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  1. The material from which chemically-precipitated sedimentary rocks are made is transported to the place of deposition
    A. by wind.
    B. as silt.
    C. as sediment particles.
    D. as clastic particles.
    E. in solution.
  2. Cross-bedding is commonly found in
    A. coal.
    B. shale.
    C. sandstone.
    D. rock gypsum.
    E. rock salt.
  3. What type of volcano may produce a nuée
    ardente or lahar?
    A. Cinder cone
    B. Shield Volcano
    C. Composite Volcano
  4. Volcanic glass is produced by
    A. slow cooling.
    B. rapid cooling.
    C. any two different rates of cooling.
    D. rapid cooling followed by slow cooling.
    E. slow cooling followed by rapid cooling.
  5. The cooling of basalt often produces vertical fractures due to shrinkage, and results in hexagonal prisms of rock. These fractures are called
    A. fissures.
    B. faults.
    C. pahoehoes.
    D. pressure ridges.
    E. columnar joints.
  6. This type of magma, with about a 60 percent
    silica content, tends to form composite cones.
    A. Rhyolitic
    B. Andesitic
    C. Migmatic
    D. Basaltic
  7. Fossil remains of ancient organisms are most commonly found in
    A. basalt.
    B. granite.
    C. metamorphic rocks.
    D. gypsum.
    E. sedimentary rocks.
  8. A detrital or clastic rock rick in silt and claysized
    particles is
    A. Breccia
    B. conglomerate
    C. Travertine
    D. shale
    E. arkose.
  9. An intrusive feature that form like sill but from viscous magma which collects as lens-shaped
    masses that arch the overlying strata is ________
    A. Dike
    B. Sill
    C. laccolith
    D. Batholith
  10. The common name for sediment consisting of
    particles between 1/16 mm and 2 mm is ______.
    A. clay
    B. silt
    C. cobble
    D. sand
  11. The rate of crystallization of an igneous rock will greatly influence its
    A. color.
    B. grain size.
    C. density.
    D. chemical composition.
    E. all of the above
  12. What type of intrusive feature is tabular with concordant orientation with surrounding country rock?
    A. dike
    B. sill
    C. tocks
    D. batholiths
  13. What type of volcano is typically the
    smallest?
    A. Shield Volcano
    B. Cinder Cone
    C. Composite cone
  14. What type of volcano is typically the largest?
    A. shield volcano
    B. Cinder Cones
    C. Composite Volcano
  15. Silicic magma typically produces
    A. spatter cones.
    B. composite volcanoes.
    C. cinder cones.
    D. shield volcanoes.
    E. fissure eruptions.
  16. The mineral calcite (CaCO3) is the major constituent of
    A. limestone.
    B. dolomite.
    C. shale.
    D. coal.
    E. sandstone.
  17. Which of the following is not the result of vent eruption?
    A. Shield volcano
    B. Cinder cone
    C. Strato-volcano
    D. Volcanic neck
    E. Pillow basalt
  18. The most common minerals in detrital
    sedimentary rocks are __________.
    A. clay and quartz
    B. clay and limonite
    C. potassium feldspar and quartz
    D. limonite and hematite
    E. olivine and quartz
  19. Igneous rocks that form from the last minerals to
    crystallize from magma will have a(n) __________
    composition consisting of quartz, potassium feldspar,
    and sodium-rich plagioclase feldspar.
    A. andesitc (intermediate)
    B. Basaltic (mafic)
    C. Granitic (felsic)
    D. mafic (felsic)
  20. Which one of the following greatly affects
    both the size and arrangement of mineral
    crystals in an igneous rock?
