52 Multiple choice questions
cataclysmic explosion that scientists suggest represents the formation
of the Universe; before this event, all matter and all energy were
packed into one volumeless point.
- Space that contains very little matter in a given volume (e.g., a region in which air has been removed).
relatively rigid, non-flowable, outer 100- to 150-km-thick layer of the
Earth; constituting the crust and the top part of the mantle.
- The thick layer of rock below the EarthÕs crust and above the core.
- Particles that have been ejected from a star and are shooting through space.
- A coherent, naturally occurring solid, consisting of an aggregate of minerals or a mass of glass.
layer of the mantle that lies between 100-150 km and 350 km deep; the
asthenosphere is relatively soft and can flow when acted on by force.
- A vibration caused by the sudden breaking or frictional sliding of rock in the Earth.
- A large sphere, composed dominantly of hydrogen and helium, in which fusion reactions are producing energy.
- The seismic-velocity discontinuity that defines the boundary between the EarthÕs crust and mantle.
global interconnecting web of physical and biological phenomena
involving the solid Earth, the hydrosphere, and the atmosphere.
- An accumulation of loose mineral grains, such as boulders, pebbles, sand, silt, or mud, that are not cemented together.
- An object that has entered a planetÕs atmosphere and is glowing and evaporating as it streaks to the planetÕs surface.
- The horizontal difference between two adjacent wave troughs or two adjacent crests.
- The study of the overall structure of the Universe.
- The rock that makes up the outermost layer of the Earth.
- A body that grows by the accumulation of planetesimals but has not yet become big enough to be called a planet.
short-lived, very bright object in space that results from the
cataclysmic explosion marking the death of a very large star; the
explosion ejects large quantities of matter into space to form new
- A piece of rock or metal alloy that fell from space and landed on Earth.
means of transmitting energy from one location to another; waves can be
vibrations that propagate through a material, or undulations of
electromagnetic fields that can propagate either through a material or
in a vacuum.
carbon-containing compound that occurs in living organisms, or that
resembles such compounds; it consists of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen
atoms along with varying amounts of oxygen, nitrogen, and other
- The theory that the whole Universe must be expanding because galaxies in every direction seem to be moving away from us.
- A cloud of gas or dust in space.
- Molten (liquid) rock.
of many millions of small, rocky, and/or metallic objects that orbit
the Sun, consisting of fragments of once-larger planetesimals, or chunks
of protoplanetary material; most lie in the region between Mars and
- The middle portion of the mantle, from 400 to 670 km deep, in which there are several jumps in seismic velocity.
- The rate of change in temperature with depth.
phenomenon in which a source of light moving away from you very rapidly
shifts to a lower frequency; that is, toward the red end of the
- A dense body of gas that is collapsing inward because of gravitational forces and that may eventually become a star.
- The dense, iron-rich center of the Earth.
- Variations in elevation.
- The region affected by the force emanating from a magnet.
- Water that resides under the surface of the Earth, mostly in pores or cracks of rock or sediment.
- Variation in depth.
- A layer of gases that surrounds a planet.
solid composed almost entirely of atoms of metallic elements; it is
generally opaque, shiny, smooth, and malleable, and can conduct
- An immense system of hundreds of billions of stars.
- A solid in which atoms are not arranged in an orderly pattern.
- A ball of ice and dust, probably remaining from the formation of the Solar System, that orbits the Sun.
- The flattened cloud of dust, gas, and ice that orbits a nascent star prior to the formation of planets.
- A relatively large, spherical object that orbits a star and has cleared its orbit of most debris.
- The Sun and all the objects that orbit it (including planets, moons, comets, and asteroids).
- Tiny, solid pieces of rock and metal that collect in a planetary nebula and eventually accumulate to form a planet.
- The deepest section of the mantle, stretching from 670 km down to the core-mantle boundary.
- The outer planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune) that are very large and consist mostly of volatile elements.
- A solid object of ice and/or rock and metal that orbits a planet.
- The concept that planets grow out of rings of gas, dust, and ice surrounding a new-born star.
homogenous, naturally occurring, solid inorganic substance with a
definable chemical composition and an internal structure characterized
by an orderly arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules in a lattice.
Most minerals are inorganic.
- The sum of all matter and energy making up the hundreds of billions of known galaxies.
- A fracture on which one body of rock slides past another.
the context of planet formation, the process by which a planet
separates into a metallic core and a rocky mantle very early in its
- The uppermost section of the mantle, reaching down to a depth of 400 km.