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85 True/False questions

  1. Rocks that contain voids left by gases that
    escape as lava solidifies are said to exhibit
    a(n) __________ texture.
    A. vesicular
    B. Phaneritic
    C. porphyritic
    D. Glassy
    A. vesicular

          

  2. Which one of the following is NOT a primary factor of magma that directly determines the nature of a volcanic eruption?
    A. Temperature of magma
    B. Amount of dissolved gases
    C. Chemical composition of magma
    D. Volume
    D. Volume

          

  3. What type of volcano has the steepest slopes?
    A. Cinder cone
    B. Shield Volcano
    C. Composite Volcano
    A. Cinder cone

          

  4. In a rock with a porphyritic texture, the large
    crystals are referred to as __________.
    A. Groundmass
    B. Phenocrysts
    C. Erratics
    D. Orthoclase
    B. Phenocrysts

          

  5. Which of the following particles in sedimentary rocks is smallest in size?
    A. Silt
    B. Clay
    C. Gravel
    D. Sand
    B. Clay

          

  6. Geologists use __________ to distinguish
    among detrital sedimentary rocks.
    A. method of formation
    B. color
    C. particle size
    D. the location of the source materials
    C. particle size

          

  7. Igneous rocks that form from the last minerals to
    crystallize from magma will have a(n) __________
    composition consisting of quartz, potassium feldspar,
    and sodium-rich plagioclase feldspar.
    A. andesitc (intermediate)
    B. Basaltic (mafic)
    C. Granitic (felsic)
    D. mafic (felsic)
    C. Granitic (felsic)

          

  8. What type of volcano is typically the
    smallest?
    A. Shield Volcano
    B. Cinder Cone
    C. Composite cone
    B. Cinder Cone

          

  9. Sedimentary rocks form when the products of
    _____ are transported to a new location where
    they are deposited and eventually _____ into solid
    rock.
    A. melting; crystallized
    B. deposition; eroded
    C. crystallization; metamorphosed
    D. tectonism; weathered
    E. weathering; lithified
    B. False

          

  10. Compaction and cementation are examples of
    this process.
    A. lithification
    B. crystallization
    C. weathering
    D. Fusion
    C. evaporite

          

  11. What type of volcano produces the most violent eruptions?
    A. Shield Volcano
    B. Cinder Cone
    C. Composite cone
    E. Pillow basalt

          

  12. Fine dark-colored layers in valves are often deposited in
    A. Spring
    B. Summer
    C. Winter
    D. Fall
    A. Spring

          

  13. A volcano that takes the shape of a broad, domed structure is called a ______ volcano.
    A. shield
    B. Cinder
    C. Composite
    A. shield

          

  14. What type of volcano is composed mostly of
    basaltic lava flows?
    A. Cinder cone
    B. Shield Volcano
    C. Composite Volcano
    B. Shield Volcano

          

  15. The rate of crystallization of an igneous rock will greatly influence its
    A. color.
    B. grain size.
    C. density.
    D. chemical composition.
    E. all of the above
    B. grain size.

          

  16. Rock salt and rock gypsum are examples of
    __________ sedimentary rocks.
    A. detrital
    B. biochemical
    C. evaporite
    C. particle size

          

  17. Igneous rocks rich in dark silicate minerals
    with about 50 percent silica are said to have
    a(n) __________ composition.
    A. Aphanitic
    B. Basaltic
    C. Rhyolitic
    D. granitic
    A. basaltic; fluid

          

  18. Which one of the following greatly affects
    both the size and arrangement of mineral
    crystals in an igneous rock?
    A. Rate of cooling of the magma or lava
    B. Composition of the surrounding the magma
    C. Rate of tectonic uplift
    D. Rate of Cooling of the lava
    D. marble

          

  19. This type of magma, with about a 60 percent
    silica content, tends to form composite cones.
    A. Rhyolitic
    B. Andesitic
    C. Migmatic
    D. Basaltic
    A. shield volcano

          

  20. Detrital sedimentary rocks are made primarily
    of the products of mechanical weathering.
    A. True
    B. False
    C. coquina

          

  21. What is the texture of Obsidian igneous rock?
    A. Aphanitic texture
    B. Glassy texture
    C. porphyritic texture
    D. Vesicular texture
    B. Glassy texture