    A. Rate of cooling of the magma or lava
    B. Composition of the surrounding the magma
    C. Rate of tectonic uplift
    D. Rate of Cooling of the lava
  21. A volcano that takes the shape of a broad, domed structure is called a ______ volcano.
    A. shield
    B. Cinder
    C. Composite
  22. Which of the following particles in sedimentary rocks is smallest in size?
    A. Silt
    B. Clay
    C. Gravel
    D. Sand
  23. Fine dark-colored layers in valves are often deposited in
    A. Spring
    B. Summer
    C. Winter
    D. Fall
  24. __________ cones, such as Sunset Crater, Arizona, tend to have very steep slopes.
    A. Shield
    B. Cinder
    C. Composite
  25. Sedimentary rocks form when the products of
    _____ are transported to a new location where
    they are deposited and eventually _____ into solid
    rock.
    A. melting; crystallized
    B. deposition; eroded
    C. crystallization; metamorphosed
    D. tectonism; weathered
    E. weathering; lithified
  26. Transportation and deposition of sediment by turbidity currents is commonly indicated by
    A. mud cracks.
    B. cross-bedding.
    C. graded bedding.
    D ripple marks.
    E. horizontal laminae.
  27. A rock with an aphanitic texture indicates the parent magma
    A. was generated at a divergent plate margin.
    B. cooled slowly.
    C. cooled rapidly.
    D. experienced two periods of cooling, first slow and then fast.
    E. formed at convergent plate margins.
  28. Limestone composed of shell fragments is
    A. Rock salt
    B. arkose
    C. chert
    D. coquina
    E. agate
  29. Which list shows magmas in order of INCREASING viscosity?
    A. rhyolite, andesite, basalt
    B. andesite, basalt, rhyolite
    C. basalt, rhyolite, andesite
    D. basalt, andesite, rhyolite
    E. rhyolite, basalt, andesite
  30. Exemplified by the Hawaiian Islands, this type of volcano tends to be the largest on Earth.
    A. cinder cones
    B. shield volcanoes
    C. Composite volcanoes
  31. Igneous rocks rich in dark silicate minerals
    with about 50 percent silica are said to have
    a(n) __________ composition.
    A. Aphanitic
    B. Basaltic
    C. Rhyolitic
    D. granitic
  32. Which one of the following is NOT a possible
    product of a volcanic eruption?
    A. Ash
    B. pyroclastic debris
    C. Cinder
    D. marble
  33. Which common mineral found in igneous rocks
    is most abundant in detrital sedimentary rocks?
    A. amphibole
    B. biotite
    C. quartz
    D. plagioclase feldspar
  34. Which one of the following is NOT a
    sedimentary structure or feature that helps
    geologists interpret past geological conditions?
    A. vesicles
    B. mud crack
    C. cross bedding
    D. particle sorting
  35. Well-sorted, fine-grained sand deposited in cross-bedded units several tens of feet thick would likely represent which of the following environments?
    A. deep marine
    B. eolian
    C. fluvial
    D. shallow marine
    E. beach
  36. Lithification process involving the transformation of organic materials into solid carbon called coal is known as:
    A. Cementation
    B. Compaction
    C. Weathering
    D. Re-crystallization
    E. Magmatism
  37. Which one of the following is NOT a variety of
    limestone?
    A. Chalk
    B. travertine
    C. coquina
    D. chert
  38. Which accumulation of sediment would most
    likely exhibit good cross-bedding?
    A. landslide debris
    B. cave deposits of travertine limestone
    C. windblown sand (sand dune)
    D. salt flats in a desert basin
  39. In a rock with a porphyritic texture, the large
    crystals are referred to as __________.
    A. Groundmass
    B. Phenocrysts
    C. Erratics
    D. Orthoclase
  40. Which one of the following is NOT a primary factor of magma that directly determines the nature of a volcanic eruption?
    A. Temperature of magma
    B. Amount of dissolved gases
    C. Chemical composition of magma
    D. Volume
  41. Which rock type is most likely associated with a
    high-energy environment such as a turbulent
    stream?
