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  1. stratovolcano
  2. pyroclastic flow
  3. volcaniclastic deposit
  4. active volcano
  5. pyroclastic debris
  6. flood basalt
  7. vesicles
  8. lapilli
  9. bombs
  10. lahar
  11. tuff
  12. dormant volcano
  13. ignimbrite
  14. Crater
  15. lava tube
  16. columnar jointing
  17. cinder cone
  18. volcano
  19. fissure track
  20. tephra
  21. pahoehoe
  22. block
  23. volcanic debris flow
  24. shield volcano
  25. explosive eruption
  26. extinct volcano
  27. magma chamber
  28. caldera
  29. a'a'
  30. ash fall
  31. effusive eruption
  1. a A pyroclastic igneous rock composed of volcanic ash and fragmented pumice, formed when accumulations of the debris cement together.
  2. b A thick slurry formed when volcanic ash and debris mix with water, either in rivers or from rain or melting snow and ice on the flank of a volcano.
  3. c Rock formed when deposits of pyroclactic flows solidify.
  4. d A lava flow with a surface texture of smooth, glassy, rope-like ridges.
  5. e A lava flow with a rubbly surface.
  6. f Violent volcanic eruption that produces clouds and avalanches of pyroclastic debris.
  7. g The empty space left when a lava tunnel drains; this happens when the surface of a lava flow solidifies while the inner part of the flow continues to stream downslope.
  8. h A large circular depression with steep walls and a fairly flat floor, formed after an eruption as the center of the volcano collapses into the drained magma chamber below.
  9. i Marble-to-plum-sized fragments of pyroclastic debris.
  10. j Fragmented material that sprayed out of a volcano and landed on the ground or sea floor in solid form.
  11. k A volcano that was active in the past but has now shut off entirely and will not erupt in the future.
  12. l A fast-moving avalanche that occurs when hot volcanic ash and debris mix with air and flow down the side of a volcano.
  13. m A mixture of water and clasts of volcanic material that moves down the slope of a volcano.
  14. n A subaerial volcano with a broad, gentle dome, formed either from low-viscosity basaltic lava or from large pyroclastic sheets.
  15. o Vast sheets of basalt that spread from a volcanic vent over an extensive surface of land; they may form where a rift develops above a continental hot spot, and where lava is particularly hot and has low viscosity.
  16. p A space below ground filled with magma.
  17. q A frozen blob of rock formed when magma ejected from a volcano freezes in flight; bombs are typically streamlined.
  18. r A subaerial volcano consisting of a cone-shaped pile of tephra whose slope approaches the angle of repose for tephra.
  19. s Ash that falls to the ground out of an ash cloud.
  20. t A volcano that has erupted within the past few centuries and will likely erupt again.
  21. u (1) A circular depression at the top of a volcanic mound; (2) a depression formed by the impact of a meteorite.
  22. v A line of damage formed in the crystal lattice of a mineral by the impact of an atomic particle ejected during the decay of a radioactive isotope.
  23. w A volcano that has not erupted for hundreds to thousands of years but does have the potential to erupt again in the future.
  24. x In the context of igneous materials, a block is a chunk of igneous rock blasted out of a volcano.
  25. y (1) A vent from which melt from inside the Earth spews out onto the planet's surface; (2) a mountain formed by the accumulation of extrusive volcanic rock.
  26. z A large, cone-shaped subaerial volcano consisting of alternating layers of lava and tephra.
  27. aa A type of fracturing that yields roughly hexagonal columns of basalt; columnar joints form when a dike, sill, or lava flow cools.
  28. ab Open holes in igneous rock formed by the preservation of bubbles in magma as the magma cools into solid rock.
  29. ac An eruption that yields mostly lava, not ash.
  30. ad Unconsolidated accumulations of pyroclastic grains.
  31. ae A layer composed of fragments of igneous material (e.g., tephra, ash, bombs) erupted from volcanoes.