          

  22. Limestone composed of shell fragments is
    A. Rock salt
    B. arkose
    C. chert
    D. coquina
    E. agate
    A. Rock salt

          

  23. This type of magma, with a silica content of about 70 percent, has the greatest tendency to form pyroclastics.
    A. Rhyolitic
    B. Andesitic
    C. migmatic
    D. Basaltic
    A. Rhyolitic

          

  24. Which list shows magmas in order of INCREASING viscosity?
    A. rhyolite, andesite, basalt
    B. andesite, basalt, rhyolite
    C. basalt, rhyolite, andesite
    D. basalt, andesite, rhyolite
    E. rhyolite, basalt, andesite
    D. basalt, andesite, rhyolite

          

  25. Which of the following is not the result of vent eruption?
    A. Shield volcano
    B. Cinder cone
    C. Strato-volcano
    D. Volcanic neck
    E. Pillow basalt
    C. Composite cone

          

  26. Evaporites are examples of biochemical
    sedimentary rocks.
    A. True
    B. False
    A. rock salt

          

  27. Andesite volcanoes occur most frequently
    A. along continental margins.
    B. on stable platforms.
    C. in linear chains of volcanic islands like Hawaii.
    D. along continental rift zones.
    E. along mid-oceanic ridges.
    A. calcite

          

  28. Which of the following would NOT be expected in sedimentary rocks?
    A. fossils
    B. vesicles
    C. ripple marks
    D. mud cracks
    E. Pillow basalt

          

  29. Igneous rocks are classified based on their
    texture and mineral composition.
    A. True
    B. False
    C. magma

          

  30. Which one of the following is NOT a
    sedimentary structure or feature that helps
    geologists interpret past geological conditions?
    A. vesicles
    B. mud crack
    C. cross bedding
    D. particle sorting
    A. Chalk

          

  31. The cooling of basalt often produces vertical fractures due to shrinkage, and results in hexagonal prisms of rock. These fractures are called
    A. fissures.
    B. faults.
    C. pahoehoes.
    D. pressure ridges.
    E. columnar joints.
    E. columnar joints.

          

  32. A feldspar rich sandstone is
    A. Breccia
    B. conglomerate
    C. arkose
    D. Travertine
    E. shale
    C. arkose

          

  33. The shoreline sedimentary environment includes all but
    A. deltas.
    B. beaches.
    C. flood plains.
    D. barrier islands.
    E. lagoons.
    C. flood plains.

          

  34. The surface of a lava flow, characterized by a jumbled mass of angular blocks, is referred to as:
    A. splatter joints.
    B. laccolith.
    C. pahoehoe.
    D. pressure ridges.
    E. aa.
    E. aa.

          

  35. A rock with jasper and agate as examples
    A. Breccia
    B. chert
    C. shale
    D. Chalk
    E. Travertine
    A. Rock salt

          

  36. Which common mineral found in igneous rocks
    is most abundant in detrital sedimentary rocks?
    A. amphibole
    B. biotite
    C. quartz
    D. plagioclase feldspar
    B. False

          

  37. Limestone is composed chiefly of the mineral:
    A. calcite
    B. halite
    C. feldspar
    D. quartz
    A. calcite

          

  38. When the minerals in an igneous rock cannot
    be identified, the composition can be
    estimated based on the percentage of
    phenocrysts present in the rock.
    A. True
    B. False
    B. False

          

  39. Angular pieces in a detrital sedimentary rock
    indicates the particles were not transported very
    far from their source prior to deposition.
    A. True
    B. False
    E. none of the above

          

  40. Exemplified by the Hawaiian Islands, this type of volcano tends to be the largest on Earth.
    A. cinder cones
    B. shield volcanoes
    C. Composite volcanoes
    B. shield volcanoes

          

  41. Which accumulation of sediment would most
    likely exhibit good cross-bedding?
    A. landslide debris
    B. cave deposits of travertine limestone
    C. windblown sand (sand dune)
    D. salt flats in a desert basin
    A. True

          

  42. Which rock type is most likely associated with a
    high-energy environment such as a turbulent
    stream?
    A. conglomerate
    B. shale
    C. chert
    D. rock salt
    A. Chalk

