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  1. igneous rock
  2. xenolith
  3. obsidian
  4. Laccolith
  5. Tuff
  6. intrusive igneous rock
  7. crystalline igneous rock
  8. lava
  9. fragmental igneous rock
  10. Magma
  11. batholith
  12. pyroclastic rock
  13. Geotherm
  14. Pegmatite
  15. Bowen's reaction series
  16. volcano
  17. sill
  18. assimilation
  19. dike
  20. Stoping
  21. pumice
  22. glassy igneous rock
  23. partial melting
  24. scoria
  25. extrusive igneous rock
  26. lava flow
  27. vesicle
  28. volcanic breccias
  29. volcanic ash
  30. fractional crystallization
  31. pluton
  1. a A rock composed of angular chunks of volcanic debris that have been cemented together.
  2. b Sheets or mounds of lava that flow onto the ground surface or sea floor in molten form and then solidify.
  3. c Tiny glass shards formed when a fine spray of exploded lava freezes instantly upon contact with the atmosphere.
  4. d A coarse-grained igneous rock containing crystals of up to tens of centimeters across and occurring in dike-shaped intrusions.
  5. e Molten rock beneath the EarthÕs surface.
  6. f The melting in a rock of the minerals with the lowest melting temperatures, while other minerals remain solid.
  7. g The sequence in which different silicate minerals crystallize during the progressive cooling of a melt.
  8. h A tabular (wall-shaped) intrusion of rock that cuts across the layering of country rock.
  9. i Fragments of igneous material that have been stuck together to form a coherent mass.
  10. j A glassy mafic igneous rock containing abundant air-filled holes.
  11. k Rock that forms when hot molten rock (magma or lava) cools and freezes solid.
  12. l A vast composite, intrusive, igneous rock body up to several hundred kilometers long and 100 km wide, formed by the intrusion of numerous plutons in the same region.
  13. m A glassy igneous rock that forms from felsic frothy lava and contains abundant (over 50%) pore space.
  14. n An irregular or blob-shaped intrusion; can range in size from tens of meters across to tens of kilometers across.
  15. o Open holes in igneous rock formed by the preservation of bubbles in magma as the magma cools into solid rock.
  16. p The process by which magma becomes progressively more silicic as it cools, because early-formed crystals settle out.
  17. q A process by which magma intrudes; blocks of wall rock break off and then sink into the magma.
  18. r Igneous rock consisting entirely of glass, or of tiny crystals surrounded by a glass matrix.
  19. s The change in temperature with depth in the Earth.
  20. t A shallow igneous intrusion that has a blister-like shape.
  21. u Rock formed by the freezing of magma underground.
  22. v A rock that solidifies from a melt and consists of interlocking crystals.
  23. w A nearly horizontal table-top-shaped tabular intrusion that occurs between the layers of country rock.
  24. x (1) A vent from which melt from inside the Earth spews out onto the planetÕs surface; (2) a mountain formed by the accumulation of extrusive volcanic rock.
  25. y Rock made from fragments blown out of a volcano during an explosion that were then packed or welded together.
  26. z Molten rock that has flowed out onto the EarthÕs surface.
  27. aa A pyroclastic igneous rock composed of volcanic ash and fragmented pumice, formed when accumulations of the debris cement together.
  28. ab The process of magma contamination in which blocks of wall rock fall into a magma chamber and dissolve.
  29. ac An igneous rock consisting of a solid mass of volcanic glass.
  30. ad A relict of wall rock surrounded by intrusive rock when the intrusive rock freezes.
  31. ae Rock that forms by the freezing of lava above ground, after it flows or explodes out (extrudes) onto the surface and comes into contact with the atmosphere or ocean.