    A. conglomerate
    B. shale
    C. chert
    D. rock salt
  42. What is the texture of Obsidian igneous rock?
    A. Aphanitic texture
    B. Glassy texture
    C. porphyritic texture
    D. Vesicular texture
  43. Andesite volcanoes occur most frequently
    A. along continental margins.
    B. on stable platforms.
    C. in linear chains of volcanic islands like Hawaii.
    D. along continental rift zones.
    E. along mid-oceanic ridges.
  44. Basalt makes up the ocean crust as well as
    lava flows and volcanic structures on land.
    A. True
    B. False
  45. A narrow, tabular body of intrusive rock that cuts across the structures of the surrounding rock is termed
    A. stock.
    B. sill.
    C. dike.
    D. laccolith.
    E. batholith.
  46. A rock similar to breccia, except it has rounded
    particles
    A. Breccia
    B. conglomerate
    C. Travertine
    D. shale
    E. arkose.
  47. The rock most unrelated to the others is
    A. sandstone.
    B. conglomerate.
    C. mudstone.
    D. limestone.
    E. shale.
  48. Sediments precipitated by processes such as
    temperature change, evaporation, and chemical
    activity are called biochemical sediments.
    A. True
    B. False
  49. Rock salt and rock gypsum are examples of
    __________ sedimentary rocks.
    A. detrital
    B. biochemical
    C. evaporite
  50. An evaporite rock rich in halite
    A. Rock salt
    B. arkose
    C. chert
    D. coquina
    E. agate
  51. Which sedimentary rock listed below has a
    biochemical origin?
    A. rock gypsum
    B. travertine
    C. coquina
    D. shale
  52. An igneous rock consisting of broken fragments of crystals, shards of quenched magma, and rock fragments has a
    A. pyroclastic texture.
    B. phaneritic texture.
    C. glassy texture.
    D. phanitic texture.
    E. porphyritic texture.
  53. Which of the following is the most abundant nonclastic rock (deposited by chemical or organic means)?
    A. marine limestone
    B. rock salt
    C. dolostone
    D. gypsum
    E. dripstone
  54. An intrusive wall of igneous rock cutting across the surrounding country rocks is called?
    A. dike
    B. sill
    C. laccolith
    D. batholith
  55. The shoreline sedimentary environment includes all but
    A. deltas.
    B. beaches.
    C. flood plains.
    D. barrier islands.
    E. lagoons.
  56. Which sedimentary rock consists of materials
    that originated and were transported as solid
    particles?
    A. sandstone
    B. rock salt
    C. chert
    D. travertine
  57. What type of volcano is composed mostly of
    basaltic lava flows?
    A. Cinder cone
    B. Shield Volcano
    C. Composite Volcano
  58. The presence of abundant feldspar in a
    sedimentary rock suggests that advanced stages of
    chemical weathering have taken place.
    A. True
    B. false
  59. What type of volcano produces the most violent eruptions?
    A. Shield Volcano
    B. Cinder Cone
    C. Composite cone
  60. Compaction and cementation are examples of
    this process.
    A. lithification
    B. crystallization
    C. weathering
    D. Fusion
  61. This type of magma, with a silica content of about 70 percent, has the greatest tendency to form pyroclastics.
    A. Rhyolitic
    B. Andesitic
    C. migmatic
    D. Basaltic
  62. What type of volcano has the steepest slopes?
    A. Cinder cone
    B. Shield Volcano
    C. Composite Volcano
  63. The most abundant chemical sedimentary rock
    is ____.
    A. chert
    B. rock salt
    C. coquina
    D. traverstine
    E. none of the above
  64. Which of the following would NOT be expected in sedimentary rocks?
    A. fossils
    B. vesicles
    C. ripple marks
    D. mud cracks
  65. Which of the following rocks is NON-CLASTIC Sedimentary rock?
    A. rock salt
    B. conglomerate
    C. siltstone
    D. sandstone
    E. shale
  66. Sedimentary rocks
    A. form by compaction and cementation of loose sediment.
    B. are widespread on the continents and ocean floor.
    C. are common on the stable platforms of all continents.
    D. may be found in folded layers in mountain belts.
    E. all of the above
  67. Geologists use __________ to distinguish
    among detrital sedimentary rocks.