          

  43. Well-sorted, fine-grained sand deposited in cross-bedded units several tens of feet thick would likely represent which of the following environments?
    A. deep marine
    B. eolian
    C. fluvial
    D. shallow marine
    E. beach
    B. shield volcanoes

          

  44. A detrital or clastic rock rick in silt and claysized
    particles is
    A. Breccia
    B. conglomerate
    C. Travertine
    D. shale
    E. arkose.
    C. arkose

          

  45. Which sedimentary rock listed below has a
    biochemical origin?
    A. rock gypsum
    B. travertine
    C. coquina
    D. shale
    C. coquina

          

  46. What type of intrusive feature is tabular with concordant orientation with surrounding country rock?
    A. dike
    B. sill
    C. tocks
    D. batholiths
    A. shield volcano

          

  47. Magmas that produce __________ rock
    contain about 50 percent silica and tend to be
    quite __________.
    A. basaltic; fluid
    B. rhyolitic, viscous
    C. rhyolitic: fluid
    D. basaltic: viscous
    C. quartz

          

  48. The mineral calcite (CaCO3) is the major constituent of
    A. limestone.
    B. dolomite.
    C. shale.
    D. coal.
    E. sandstone.
    A. limestone.

          

  49. Sedimentary rocks
    A. form by compaction and cementation of loose sediment.
    B. are widespread on the continents and ocean floor.
    C. are common on the stable platforms of all continents.
    D. may be found in folded layers in mountain belts.
    E. all of the above
    E. all of the above

          

  50. Igneous rocks that form when lava solidifies
    are classified as extrusive or volcanic
    igneous rocks.
    A. True
    B. False
    C. magma

          

  51. Lithification process involving the transformation of organic materials into solid carbon called coal is known as:
    A. Cementation
    B. Compaction
    C. Weathering
    D. Re-crystallization
    E. Magmatism
    A. pyroclastic texture.

          

  52. Agate, jasper, and flint are all forms of chert.
    A. True
    B. False
    B. chert

          

  53. Transportation and deposition of sediment by turbidity currents is commonly indicated by
    A. mud cracks.
    B. cross-bedding.
    C. graded bedding.
    D ripple marks.
    E. horizontal laminae.
    A. lithification

          

  54. Cross-bedding is commonly found in
    A. coal.
    B. shale.
    C. sandstone.
    D. rock gypsum.
    E. rock salt.
    A. Rock salt

          

  55. An intrusive feature that form like sill but from viscous magma which collects as lens-shaped
    masses that arch the overlying strata is ________
    A. Dike
    B. Sill
    C. laccolith
    D. Batholith
    B. sill

          

  56. A rock similar to breccia, except it has rounded
    particles
    A. Breccia
    B. conglomerate
    C. Travertine
    D. shale
    E. arkose.
    B. conglomerate

          

  57. The rock most unrelated to the others is
    A. sandstone.
    B. conglomerate.
    C. mudstone.
    D. limestone.
    E. shale.
    D. limestone.

          

  58. A rock with an aphanitic texture indicates the parent magma
    A. was generated at a divergent plate margin.
    B. cooled slowly.
    C. cooled rapidly.
    D. experienced two periods of cooling, first slow and then fast.
    E. formed at convergent plate margins.
    B. conglomerate

          

  59. Basalt makes up the ocean crust as well as
    lava flows and volcanic structures on land.
    A. True
    B. False
    D. marble

          

  60. What type of volcano is composed of
    interbedded lavas and pyroclastic deposits?
    A. Shield Volcano
    B. Cinder Cone
    C. Composite cone
    B. Shield Volcano

          

  61. The presence of abundant feldspar in a
    sedimentary rock suggests that advanced stages of
    chemical weathering have taken place.
    A. True
    B. false
    B. false

          

  62. Which of the following is NOT an igneous intrusion?
    A. laccolith
    B. dike
    C. sill
    D. stock
    E. pressure ridge
    A. Chalk

          

  63. Volcanic glass is produced by
    A. slow cooling.
    B. rapid cooling.
    C. any two different rates of cooling.
    D. rapid cooling followed by slow cooling.
    E. slow cooling followed by rapid cooling.
    B. rapid cooling.

