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89 True/False questions

  1. Why do volcanoes occur at subduction zones?Earths Rotation

          

  2. Which environment would improve the likelihood of an organism being included in the fossil record?

    The dry savannah.
    A Swamp.
    A Desert
    Fossils are equally likely to be found in all these environments
    A Swamp

          

  3. The ............... is an example of an active, continent-continent collision

    a) Arabian Peninsula slamming into North Africa under the red sea
    b) Westward movement of the South American plate over the Nazca Plate
    c) Northern movement of Baja California and a sliver of western California toward the Hawaiian Islands
    d) Northward Movement of India into Eurasia
    True

          

  4. The production of plant plankton or phytoplankton int he ocean relies mainly on...Light, Nutrients and Ocean Mixing

          

  5. Linear, Magnetic patterns associated with mid ocean ridges are configured as?Munsell Colour Chart

          

  6. GIS LineA row and column matrix (pixels) of X & Y space with attribute information associated with each pixel is considered a raster layer type.

          

  7. During the last ice age or glaciation 18000 years ago did the sea level drop by 120m?9.8 degrees per km

          

  8. Geostrophic windsPoints: X & Y Locations

          

  9. Jacobshavn Isbra, a glacier in Greenland, has done what in the last few decades?Doubled in Speed

          

  10. Approximately what % of the earth is covered in glaciers?10%

          

  11. RayLine between source and wavefront showing path of wave: perpendicular to wavefront

          

  12. Coast Definition

    Inland Limit....
    Where wind waves first interact with the sea floor

          

  13. List three possible ways that s shell can be preserved in the fossil recordDissolve/Moulds
    Infill/Replacement/Cast
    Recystalization

          

  14. Antarctic Ice Sheets experience significant surface melting each summer T/FTrue

          

  15. Coast Definition

    Seaward Limit...
    Chordata

          

  16. Without volcanism there would be no life on earth T/FTrue

          

  17. Ruapehu is NZ largest volcano T/FTaupo Caldera

          

  18. The sinking of dense water for the Thermohaline Circulation occurs mainly...Salt, Heat and Wind

          

  19. Tropical Cyclones get their energy from the oceans through latent heat release T/FFalse

          

  20. GIS PolygonPolygon: Connected X & Y Locations that contain attribute information.

          

  21. Define Ice SheetA Seasonal ice covering on the polar oceans with a very high surface albedo.

          

  22. Define Lithosphere and AsthenosphereRigid lithospheric plates move over weaker asthenospheric mantle

          

  23. The West Antarctic Ice Sheet may be vulnerable to collapse T/F(at the moment): Iceland

          

  24. Evolution is driven by blind chance T/F(i) surging
    (ii) spilling
    (iii) plunging

          

  25. Human Classification
    Order:
    Primates

          

  26. Define Gaia HypothesisPolygon: Connected X & Y Locations that contain attribute information.

          

  27. In the Southern hemisphere the deflection is to the ______ due to the Coriolis effectRight

          

  28. Other ways of Fossils being preservedInsects in amber

    Mammoths in ice

    Carbon Film

    Incased in Ice

          

  29. Three types of wavesWind generated waves (period T < 20 seconds)
    Infragravity waves (T = 20 sec. - 5 minutes)
    Long period waves ( T > 5 minutes)

          

  30. GIS PointsPoints: X & Y Locations

          

  31. In the Northern hemisphere the deflection is to the ______ due to the Coriolis effectFalse

          

  32. RasterPoints, lines and polygons (spatial data) associated with databases of attributes (attribute data) are considered vector layer types.

          

  33. What system is commonly used to describe the colour of a soil?Munsell Colour Chart

          

  34. Human ClassificationMammalia

          

  35. What is the Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate? in degrees per km?Rigid lithospheric plates move over weaker asthenospheric mantle

          

  36. What causes the Coriolis Force?-Find spatial relationships
    -Identify process from spatial pattern; e.g. spatial autocorrelation
    -Way finding
    -Design better processes
    -Monitoring

          

  37. NZ is part of a vast submarine landscape that originated from...The super continent of Gondwana

          

  38. Human Classification
    Kingdom:
    Animalia

          

  39. Human Classification
    Genus:
    Homo

          

  40. Hawaiian IslandsHotspots: the idea is that there is a supply of magma from a plume, fixed in the Earth's mantle, that 'burns' a hole in the plate as it moves across the plume

          

  41. Global Thermohaline Circulation is driven bySalt, Heat and Wind

          

  42. GIS Attribute DataPoints: X & Y Locations

          

  43. What would likely be found in ground water associated with agricultural land use?Nitrate

          

  44. Where would you drill to recover samples of the oldest basalts of the oceanic crust, which are jurassic in age?True

          

  45. Human Classification
    Phylum:
    Chordata

          

  46. Wavelength (L)Distance between crests

          

  47. Glaciers grow during the winter and melt away entirely during the summer T/FTrue

          