    A. method of formation
    B. color
    C. particle size
    D. the location of the source materials
  68. Limestone is composed chiefly of the mineral:
    A. calcite
    B. halite
    C. feldspar
    D. quartz
  69. Which of the following is NOT an igneous intrusion?
    A. laccolith
    B. dike
    C. sill
    D. stock
    E. pressure ridge
  70. Rocks that contain voids left by gases that
    escape as lava solidifies are said to exhibit
    a(n) __________ texture.
    A. vesicular
    B. Phaneritic
    C. porphyritic
    D. Glassy
  71. A feldspar rich sandstone is
    A. Breccia
    B. conglomerate
    C. arkose
    D. Travertine
    E. shale
  72. Igneous rock originates when hot, molten
    material called __________ cools and
    crystallizes.
    A. skarn
    B. firn
    C. magma
    D. sediment
  73. Magmas that produce __________ rock
    contain about 50 percent silica and tend to be
    quite __________.
    A. basaltic; fluid
    B. rhyolitic, viscous
    C. rhyolitic: fluid
    D. basaltic: viscous
  74. The surface of a lava flow, characterized by a jumbled mass of angular blocks, is referred to as:
    A. splatter joints.
    B. laccolith.
    C. pahoehoe.
    D. pressure ridges.
    E. aa.
  75. A rock with jasper and agate as examples
    A. Breccia
    B. chert
    C. shale
    D. Chalk
    E. Travertine
  1. a B. shield volcanoes
  2. b A. pyroclastic texture.
  3. c A. along continental margins.
  4. d A. vesicular
  5. e C. flood plains.
  6. f B. conglomerate
  7. g E. in solution.
  8. h E. sedimentary rocks.
  9. i C. quartz
  10. j B. Clay
  11. k B. rapid cooling.
  12. l B. False
  13. m B. grain size.
  14. n D. basalt, andesite, rhyolite
  15. o D. limestone.
  16. p C. cooled rapidly.
  17. q A. Spring
  18. r E. none of the above
  19. s B. Glassy texture
  20. t B. Phenocrysts
  21. u D. Volume
  22. v D. marble
  23. w C. laccolith
  24. x E. all of the above
  25. y A. vesicles
  26. z C. particle size
  27. aa B. Shield Volcano
  28. ab C. coquina
  29. ac A. calcite
  30. ad C. Composite cone
  31. ae B. Cinder Cone
  32. af B. false
  33. ag C. arkose
  34. ah C. graded bedding.
  35. ai A. sandstone
  36. aj C. Granitic (felsic)
  37. ak A. shield
  38. al E. columnar joints.
  39. am A. basaltic; fluid
  40. an A. shield volcano
  41. ao A. True
  42. ap C. dike.
  43. aq A. dike
  44. ar C. Composite Volcano
  45. as B. Basaltic
  46. at A. Rate of cooling of the magma or lava
  47. au B. chert
  48. av A. Rhyolitic
  49. aw A. lithification
  50. ax B. sill
  51. ay D. shale
  52. az A. rock salt
  53. ba B. composite volcanoes.
  54. bb D. coquina
  55. bc A. Cinder cone
  56. bd A. Chalk
  57. be B. Cinder
  58. bf D. Re-crystallization
  59. bg C. sandstone.
  60. bh D. sand
  61. bi B. Andesitic
  62. bj A. Rock salt
  63. bk E. weathering; lithified
  64. bl A. conglomerate
  65. bm C. windblown sand (sand dune)
  66. bn B. vesicles
  67. bo C. evaporite
  68. bp A. limestone.
  69. bq E. aa.
  70. br A. clay and quartz
  71. bs E. pressure ridge
  72. bt B. eolian
  73. bu A. marine limestone
  74. bv E. Pillow basalt
  75. bw C. magma