thick slurry formed when volcanic ash and debris mix with water, either in rivers or from rain or melting snow and ice on the flank of a volcano.

          

  16. shield volcanoA subaerial volcano with a broad, gentle dome, formed either from low-viscosity basaltic lava or from large pyroclastic sheets.

          

  17. volcano(1) A vent from which melt from inside the Earth spews out onto the planet's surface; (2) a mountain formed by the accumulation of extrusive volcanic rock.

          

  18. extinct volcanoA volcano that has erupted within the past few centuries and will likely erupt again.

          

  19. explosive eruptionAn eruption that yields mostly lava, not ash.

          

  20. calderaA large circular depression with steep walls and a fairly flat floor, formed after an eruption as the center of the volcano collapses into the drained magma chamber below.

          

  21. volcaniclastic depositFragmented material that sprayed out of a volcano and landed on the ground or sea floor in solid form.

          

  22. columnar jointingA type of fracturing that yields roughly hexagonal columns of basalt; columnar joints form when a dike, sill, or lava flow cools.

          

  23. cinder coneA large circular depression with steep walls and a fairly flat floor, formed after an eruption as the center of the volcano collapses into the drained magma chamber below.

          

  24. magma chamberThe empty space left when a lava tunnel drains; this happens when the surface of a lava flow solidifies while the inner part of the flow continues to stream downslope.

          

  25. active volcanoA volcano that was active in the past but has now shut off entirely and will not erupt in the future.

          

  26. tephraA thick slurry formed when volcanic ash and debris mix with water, either in rivers or from rain or melting snow and ice on the flank of a volcano.

          

  27. ignimbrite(1) A circular depression at the top of a volcanic mound; (2) a depression formed by the impact of a meteorite.

          

  28. laharA thick slurry formed when volcanic ash and debris mix with water, either in rivers or from rain or melting snow and ice on the flank of a volcano.

          

  29. ash fallAsh that falls to the ground out of an ash cloud.

          

  30. pahoehoeA thick slurry formed when volcanic ash and debris mix with water, either in rivers or from rain or melting snow and ice on the flank of a volcano.

          

  31. volcanic debris flowA mixture of water and clasts of volcanic material that moves down the slope of a volcano.