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20 True/False questions

  1. The continental shelf is located ________.compaction and cementation


  2. ________ rocks form by crystallization and consolidation of molten magma.Sedimentary


  3. A ________ is a well-tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations.lithosphere


  4. The ________ refers to the sum total of all life on Earth.Sedimentary


  5. ________ is often paraphrased as "the present is the key to the past."Uniformitarianism


  6. ________ rocks always originate at the surface of the solid Earth.biosphere


  7. In correct order from the center outward, Earth includes which units?compaction and cementation


  8. Which of the following best describes the fundamental concept of superposition?Any sedimentary deposit accumulates on top of older rock or sediment layers.


  9. ________, a popular natural philosophy of the 17th and early 18th centuries, was based on a firm belief in a very short geologic history for Earth.Catastrophism


  10. What are the basic differences between the disciplines of physical and historical geology?Historical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and geologic events, utilizing the geologic time scale as a reference; physical geology includes the study of how rocks form and of how erosion shapes the land surface.


  11. ________ was the highly influential, ancient Greek philosopher noted for his writings and teachings on natural philosophy and on the workings of Earth.Aristotle


  12. The ________ proposes that the bodies of our solar system formed at essentially the same time from a rotating cloud of gases and dust.Nebular Theory


  13. ________ was an important 18th-century English geologist and proponent of uniformitarianism.Aristotle


  14. The currently accepted age of Earth is ________ years.landward of the continental slope


  15. In sedimentary rocks, lithification includes ________.landward of the continental slope


  16. The composition of the core of Earth is thought to be ________.landward of the continental slope


  17. The ________ forms the relatively cool, brittle plates of plate tectonics.lithosphere


  18. ________ is the process by which rocks breakdown in place to produce soils and sediments.Sedimentary


  19. The most prominent features on the ocean floor are the ________.oceanic ridges


  20. Compared to the age of Earth accepted as correct today, how did 17th and 18th century proponents of catastrophism envision the Earth's age?They believed Earth to be much younger than current estimates.