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31 Multiple choice questions

  1. A volcano that has not erupted for hundreds to thousands of years but does have the potential to erupt again in the future.
  2. Fragmented material that sprayed out of a volcano and landed on the ground or sea floor in solid form.
  3. Ash that falls to the ground out of an ash cloud.
  4. A subaerial volcano with a broad, gentle dome, formed either from low-viscosity basaltic lava or from large pyroclastic sheets.
  5. A type of fracturing that yields roughly hexagonal columns of basalt; columnar joints form when a dike, sill, or lava flow cools.
  6. (1) A circular depression at the top of a volcanic mound; (2) a depression formed by the impact of a meteorite.
  7. Violent volcanic eruption that produces clouds and avalanches of pyroclastic debris.
  8. (1) A vent from which melt from inside the Earth spews out onto the planet's surface; (2) a mountain formed by the accumulation of extrusive volcanic rock.
  9. A mixture of water and clasts of volcanic material that moves down the slope of a volcano.
  10. The empty space left when a lava tunnel drains; this happens when the surface of a lava flow solidifies while the inner part of the flow continues to stream downslope.
  11. Vast sheets of basalt that spread from a volcanic vent over an extensive surface of land; they may form where a rift develops above a continental hot spot, and where lava is particularly hot and has low viscosity.
  12. A line of damage formed in the crystal lattice of a mineral by the impact of an atomic particle ejected during the decay of a radioactive isotope.
  13. A volcano that has erupted within the past few centuries and will likely erupt again.
  14. Rock formed when deposits of pyroclactic flows solidify.
  15. A volcano that was active in the past but has now shut off entirely and will not erupt in the future.
  16. Unconsolidated accumulations of pyroclastic grains.
  17. A lava flow with a rubbly surface.
  18. A lava flow with a surface texture of smooth, glassy, rope-like ridges.
  19. Marble-to-plum-sized fragments of pyroclastic debris.
  20. A pyroclastic igneous rock composed of volcanic ash and fragmented pumice, formed when accumulations of the debris cement together.
  21. In the context of igneous materials, a block is a chunk of igneous rock blasted out of a volcano.
  22. Open holes in igneous rock formed by the preservation of bubbles in magma as the magma cools into solid rock.
  23. A space below ground filled with magma.
  24. A large, cone-shaped subaerial volcano consisting of alternating layers of lava and tephra.
  25. An eruption that yields mostly lava, not ash.
  26. A thick slurry formed when volcanic ash and debris mix with water, either in rivers or from rain or melting snow and ice on the flank of a volcano.
  27. A frozen blob of rock formed when magma ejected from a volcano freezes in flight; bombs are typically streamlined.
  28. A large circular depression with steep walls and a fairly flat floor, formed after an eruption as the center of the volcano collapses into the drained magma chamber below.
  29. A subaerial volcano consisting of a cone-shaped pile of tephra whose slope approaches the angle of repose for tephra.
  30. A layer composed of fragments of igneous material (e.g., tephra, ash, bombs) erupted from volcanoes.
  31. A fast-moving avalanche that occurs when hot volcanic ash and debris mix with air and flow down the side of a volcano.