          

  64. An intrusive wall of igneous rock cutting across the surrounding country rocks is called?
    A. dike
    B. sill
    C. laccolith
    D. batholith
    B. False

          

  65. The most common minerals in detrital
    sedimentary rocks are __________.
    A. clay and quartz
    B. clay and limonite
    C. potassium feldspar and quartz
    D. limonite and hematite
    E. olivine and quartz
    B. False

          

  66. Which one of the following is NOT a variety of
    limestone?
    A. Chalk
    B. travertine
    C. coquina
    D. chert
    D. marble

          

  67. Silicic magma typically produces
    A. spatter cones.
    B. composite volcanoes.
    C. cinder cones.
    D. shield volcanoes.
    E. fissure eruptions.
    B. composite volcanoes.

          

  68. Igneous rock originates when hot, molten
    material called __________ cools and
    crystallizes.
    A. skarn
    B. firn
    C. magma
    D. sediment
    A. True

          

  69. Sediments precipitated by processes such as
    temperature change, evaporation, and chemical
    activity are called biochemical sediments.
    A. True
    B. False
    E. weathering; lithified

          

  70. __________ cones, such as Sunset Crater, Arizona, tend to have very steep slopes.
    A. Shield
    B. Cinder
    C. Composite
    A. True

          

  71. An evaporite rock rich in halite
    A. Rock salt
    B. arkose
    C. chert
    D. coquina
    E. agate
    D. coquina

          

  72. Which sedimentary rock consists of materials
    that originated and were transported as solid
    particles?
    A. sandstone
    B. rock salt
    C. chert
    D. travertine
    A. sandstone

          

  73. Which of the following is the most abundant nonclastic rock (deposited by chemical or organic means)?
    A. marine limestone
    B. rock salt
    C. dolostone
    D. gypsum
    E. dripstone
    A. marine limestone

          

  74. Which one of the following is NOT a possible
    product of a volcanic eruption?
    A. Ash
    B. pyroclastic debris
    C. Cinder
    D. marble
    D. marble

          

  75. Intrusive igneous bodies are classified according to their shape and orientation with respect to the host rock.
    A. True
    B. False
    B. sill

          

  76. A rock with angular, gravel-sized particles is
    A. Breccia
    B. conglomerate
    C. Travertine
    D. shale
    E. arkose.
    B. chert

          

  77. What type of volcano is typically the largest?
    A. shield volcano
    B. Cinder Cones
    C. Composite Volcano
    B. Cinder Cone

          

  78. A narrow, tabular body of intrusive rock that cuts across the structures of the surrounding rock is termed
    A. stock.
    B. sill.
    C. dike.
    D. laccolith.
    E. batholith.
    C. dike.

          

  79. Fossil remains of ancient organisms are most commonly found in
    A. basalt.
    B. granite.
    C. metamorphic rocks.
    D. gypsum.
    E. sedimentary rocks.
    A. limestone.

          

  80. What type of volcano may produce a nuée
    ardente or lahar?
    A. Cinder cone
    B. Shield Volcano
    C. Composite Volcano
    C. Composite Volcano

          

  81. The common name for sediment consisting of
    particles between 1/16 mm and 2 mm is ______.
    A. clay
    B. silt
    C. cobble
    D. sand
    B. conglomerate

          

  82. Which of the following rocks is NON-CLASTIC Sedimentary rock?
    A. rock salt
    B. conglomerate
    C. siltstone
    D. sandstone
    E. shale
    B. vesicles

          

  83. An igneous rock consisting of broken fragments of crystals, shards of quenched magma, and rock fragments has a
    A. pyroclastic texture.
    B. phaneritic texture.
    C. glassy texture.
    D. phanitic texture.
    E. porphyritic texture.
    A. pyroclastic texture.

          

  84. The material from which chemically-precipitated sedimentary rocks are made is transported to the place of deposition
    A. by wind.
    B. as silt.
    C. as sediment particles.
    D. as clastic particles.
    E. in solution.
    E. in solution.

          

  85. The most abundant chemical sedimentary rock
    is ____.
    A. chert
    B. rock salt
    C. coquina
    D. traverstine
    E. none of the above
    E. none of the above