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52 True/False questions

  1. red shiftAn accumulation of loose mineral grains, such as boulders, pebbles, sand, silt, or mud, that are not cemented together.

          

  2. MohoThe seismic-velocity discontinuity that defines the boundary between the EarthÕs crust and mantle.

          

  3. MeltThe seismic-velocity discontinuity that defines the boundary between the EarthÕs crust and mantle.

          

  4. groundwaterWater that resides under the surface of the Earth, mostly in pores or cracks of rock or sediment.

          

  5. stellar windOne of many millions of small, rocky, and/or metallic objects that orbit the Sun, consisting of fragments of once-larger planetesimals, or chunks of protoplanetary material; most lie in the region between Mars and Jupiter.

          

  6. MeteoriteAn object that has entered a planetÕs atmosphere and is glowing and evaporating as it streaks to the planetÕs surface.

          

  7. atmosphereThe layer of the mantle that lies between 100-150 km and 350 km deep; the asthenosphere is relatively soft and can flow when acted on by force.

          

  8. nebula theoryThe concept that planets grow out of rings of gas, dust, and ice surrounding a new-born star.

          

  9. sedimentMolten (liquid) rock.

          

  10. wavelengthA means of transmitting energy from one location to another; waves can be vibrations that propagate through a material, or undulations of electromagnetic fields that can propagate either through a material or in a vacuum.

          

  11. cometA ball of ice and dust, probably remaining from the formation of the Solar System, that orbits the Sun.

          

  12. protoplanetary diskThe flattened cloud of dust, gas, and ice that orbits a nascent star prior to the formation of planets.

          

  13. transition zoneThe middle portion of the mantle, from 400 to 670 km deep, in which there are several jumps in seismic velocity.

          

  14. mantleMolten (liquid) rock.

          

  15. planetA relatively large, spherical object that orbits a star and has cleared its orbit of most debris.

          

  16. protostarA body that grows by the accumulation of planetesimals but has not yet become big enough to be called a planet.

          

  17. protoplanetA dense body of gas that is collapsing inward because of gravitational forces and that may eventually become a star.

          

  18. asthenosphereThe layer of the mantle that lies between 100-150 km and 350 km deep; the asthenosphere is relatively soft and can flow when acted on by force.

          

  19. supernovaA short-lived, very bright object in space that results from the cataclysmic explosion marking the death of a very large star; the explosion ejects large quantities of matter into space to form new nebulae.

          

  20. magnetic fieldThe region affected by the force emanating from a magnet.

          

  21. differentiationIn the context of planet formation, the process by which a planet separates into a metallic core and a rocky mantle very early in its history.

          

  22. Earth SystemThe Sun and all the objects that orbit it (including planets, moons, comets, and asteroids).

          

  23. MineralA solid composed almost entirely of atoms of metallic elements; it is generally opaque, shiny, smooth, and malleable, and can conduct electricity.

          

  24. planetesimalTiny, solid pieces of rock and metal that collect in a planetary nebula and eventually accumulate to form a planet.

          

  25. lower mantleThe deepest section of the mantle, stretching from 670 km down to the core-mantle boundary.

          

  26. big bangA homogenous, naturally occurring, solid inorganic substance with a definable chemical composition and an internal structure characterized by an orderly arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules in a lattice. Most minerals are inorganic.

          

  27. vacuumSpace that contains very little matter in a given volume (e.g., a region in which air has been removed).

          

  28. waveA means of transmitting energy from one location to another; waves can be vibrations that propagate through a material, or undulations of electromagnetic fields that can propagate either through a material or in a vacuum.

          

  29. bathymetryVariation in depth.

          

  30. gas-giant planetThe outer planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune) that are very large and consist mostly of volatile elements.

          

  31. Solar SystemThe global interconnecting web of physical and biological phenomena involving the solid Earth, the hydrosphere, and the atmosphere.

          

  32. faultMolten (liquid) rock.

          

  33. nebulaA cloud of gas or dust in space.

          

  34. geothermal gradientThe rate of change in temperature with depth.

          

  35. metalA large sphere, composed dominantly of hydrogen and helium, in which fusion reactions are producing energy.

          

  36. UniverseA homogenous, naturally occurring, solid inorganic substance with a definable chemical composition and an internal structure characterized by an orderly arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules in a lattice. Most minerals are inorganic.

          

  37. crustThe rock that makes up the outermost layer of the Earth.

          

  38. lithosphereThe relatively rigid, non-flowable, outer 100- to 150-km-thick layer of the Earth; constituting the crust and the top part of the mantle.

          

  39. meteorAn object that has entered a planetÕs atmosphere and is glowing and evaporating as it streaks to the planetÕs surface.

          

  40. coreA ball of ice and dust, probably remaining from the formation of the Solar System, that orbits the Sun.

          

  41. expanding Universe theoryThe concept that planets grow out of rings of gas, dust, and ice surrounding a new-born star.

          

  42. glassAn immense system of hundreds of billions of stars.

          

  43. upper mantleThe deepest section of the mantle, stretching from 670 km down to the core-mantle boundary.

          

  44. topographyVariations in elevation.

          

  45. earthquakeThe global interconnecting web of physical and biological phenomena involving the solid Earth, the hydrosphere, and the atmosphere.

          

  46. rockA coherent, naturally occurring solid, consisting of an aggregate of minerals or a mass of glass.

          

  47. cosmologyA solid object of ice and/or rock and metal that orbits a planet.

          

  48. galaxyMolten (liquid) rock.

          

  49. organic chemicalTiny, solid pieces of rock and metal that collect in a planetary nebula and eventually accumulate to form a planet.

          

  50. asteroidA large sphere, composed dominantly of hydrogen and helium, in which fusion reactions are producing energy.

          

  51. starA large sphere, composed dominantly of hydrogen and helium, in which fusion reactions are producing energy.

          

  52. moonA solid object of ice and/or rock and metal that orbits a planet.