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45 True/False questions

  1. absolute plate velocityThe movement of a plate relative to a fixed point in the mantle.

          

  2. volcanic arcA supercontinent that assembled at the end of the Paleozoic Era.

          

  3. abyssal plainA column of very hot rock rising up through the mantle.

          

  4. magnetic anomalyThe difference between the expected strength of the Earth's magnetic field at a certain location and the actual measured strength of the field at that location.

          

  5. hot spotThe process of two buoyant pieces of lithosphere converging and squashing together.

          

  6. magnetic declinationThe angle between a magnetic needle free to pivot on a horizontal axis and a horizontal plane parallel to the Earth's surface.

          

  7. PangaeaOne of about twenty distinct pieces of the relatively rigid lithosphere.

          

  8. lithosphereThe relatively rigid, nonflowable, outer 100- to 150-km-thick layer of the Earth; constituting the crust and the top part of the mantle.

          

  9. fracture zoneA narrow band of vertical fractures in the ocean floor; fracture zones lie roughly at right angles to a mid-ocean ridge, and the actively slipping part of a fracture zone is a transform fault.

          

  10. collisionA location at the base of the lithosphere, at the top of a mantle plume, where temperatures can cause melting.

          

  11. paleomagnetismThe record of ancient magnetism preserved in rock.

          

  12. ridge-push forceThe force that drives plates away from a mid-ocean ridge; it is caused by the fact that the ridge is elevated relative to the regions of oceanic plate away from the ridge.

          

  13. convergent plate boundaryA boundary at which two plates move toward each other so that one plate sinks (subducts) beneath the other; only oceanic lithosphere can subduct.

          

  14. asthenosphereThe relatively rigid, nonflowable, outer 100- to 150-km-thick layer of the Earth; constituting the crust and the top part of the mantle.

          

  15. black smokerOne of about twenty distinct pieces of the relatively rigid lithosphere.

          

  16. hot-spot trackA location at the base of the lithosphere, at the top of a mantle plume, where temperatures can cause melting.

          

  17. paleopoleThe supposed position of the Earth's magnetic pole in the past, with respect to a particular continent.

          

  18. active continental marginA linear belt along which continental lithosphere stretches and pulls apart.

          

  19. subductionThe process of two buoyant pieces of lithosphere converging and squashing together.

          

  20. apparent polar-wander pathA boundary at which two lithosphere plates move apart from each other; they are marked by mid-ocean ridges.

          

  21. triple junctionA point where three lithosphere plate boundaries intersect.

          

  22. transform plate boundaryA boundary at which two lithosphere plates move apart from each other; they are marked by mid-ocean ridges.

          

  23. lithosphere plateThe relatively rigid, nonflowable, outer 100- to 150-km-thick layer of the Earth; constituting the crust and the top part of the mantle.

          

  24. mantle plumeThe supposed position of the Earth's magnetic pole in the past, with respect to a particular continent.

          

  25. riftingOne of about twenty distinct pieces of the relatively rigid lithosphere.

          

  26. marine magnetic anomalyAn unusually strong or unusually weak magnetic field, as measured over the sea floor; in map view, they look like stripes that are parallel to the mid-ocean ridge.

          

  27. continental drift hypothesisThe idea that continents have moved and are still moving slowly across the Earth's surface.

          

  28. plateOne of about twenty distinct pieces of the relatively rigid lithosphere.

          

  29. magnetic inclinationThe angle between a magnetic needle free to pivot on a horizontal axis and a horizontal plane parallel to the Earth's surface.

          

  30. magnetic dipoleA magnetic entity that has a north and south end.

          

  31. plate boundaryThe border between two adjacent lithosphere plates.

          

  32. magnetic reversalThe difference between the expected strength of the Earth's magnetic field at a certain location and the actual measured strength of the field at that location.

          

  33. Wadati-Benioff zoneA sloping band of seismicity defined by intermediate- and deep-focus earthquakes that occur in the downgoing slab of a convergent plate boundary.

          

  34. trenchOne of about twenty distinct pieces of the relatively rigid lithosphere.

          

  35. divergent plate boundaryA boundary at which two plates move toward each other so that one plate sinks (subducts) beneath the other; only oceanic lithosphere can subduct.

          

  36. global positioning system (GPS)A satellite system people can use to measure rates of movement of the Earth's crust relative to one another, or simply to locate their position on the Earth's surface.

          

  37. continental riftA linear belt along which continental lithosphere stretches and pulls apart.

          

  38. slab-pull forceThe force that downgoing plates (or slabs) apply to oceanic lithosphere at a convergent margin.

          

  39. passive margin basinA thick accumulation of sediment along a tectonically inactive coast, formed over crust that stretched and thinned when the margin first began.

          

  40. relative plate velocityThe movement of a plate relative to a fixed point in the mantle.

          

  41. seamountA supercontinent that assembled at the end of the Paleozoic Era.

          

  42. magnetic poleA magnetic entity that has a north and south end.

          

  43. magnetic-reversal chronologyThe history of magnetic reversals through geologic time.

          

  44. sea-floor spreadingA broad, relatively fl at region of the ocean that lies at least 4.5 km below sea level.

          

  45. mid-ocean ridgeA column of very hot rock rising up through the mantle.