  48. At any one time about how many volcanoes are actively erupting on land on planet earth?20

          

  49. Sea level is expected to rise _m by 2100, which will increase coastal risks1m

          

  50. Submarine Fans are fed mainly by sediment delivered from land via...Raster or Vector

          

  51. What is NZ largest volcano?A system which uses information that is geographic/spatial

          

  52. The best place to study mid-ocean ridges(at the moment): Iceland

          

  53. What is the main driver of atmospheric processes?Taupo Caldera

          

  54. The greenland ice sheet experiences significant surface melting each summer T/FFalse

          

  55. Average depth of the pacific ocean is deeper than the average of other main oceans because...True

          

  56. If all land based ice on earth was to melt, how much would sea level rise by approximately?True

          

  57. GIS Stands for...Geographic Information System

          

  58. Sea Level would not occur as a direct result of melting sea ice T/F•Volcanoes occur because water released from the downgoing oceanic slab triggers melting; the melt then rises to the surface because it is lighter than the surrounding rocks. A lot of magma never even makes it to the surface.

          

  59. Swell waves are...waves which have travelled into the area of observation after having been generated by previous winds in other areas.
    These waves may travel thousands of kilometres from their origin before dying away. There may be swell present even if the wind is calm and there are no 'sea' waves.

          

  60. Location of volcanoes on earthMany volcanoes are associated with, and help define, the tectonic plates on Earth

          

  61. Basalt magma that is low in silica content and hot tends to build tall cone volcanoes T/FTrue

          

  62. 3 types of breaking wavesWind generated waves (period T < 20 seconds)
    Infragravity waves (T = 20 sec. - 5 minutes)
    Long period waves ( T > 5 minutes)

          

  63. Despite the increase in solar luminosity Gaia has held the average global temperature more or less constant T/FNot all environments preserve fossils well

    Not all organisms are capable of being preserved

    Low numbers of individuals / restricted geographic range reduces the likelyhood of preservation

          

  64. Wave Period (T)Distance between crests

          

  65. Three reasons for biases in the fossil recordWind generated waves (period T < 20 seconds)
    Infragravity waves (T = 20 sec. - 5 minutes)
    Long period waves ( T > 5 minutes)

          

  66. Give the two types of plate boundary seen in NZConvergent
    Transform

          

  67. Data output from a GISHotspots: the idea is that there is a supply of magma from a plume, fixed in the Earth's mantle, that 'burns' a hole in the plate as it moves across the plume

          

  68. What is GIS?-Find spatial relationships
    -Identify process from spatial pattern; e.g. spatial autocorrelation
    -Way finding
    -Design better processes
    -Monitoring

          

  69. Why use a GISPoints, lines and polygons (spatial data) associated with databases of attributes (attribute data) are considered vector layer types.

          

  70. Human Classification
    Family:
    Hominidae

          

  71. Life has had nothing to do with the development of the earths environment T/FFalse

          

  72. Sea Waves are...waves which have travelled into the area of observation after having been generated by previous winds in other areas.
    These waves may travel thousands of kilometres from their origin before dying away. There may be swell present even if the wind is calm and there are no 'sea' waves.

          

  73. Wind waves always break when the water depth is the same as the wave height T/FHeight & Period

          

  74. Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of Earths lithospheric plates?

    a) Gravitational attractive forces of the sun and moon
    b) Electrical and magnetic fields localised in the inner core
    c) export of heat from deep in the mantle to the top of the asthenosphere
    d) swirling movements of the molten iron particles in the outer core
    c) The origin of life

          

  75. Hot spotsLine: Connected X & Y Locations

          

  76. Wind Waves are dependant on...Raster or Vector

          

  77. On approaching a coastline, how are the amplitude and propagation speed of a tsunami generally affected?Around Antarctica and the North Atlantic Ocean

          

  78. Which of the following does Evolution not explain?

    a) The complexity of bodies
    b) The Tree of life
    c) The origin of life
    d) The diversity of life on earth
    c) The origin of life

          

  79. The only place you can study mid ocean ridge volcanism on land is Iceland T/F(at the moment): Iceland

          

  80. Convergent/Subduction zones create what type of volcanismExplosive eruptions

          

  81. GIS Vector:Points: X & Y Locations

          

  82. New Zealand is at the junction of two major surface current systems, what are they?Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and the Subtropical Gyre or Inflow

          

  83. In which major atmospheric circulation is NZ?Rigid lithospheric plates move over weaker asthenospheric mantle

          

  84. Human Classification
    Class:
    Homo

          

  85. Waves classified on the basis of ______ and _______weaken

          

  86. Coastal flooding associated with storm surge can be caused by- high spring tides
    - low atmospheric pressure
    - wind set-up
    - wave run-up
    - freshwater flooding

          

  87. Cold-cored cyclones will _______ with heightdeepen

          

  88. Spatial data are represented by ...Raster or Vector

          

  89. Warm-cored cyclones will ______ with height.deepen